كتاب صيانة أجهزة الريسيفر

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‫اﻟﺮﯾﺴﻔﺮ اﻟﺬى ﯾﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺪون طﺒﻖ او اﺑﺮة‬
‫اﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ او اﻟﺪﯾﺰك‬
‫ھﺬا ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﻰ اﻻطﺒﺎق اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﮫ واﻟﺘﻰ ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ اﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻤﺮ وﯾﻮﺟﺪ ﻛﺬا ﻧﻈﺎم طﺒﻌﺎ وﻣﺮﻛﺎت ﻣﻨﮫ ‪.‬‬
‫وطﺒﻌﺎ ھﺬا اﻟﺪﯾﺰك ھﻮ اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮل ﻋﻦ ﺗﻮﺣﯿﺪ اﻻﺷﺎرات واﻻﻗﻤﺎر ﻟﻠﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮ وﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﯾﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﺪﯾﺰك ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪D&C&B&A‬‬
‫وھﺬ اﻟﻘﺴﺎم او اﻟﺪﯾﺰك ﯾﻮﺟﺪ ﻟﮫ دواﺧﻞ ارﺑﻌﮫ اﻟﻰ ارﺑﻌﺔ اﻗﻤﺎر وان اردﻧﺎ زﯾﺎدة ھﺬه اﻻﻗﻤﺎر ﻓﻌﻠﯿﻨﺎ ﺑﺴﻮﺗﺶ‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪ .‬طﺮﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺐ‬
‫اﻟﻨﺎﯾﻞ ﺳﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ دﯾﺰك رﻗﻢ ‪ ١‬اى ‪A‬‬
‫واﻟﮭﻮت ﺑﯿﺮد ﻋﻠﻰ دﯾﺰك رﻗﻢ‪٢‬اى ‪B‬‬
‫واﻟﻌﺮب ﺳﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ دﯾﺰك رﻗﻢ ‪ ٣‬اى ‪C‬‬
‫واﻟﻘﺒﺮﺻﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ دﯾﺰك رﻗﻢ ‪ ٤‬اى ‪D‬‬
‫وﯾﺘﻢ اﯾﻀﺎ ﺿﺒﻄﮭﻢ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺠﮭﺎز اﻟﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﺘﺮﺗﯿﺐ اﻟﺬى اﻧﺸﺄﺗﮫ‬
‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺗﯿﺐ اﻟﺬى ﺳﺒﻖ وھﺬا ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﯿﻞ اﻟﻤﺜﺎل وطﺒﻌﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮع ﺟﮭﺎزك‬
‫وھﻨﺎك ﺑﻌﺾ اﻻﺟﮭﺰه اﻟﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﺮف ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ او اﻟﺪﯾﺰك ﻓﯿﺠﺐ ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺘﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻄﺒﻖ اى ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬
‫اﻟﻰ اﻟﺠﮭﺎز دون اﻟﻤﺮور ﺑﺎﻟﺪﯾﺰك ﺣﺘﻰ ﯾﺒﺮﻣﺞ اﻻﻗﻤﺎر اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﺮﯾﺪھﺎ وﺑﻌﺪ ذﻟﻚ ﯾﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ ﺗﻘﺴﯿﻢ اﻻﻗﻤﺎر‬
‫‪LNB‬‬
‫ﯾﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻧﻮاﻋﮭﺎ وﻣﺮﻛﺎﺗﮭﺎﻓﻰ اﻻﺳﻮاق واﻟﺬى ﯾﮭﻤﻨﺎ ھﻰ ﺟﻮدة اﻟﺼﻨﻊ وھﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﮫ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺘﻘﺎط اﺷﺎرة‬
‫اﻻﻗﻤﺎر اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﮫ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺒﺆره ﻓﻰ اﻟﻄﺒﻖ وارﺳﺎﻟﮭﺎ اﻟﻰ اﻟﺠﮭﺎز ﻟﯿﺘﻢ ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺔ اﻻﺷﺎره اﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎز ﻋﻠﻰ اﻧﮭﺎ‬
‫‪.‬اﺷﺎرة ﻣﺮﺋﯿﮫ وﯾﻮﺟﺪ ﻛﺬا ﻧﻮع ﻣﻨﮭﺎ وھﻢ اﻟﺴﻰ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ واﻟﻜﯿﻮ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ‬
‫اوﻻ اﻟﺴﻰ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ‬
‫اﻟﺴﻰ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ اﺷﺎرات اﺟﮭﺰة اﻻﻧﻠﻮج واﻟﺪﯾﺠﺘﺎل وﺑﺪأ ﺷﺒﮫ اﻻﺳﺘﻐﻨﺎء ﻋﻨﮭﺎﻻن ﻣﻌﻈﻢ اﻻﻗﻤﺎر‬
‫واﻟﻘﻨﻮات ﺗﺒﺚ ﺑﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻜﯿﻮﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪا ﺑﻌﺾ اﻻﻗﻤﺎر اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﺒﺚ ﻟﻨﺎ ھﻨﺎ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﮫ اﻟﺘﻰ ﯾﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﮭﺎ ﺳﻰ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻰ وھﻰ ﻛﺎﻟﻘﻤﺮ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻰ ‪ ٢٦‬درﺟﮫ ﺷﺮ وﺑﻌﺾ اﻻﻗﻤﺎر ﻛﺎ ‪ ٦٨‬درﺟﮫ ﺷﺮق وﯾﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ھﺬه‬
