Revolution

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THE
REVOLUTIONARY
PERIOD
(1750-1880)
PAINT
ME A
PICTU
RE
2
JOHN
ADAMS
§ “Yesterday the greatest question was
decided which ever was debated in
America; and a greater perhaps
never was, nor will be, decided
among men. A resolution was passed
without one dissenting colony, that
these united colonies are, and of
right ought to be, free and
independent states”
3
HISTORICAL
BACKGROUND
ØThe Battle of Saratoga(1977) marked
a turning point
ØThe war finally came to an end at
Yorktown, Virginia on 19th of October
1781.
ØCornwallis was forced to surrender.
Because of this, the British Parliament
decided that the war was no longer
worth it and it just had to end.
5
ØOn April 30, 1789, Washington
became the first President of the
United States
ØJohn Adams, a signer of the
Declaration of Independence,
succeeded him in the office
ØThen in 1800, Americans elected
Thomas Jefferson.
6
WASHINGTON, ADAMS, AND JEFFERSON
7
Ø(1492) Christopher Columbus
discovers America, leads to many
European powers founding colonies in
that area for the resources
Ø(1756-1763) Seven Years War Two
Sides: Kingdom of Great Britain and
Kingdom of France British Victory,
however it leads to massive loss of
money for Britain
Ø(April 5,1764) Sugar Act America will
import sugar and molasses
exclusively from Britain with heavy
taxes
8
SUGAR ACT AMERICA
9
Ø(November 1,1765) Stamp Act Many
materials printed in the colonies had
to be on stamped paper, and the
stamp had to be paid in British
currency; eventually repealed due to
boycotting of many british products
Ø(1767-1768) Townshend Acts Raised
the salaries of governors and judges
so that they would remain loyal to
Britain; eventually repealed
10
Ø(March 5, 1770) Boston Massacre
Occured in Boston, Massachusetts
British soldiers were being heckled by
a mob, 5 civilians were killed
Ø (December 16, 1773) Boston Tea Party
Occured in Boston, Massachusetts
Carried out by the Sons of Liberty,
some disguised as Native Americans,
threw nearly 10,000 pounds of tea
imported by the British East India
Company into the ocean
11
Ø(1774) First Continental Congress
Delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies
met at Carpenter's Hall in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Notable
names: George Washington, John
Adams, and Patrick Henry
Ø(January 10, 1776) Common Sense is
published Written by Thomas Paine,
pamphlet advocating independence
from Great Britain Best Selling
American Title (proportional to
population)
Ø (July 4, 1776) Declaration of
Independence is ratified Authors:
Thomas Jefferson et al.
12
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
13
LITERARY
MOVEMENT
LITERATURE IN A
TIME OF CRISIS
LITERATURE IN A
TIME OF CRISIS
-public writing was a product of this period
-during war of independence, nearly 50 newspapers had
been established
-during Washington's inauguration, 40 magazines
-Almanacs became widely popular across Massachusetts
and Georgia
-the minds of the people were occupied with politics
-journalists and printers provided a forum for an
expression of ideas
-the main theme used is politics
16
POLITICAL SCENE
PATRICK HENRY
-the person who gave a speech
against the Stamp Act in the
Virginia House of Burgesses,
which brought cries of
TREASON. Ten years later, this
speech expressed the rising
sentiment for independence.
18
THOMAS PAINE
-Another influential person is
Thomas Paine who wrote the
COMMON SENSE, which created an
immediate sensation.
-Around 100,000 copies of it were
sold in just three months.
-Lots of others readers then
complemented his ideas.
19
POLITICAL SCENE
-The Declaration is considered to be one of the
most influential political statements ever made. It
was well reasoned and superbly written.
-Another document that was very helpful was the
Constitution of United States, drafted in 1787.
-The contest between supporters and opponents
of these constitutions was especially hard fought
in New York.
20
CULTURAL SCENE
CULTURAL SCENE
-Verses appeared in most
newspapers, and numerous
broadside ballads were published.
-One of the most popular
broadside ballads was the “The
Dying Redcoat”.