‫اﻻﻗﻤﺎر ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﺒﻌﺪ اﻟﻤﺪارى ﻣﻨﮭﺎوﺗﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات ﺑﻤﺼﺮ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ اطﺒﺎق ﻛﺎ ال‪ ٢٤٠‬ﺳﻢ وھﺬا‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﮫ ﺷﺨﺼﯿﮫ وھﻨﺎك ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﺪول اﻟﻌﺮﺑﯿﮫ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ھﺬه اﻻﺷﺎرات ﻋﻠﻰ طﺒﻖ ‪١٨٠‬ﺳﻢ‬
‫اﻟﻤﮭﻢ ان ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺒﺚ اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻰ ﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﺴﻰ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﯾﺠﺐ ان ﯾﺘﻌﺮف ﻋﻠﯿﮫ اﻟﺠﮭﺎز اﻟﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎم اﻻﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل‬
‫‪٥١٥٠‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺎ اﻟﻜﯿﻮ‬
‫واﻟﺬى ﯾﺒﺚ ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات واﻟﺘﻰ ﻧﺮھﺎ ﻓﺎھﻰ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺠﺎﻟﻰ ‪١٠٦٠٠‬و‪ ٩٧٥٠‬او ﯾﻨﻔﺮﺳﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ‪:‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺒﺚ ﻓﻰ اﻟﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﮫ وﻣﻨﮭﺎ ﻛﺬا ﻧﻮع ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ان ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻤﺨﺮج واﺣﺪ‬
‫وﻣﺨﺮﺟﯿﻦ‬
‫‪4‬ﻣﺨﺮج‬
‫و‪ ٨‬ﻣﺨﺮج‬
‫ﻛﺎ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﮫ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻓﻰ اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎت اﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﯿﮫ‬
‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ان ﻣﻤﻜﻦ طﺒﻖ واﺣﺪ ﯾﺸﻐﻞ اﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ رﺳﯿﻔﺮ اﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻤﺮ وﻣﻦ اﺟﻮد ھﺬه اﻧﻮاع‬
‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﮫ اﻟﻔﻮﺟﻰ ‪db٣‬‬
‫اﻟﺸﯿﺮﻧﺞ ‪SHARING -‬‬
‫اﻟﺸﯿﺮﻧﺞ ھﻮ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ رﺑﻂ اﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﺒﻌﻀﮭﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﺷﺒﻜﺔ اﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ ان ﺟﮭﺎز ﻛﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ‬
‫واﺣﺪ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﯾﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ ان ﯾﺮﺳﻞ ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت ﻛﺎرت أﺷﺘﺮاك أﺻﻠﻰ اﻟﻰ ﻋﺪة أﺟﮭﺰة أﺧﺮى ﻟﺘﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻜﺎرت وﺗﻔﺘﺢ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻟﻤﺸﻔﺮة أن ﻛﺎن اﻟﻜﺎرت ﻋﻨﺪك‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺴﯿﺮﻓﺮ ‪SERVER -‬‬
‫وھﻮ ﺟﮭﺎز اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ اﻟﺬى ﯾﺮﺳﻞ ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻜﺎرت اﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﯿﻦ وھﻮ أﻣﺎ رﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ درﯾﻢ ﺑﻮﻛﺲ او ﺟﮭﺎز‬
‫ﻛﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ ﯾﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻠﯿﻨﻮﻛﺲ او وﯾﻨﺪوز أﻛﺲ ﺑﻰ وطﺒﻌﺎ أﺷﺘﺮاك ‪ DSL‬و طﺒﻌﺎ ﻛﺎرت اﺷﺘﺮاك أﺻﻠﻰ‬
‫وأﺧﯿﺮا ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺠﺔ ﻓﻮﻧﯿﻜﺲ ﻟﻘﺮاءة اﻟﻜﺎرت وھﻰ ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮة وﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺠﺎت اﻟﻜﺮوت ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﻔﻮﻧﯿﻜﺲ‬
‫‪ ٦٠٠‬وھﺬا ﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﯾﺪه‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ‪CLIENT -‬‬
‫وھﻮ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻜﺎرت اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺴﯿﺮﻓﺮ وه أﻣﺎ درﯾﻢ ﺑﻮﻛﺲ أو ﻣﺎ ﺷﺒﮫ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪة أﺟﮭﺰة‬
‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪة ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻨﻈﺎم اﻟﺪرﯾﻢ ﺑﻮﻛﺲ او ھﯿﻮﻣﺎﻛﺲ ‪ ٥٤٠٠‬أو ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻛﺮوت اﻟﺴﺘﺎﻻﯾﺖ أو أﺟﮭﺰة أﻻرﯾﻮن‬
‫ﻷﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل اﻟﺴﯿﻜﺎ وﺟﺎرى ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺘﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻرﯾﺪﯾﺘﻮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﺒﺚ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎم ﺑﺚ اﻟﺴﯿﺮﻓﺮ ﯾﻜﻮن أﻣﺎ ﻧﯿﻮﻛﺎﻣﺪ ‪ NEWCAMD‬أو ﺟﻰ ﺑﻮﻛﺲ ‪ G-BOX‬أو ﻋﺪة أﻧﻈﻤﺔ أﺧﺮى‬
‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪ وﻣﻨﮭﺎ اﻟﻘﺪﯾﻢ وﻟﻜﻦ أﺣﺴﻨﮭﻢ واﻧﺎ اﻓﻀﻠﮫ ﻟﺴﮭﻮﻟﺘﮫ ھﻮ اﻟﻨﯿﻮﻛﺎﻣﺪ ﻟﺴﮭﻮﻟﺔ اﻧﺸﺎؤه وﺳﮭﻮﻟﺔ‬
‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻟﮫ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ھﺬه اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت ﻟﻜﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ ان ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ اﻟﻨﯿﻮﻛﺎﻣﺪ ‪-:‬‬
‫‪ - ١‬أﺳﻢ اﻟﮭﻮﺳﺖ أو اﻻﯾﺒﻰ ‪HOST OR IP‬‬
‫‪ - ٢‬رﻗﻢ اﻟﺒﻮرت ‪PORT‬‬
‫‪ - ٣‬أﺳﻢ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪم ‪USER‬‬
‫‪ - ٤‬اﻟﺮﻗﻢ اﻟﺴﺮى ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪم ‪PASSWORD‬‬
‫‪ - ٥‬رﻗﻢ ‪DESKEY‬‬
‫اﻧﺘﻈﺮوﻧﺎ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻت اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ ﺳﻮف ﻧﺒﯿﻦ ﻟﻜﻢ‬
‫ اﻧﻮاع اﻟﺸﯿﺮﻧﺞ‬‫‪ -‬واﻻﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ھﺬا اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬
‫‪٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠‬‬
‫وﺣﺪة اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﯾﺔ ‪ Processor‬اﻏﻠﺐ اﻷﺟﮭﺰة ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮع ‪Sti5518‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ھﺬه اﻟﻮﺣﺪة ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ Chipset‬ﻓﻲ أﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ اﻟﻌﺎدﯾﺔ ﻓﮭﻲ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺑﺪاﺧﻠﮭﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﻣﺮﻛﺰي ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻮع ‪ ST20‬ﺳﻌﺔ ‪ ٣٢‬ﺑﺎﯾﺖ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪ ٨١‬ﻣﯿﺠﺎھﺮﺗﺰ وﯾﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻲ ‪ OSC‬ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪ ٢٧‬ﻣﯿﺠﺎھﺮﺗﺰ‬
‫وھﻲ ﻟﮭﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﺘﺄﺛﯿﺮات ﻓﻲ اﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﺤﺘﻮي اﯾﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ وﺣﺪة ‪ Mpeg decoder‬ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻟﺼﻮت واﻟﻔﯿﺪﯾﻮ اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‪.‬‬‫ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺬ رﺑﻂ ب ‪ Smart Cards interface‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎل وﺟﻮدھﺎ‬‫ وﺣﺪة رﺑﻂ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة ‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬وﯾﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﮫ اﻟﻤﺰﯾﺪ أﯾﻀﺎ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﻧﻮع اﻟﺠﮭﺎز و وظﺎﺋﻔﮫ‬
‫ ‪ UART‬وھﻲ اﺧﺘﺼﺎر ‪ Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter‬وھﻲ‬‫ﺑﻜﻞ ﺑﺴﺎطﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺬ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ أﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﻜﻮﻣﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ ‪ COM PORT‬وھﻲ اﻟﺘﻲ ﯾﺨﺮج ﻣﻨﮭﺎ ﻣﺨﺮج‬
‫‪ RS232‬اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺚ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﻲ ﻋﻦ طﺮﯾﻖ اﻟﻜﻮﻣﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ‬