-”Fight on, America’s noble sons,
Fear not Britain's thundering guns;
Maintain your cause from year to
year, God’s on your side, you need
22
Philip Freneau
-Philip Freneau wrote poems
throughout his life and his two
poems, “The Wild Honeysuckle”
and “The Indian Burying Ground”
earned his reputation as
America’s earliest important lyric
poet.
23
Joel
barlow
wheatley
-
-
and
phillis
poets
Barlow is best remembered
for “The Hasty-Pudding”, a
mock heroic tribute to
cornmeal mush
24
Michel-Guillaume Jean de
Crèvecoeur
-recorded his impressions on
everyday American life and
his works were published as
“Letters from an American
Farmer”.
- The best known among
others is Benjamin Franklin.
25
CULTURAL SCENE
America began to establish a cultural
identity of its own. Theaters were built
from New York to Charleston. A
number of new colleges were built
after the war.
26
AMERICAN
LITERATURE AT
DAYBREAK
AMERICAN LITERATURE
ATByDAYBREAK
early 1800’s, America could boost a small
body of national literature. The native
Americans had contributed haunting poetry
and legends through oral tradition. The
Puritans had written a number of powerful and
inward looking works . The statesmen of
revolutionary period produced political
documents for the ages. A few poets and
essayists had made a permanent mark on the
literature of the young republic. There were,
however, no American plays or novels of
28
AUTHORS
Benjamin franklin (1706-1790)
- made important contributions in a variety of
fields, such as literature, science, journalism,
education, and philosophy
-
-
-
At age 17, he left Boston and went to
Philadelphia hoping to open a printing shop of
his own
He then began to producing a newspaper and
an annual publication called Poor Richards
Almanac, which contains information,
observations, and advice. This work earned
him the reputation of being a talented writer. It
was done from 1732 until 1757.
At age 42, he retired from his printing business
30
Benjamin franklin (1706-1790)
-
-
-
-
He was just as successful a scientist as he had
been a printer.
He invented the lightning rod, oxfocals, and a
new type of stove. He also confirmed the laws
of electricity and contributed to the
understanding of ocean currents and
earthquakes.
Played an important role in drafting the
Declaration of Independence , enlisting French
support during the revolutionary war, and
drafting the United States Constitution.
At age 70, he wrote satirical essays, witty
“letters", and clever verser
31
Benjamin franklin (1706-1790)
Though it was never
completed, his
autobiography, filled with his
opinions and suggestions
about self-discipline and
morals provides not only a
record of his achievements
but also an understanding of
his character.
32
THOMAS JEFFERSON (17431826)
-One of the most widely respected
and admired figures in American
history.
- A gifted writer, diplomat, political
leader, inventor, architect,
philosopher, and an educator, with
an intense belief in equal rights and
individual freedoms.
33
THOMAS JEFFERSON (17431826)
-
-
-
-
Two years after he received his license
to law. He was elected to the Virginia
House of Burgesses.
He became an outspoken defender of
American rights.
He displayed his persuasive abilities in
his pamphlet, “A Summary View of the
Rights of British America”(1774)
He was then chosen to draft the
Declaration of Independence at the
Second Continental Congress (1776)
34
Writer’s techniques
Aphorisms
-brief statements expressing wise observations or
general truths
-sometimes have rhymes and repeating words
-is used by Benjamin Franklin in Poor Richard's
Almanack
-Examples: "Fish and visitor smell in three days."
"If your head is wax, don't walk in the sun." "Early
36
Parallelism
-sentences with parts that are
grammatically the same
-adds a sense of rhythm and order to the
sentence.
-is used by Thomas Jefferson in the
Declaration of Independence.
-Example: In the Declaration of
37
Loaded Language
-also known as "charged words”
-wording that attempts to influence an
audience by using appeal to emotion
38
Satire
-using humor, irony, exaggeration, or
ridicule to criticize people or ideas in a
humorous way
-is commonly used in making a political
statement
-example: Benjamin Franklin's "A Witch
Trial ay Mount Holly"
39
Other writing techniques used
during the revolutionary period
were PERSONIFICATION,
STRONG IMAGERY, and
ALLUSIONS. Those writing
techniques were used by
Thomas Paine in "The
American Crisis”.
40
THE DECLARATION
OF
INDEPENDENCE
42
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