‫ ‪ Smart Cards interface‬وھﻲ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﻮم ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت وﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻞ اﻟﻜﺮوت اﻟﺘﻲ ﯾﺘﻢ‬‫ﻗﺮاءﺗﮭﺎ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ ‪ smart card reader‬ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد ﻓﻲ اﻷﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﺔ داﺧﻠﯿﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻜﯿﻮﻣﺎﻛﺲ واﻟﺪﯾﺴﻜﻔﺮي وﻏﯿﺮھﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻷﺟﮭﺰة‪.‬‬
‫‪ Front End link interface‬وھﻮ اﻟﻤﺴﺆول ﻋﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻞ اﻟﮭﺎرد دﯾﺴﻚ أو اﻟـ ‪ DVD‬ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟـ‪IDE‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻮﻣﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ وھﺬا ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﻲ اﻷﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻲ ھﺎرد دﯾﺴﻚ ‪. PVR‬‬
‫‪ Programmable CPU interface‬وھﻮ اﻟﻤﺴﺆول ﻣﺴﺆوﻟﯿﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻘﺮاءة واﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ إﻟﻰ وﺣﺪة‬
‫اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة اﻟﺪاﺋﻤﺔ ‪ Flash memory‬وھﺬا ﺟﺰء ﻣﮭﻢ ﺟﺪا ﯾﺠﺐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ أﺳﺮاره وھﻲ ﯾﺴﻤﻲ ‪EMI‬‬
‫‪ register “external memory interface‬وﯾﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة ﺑﻮﺣﺪة اﻟـ ‪Diagnostic‬‬
‫‪ (controller (DCU‬اﻟﻤﺴﺆوﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺒﻮت ﻣﻦ اﻟﻔﻼش أو ﺑﺼﻮرة أﺧﺮى طﺮﯾﻘﺔ ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ﺗﻨﻔﯿﺬه ﻣﻦ وﺣﺪة اﻟـ ‪ CPU‬وھﺬا ﺷﺒﯿﮫ ﺑﺤﺪ ﻛﺒﯿﺮ ﺑﺄﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﻜﻮﻣﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Shared SDRAM interface‬وھﺬا ﺧﺎص ﺑﻮﺣﺪة اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة اﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ وﯾﺴﻊ اﻟﻲ ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ ‪ ٣٢‬ﻣﯿﺠﺎ ﺑﺎﯾﺖ‬
‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺮج اﻟﻔﯿﺪﯾﻮ اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ واﻟﺘﻤﺎﺛﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺮج اﻟﺼﻮت‬
‫‪ JTAG debugging interface‬وھﺬا ﻣﺎ ﺳﺎﺣﺎول ﺷﺮﺣﮫ و ﺗﺒﺴﯿﻄﮫ ﻟﯿﺘﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﺠﻤﯿﻊ ﻣﻦ اﻋﺎدة ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ‬
‫ﺟﮭﺎزه ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎل ﻣﺎ اذا اﺻﯿﺐ ﺑﻌﻄﻞ ﻛﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ ﺑﺎﺗﺶ ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻦ طﺮﯾﻖ ھﺬا اﻟﺒﻮرت اﻋﺎدة ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺔ اﻟﻔﻼش وﻗﺮاءﺗﮭﺎ أﯾﻀﺎ وأﺟﺮاء اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﮭﺎم اﻷﺧﺮى‬
‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت اﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﻤﺎ أن أﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ ﺗﺸﺒﮫ ﺑﺪرﺟﺔ ﻛﺒﯿﺮة أﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﻜﻮﻣﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ ﻓﻼﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺷﯿﺌﯿﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ وھﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻏﺎﯾﺔ اﻷھﻤﯿﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺟﺰء ﻣﺴﺆول ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯿﻤﻮري إﻟﻰ وﺣﺪة اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة اﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ ‪SDRAM‬‬
‫وھﻮ ﻣﺎ ﯾﺴﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻮت ‪ boot‬وھﻮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯿﻤﻮري ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﺠﺰء اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ھﻮ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﮫ وھﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺑﻠﻐﮫ ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺔ ﺑﺼﻮرة ﻋﺎدﯾﺔ واﺷﺮھﺎ ھﻲ ﻟﻐﺔ‬
‫‪ ++C‬أو ‪ ++visual c‬وﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻷﺟﺰاء ﺑﻠﻎ اﻟـ ‪ Assembler‬أو اﻟﺘﺠﻤﯿﻊ وھﺬا ﯾﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﮭﺎرات‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﺟﺪا وﻓﻲ اﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﺗﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ اﻷﻓﺮاد اﻟﺬﯾﻦ ﯾﻌﻤﻠﻮن ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ھﺬه اﻟﺒﺮوﺳﯿﺴﻮرات وﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﮭﺎ وأﺟﺮاء اﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎرات ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ ﯾﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻞ ‪ compiler‬ﻣﮭﺎ أي ﯾﺘﻢ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ ﻟﻐﺔ اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﺔ ﺗﺤﻮﯾﻠﮫ إﻟﻰ ﻟﻐﺔ‬
‫اﻵﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﮫ وھﻮ ﯾﻜﻮن ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮد اﻟﺴﺎدس ﻋﺸﺮ وﯾﺨﺰن ﻋﻠﻲ ھﯿﺌﺔ ‪ Binary file‬او ﻣﻠﻒ ‪BIN‬‬
‫اﻟﺬي ﯾ ُﺤﻤﻞ داﺧﻞ اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯿﻤﻮري وﯾﺘﻢ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﺒﻮت وﺿﻌﮫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة اﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ وھﺬا ﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫وﻛﺜﺮة اﻟﻘﺮاءة واﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ أﺛﻨﺎء ﻋﻤﻞ اﻟﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ وإذا ﺗﺴﺎءﻟﻨﺎ ﻟﻤﺎذا ﻻ ﯾﺘﻢ اﻟﺘﻨﻔﯿﺬ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯿﻤﻮري ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة‬
‫ﻓﮭﺬا ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ وﻛﺜﺮة اﻟﻘﺮاءة واﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ أﺛﻨﺎء ﻋﻤﻞ اﻟﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ واﻟﻔﻼش وإﻻ ﻻﻧﺘﮭﺖ ﺻﻼﺣﯿﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺗﯿﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ ﻋﻠﻲ اﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻷﻧﮭﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺼﻠﺢ إﻻ ﻟﺤﻮاﻟﻲ ‪ ١٠.٠٠٠‬ﻣﺮة ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﺤﺘﻮي اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﻘﻮاﺋﻢ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﮭﺮ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﯿﻔﺰﯾﻮن واﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات وﻗﺪ‬
‫ﯾﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﻌﺎب ﻟﻸطﻔﺎل وأﺷﯿﺎء أﺧﺮى ﻋﺪﯾﺪة ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﻮد ﻣﺮة أﺧﺮى ﻟﻨﺘﻌﺮف ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﺒﻮت وھﻮ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺻﻐﯿﺮ ﯾﻜﻮن ﺣﺠﻤﮫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﻻ ﯾﺘﻌﺪي‬
‫‪ 64KB‬ﯾﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻲ ‪ Boot Block‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯿﻤﻮري وﯾﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻠﮫ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬
‫وﺣﺪة ‪ DCU‬اﻟﺘﻲ ذﻛﺮﻧﺎھﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة ‪ SDRAM‬ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ ﺧﯿﺎر ﯾﺴﻤﻲ ‪ Boot sector1‬أو‬
‫‪. BtSrc1‬‬
‫اﻵن وﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﻲ وﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ ﻧﺘﻌﺮض ﻟﺠﺰء ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺚ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ أو‬
‫‪ software upgrade‬وھﺬا ﯾﺘﻢ ﻋﻦ طﺮﯾﻖ اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗــــــﺮ وﻟـــــﻮدر ﺧﺎص ﻟﻜﻞ ﻧﻮع ﻣـــــــﻦ أﻧﻮاع‬
‫اﻟﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮات ﯾﻤﻜﻨﮫ ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﻲ اﻟﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ وﻣﻌﻈﻢ اﻟﮭﺎوﯾﻦ أو اﻟﻤﺤﺘﺮﻓﯿﻦ ﯾﺠﯿﺪون اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ھﺬا‬
‫اﻟﺠﺰء وﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻋﺪة ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎت وھﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﻠﻮدر ﻣﻌﻈﻢ اﻷﺟﮭﺰة ﺗﻄﻠﺐ إﻋﺎدة اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ وﺑﻌﺪھﺎ‬‫ﯾﺒﺪأ اﻟﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ ﻓﻠﻤﺎذا؟‬
‫اﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ‪ :‬ﻷن اﻟﺒﻮت اﻟﺨﺎص ﺑﺎﻟﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ ھﻮ اﻟﻤﺴﺆول ﻣﺴﺆوﻟﯿﺔ ﺗﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮة ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ ﻋﻦ‬
‫وﺟﻮد أﻣﺮ ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ أو أي ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﺧﺮي ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻗﻨﻮات أو ﺷﻔﺮة ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺬ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﻲ‬
‫‪ RS232‬اﻟﻤﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺑﻌﺪ إﻋﺎدة اﻟﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ ﯾﺒﺪأ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ boot‬او ﻣﺎ ﯾﺮﻣﺰ ﻋﻠﯿﮫ ﺛﻢ ﯾﺒﺪأ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪ ﺛﻢ ﯾﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺛﻮاﻧﻲ ﺛﻢ ﯾﻜﺘﺐ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ‪ugrd‬‬‫وھﻲ اﺧﺘﺼﺎر ‪ upgrade‬ﺛﻢ ‪ good‬او ‪ succ‬أو ‪ Fine‬أو ﻻ ﯾﻜﺘﺐ ﺛﻢ ﯾﻌﯿﺪ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﮫ أو ﯾﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻚ إﻋﺎدة اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ ﻓﻤﺎذا ﯾﺘﻢ أﺛﻨﺎء ھﺬه اﻷﺣﺪاث؟‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﯿﻨﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ أن اﻟﺒﻮت ھﻮ اﻟﺬي ﯾﻘﻮم ﺑﮭﺬه اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ ﻓﯿﺒﺪأ أوﻻ ﺑﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ أو اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻤﺮﺳﻠﺔ إﻟﯿﮫ‬
‫إﻟﻰ ذاﻛﺮة اﻟﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ اﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ وﺑﻌﺪ اﻧﺘﮭﺎء اﻟﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ ﯾﺒﺪأ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﺤﺺ ‪ Check‬ﻟﻠﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎھﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈذا‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻤﺎ إذا ﻛﺎن ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ أم ﻻ أو ﯾﺤﻤﻞ إﺻﺪارا أﺣﺪث وھﺬا ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﯾﺘﻮﻗﻒ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ اﻟﺒﻮت ﺛﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ اﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ اذا ﺗﺤﻘﻘﺖ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺷﺮوط اﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﯾﻀﻌﮫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻜﺎن اﻟﻤﺤﺪد ﻟﮫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﻼش‬
‫ﻣﯿﻤﻮري ‪.‬‬
‫وھﺬا ﯾﻨﻄﺒﻖ اﯾﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻠﻒ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات واﻟﺸﻔﺮة‪.‬‬
‫ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﯾﻔﻀﻞ إﻋﺎدة اﻟﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ إﻟﻰ وﺿﻊ اﻟﻤﺼﻨﻊ ﻓﻠﻤﺎذا؟‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﯿﺪ ﻗﺪ ﯾﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻷﺣﺪث ﻋﻤﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﮫ ﻓﻲ طﺮﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ ﻟﻠﻘﻨﻮات أو ﻣﻜﺎن اﻟﻘﻨﻮات أو اﻟﺸﻔﺮة ﻓﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯿﻤﻮري وﻗﺪ ﯾﺴﺒﺐ ﺑﻘﺎء اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻘﺪﯾﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﮭﻨﯿﺞ اﻟﺠﮭﺎز وﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﯾﻔﻀﻞ إﻋﺎدة ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﻤﺼﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻷﺣﺪث ﺛﻢ إﻋﺎدة ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ ﻣﻠﻒ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات ﺛﻢ اﻟﺸﻔﺮة‪.‬‬
‫ إذا ﻻﺣﻈﻨﺎ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻧﺠﺪ اﻧﮫ ﯾﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺒﺮوﺳﯿﺴﻮر اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ إﻋﺎدة ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺔ ﻣﻜﺎن ﻣﺤﺪد ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯿﻤﻮري ﻣﺮة أﺧﺮى وﻗﺪ ﯾﻜﻮن اﻟﻤﻜﺎن اﻟﺬي ﯾﻮﺿﻊ ﻓﯿﮫ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﻲ أو ﻣﻠﻒ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات أو‬
‫اﻟﺸﻔﺮة أو ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ اﻷﻗﻤﺎر وأﺣﯿﺎﻧﺎ ﯾﻤﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻷﺟﮭﺰة ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ اﻟﻠﻮدر ﻧﻔﺴﮫ وﻗﺪ ﯾﺘﻢ ھﺬا ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬
‫واﺣﺪة أو ﻋﻠﻲ ﺧﻄﻮات ﻓﮭﻞ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ أن ﻧﺠﻌﻠﮫ ﯾﻘﻮم ﺑﻘﺮاءة ﻣﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎت اﻟﻔﻼش ﻛﻠﮭﺎ وھﻞ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ أن‬
‫ﻧﻌﯿﺪ ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺘﮭﺎ ﻣﺮة أﺧﺮى أم ﻻ؟‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﯿﺪ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ ﻷن ﻣﻌﻈﻢ اﻟﺒﺮوﺳﯿﺴﻮرات ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻲ ‪ Jtag Port‬ﯾﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻦ طﺮﯾﻘﮫ اﻟﻮﺻﻮل إﻟﻰ‬
‫اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯿﻤﻮري وﻗﺮاءﺗﮭﺎ وﻣﺴﺤﮭﺎ وإﻋﺎدة ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺘﮭﺎ ﺑﻞ وﻧﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ أﯾﻀﺎ ﻗﺮاءة ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت ﻗﻨﺎة ﻣﻮﺟﻮدة ﻓﻲ‬
‫اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة اﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ وﺣﻔﻈﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺟﮭﺎز اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ )‪Multiplex - (Multiplexer, Multiplexer-demultiplexer, Encoder, Mux, Muldex‬‬‫‪(1) A telecommunications device that funnels a number of signals onto a single‬‬
‫‪channel; for instance audio, video or enhanced data. (2) A device that converts‬‬
‫‪an analog video signal to a digital video signal using one or more compression‬‬
‫‪techniques.‬‬
‫ھﻮ ﺟﮭﺎز ﯾﻘﻮم ﺑﺘﺠﻤﯿﻊ ﻋﺪة اﺷﺎرات ﻓﻰ ﻗﻨﺎة واﺣﺪة ﻛﻤﺜﺎل ﺗﺠﻤﯿﻊ اﺷﺎرة اﻟﺼﻮت واﻟﺼﻮرة واﻻﻟﻮان‬
‫وارﺳﺎﻟﮭﻢ اﻟﻰ اﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ھﯿﺌﺔ اﺷﺎرة واﺣﺪة‬
‫او ﺗﺠﻤﯿﻊ ﻋﺪة ﻗﻨﻮات ﻓﻰ ﺑﺎﻗﺔ واﺣﺪة‬
Demultiplexer. A device that takes a single signal, which is carrying
many channels, and separates those channels into multiple output
signals.
‫ھو ﺟﮭﺎز ﯾﺳﺗﻘﺑل اﺷﺎرة واﺣدة ﺗﺣﺗوى ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋدة ﻗﻧوات وﯾﻘوم ﺑﻔﺻل ﺗﻠك اﻟﻘﻧوات ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋدة ﻣﺧﺎرج‬
Encoder - An encoder is a program and/or device used to change a signal,
or stream of data, into a code that a compatible computerized device can
work with. This code may be further manipulated for optimal results. This
encoded data typically needs a "decoder" at the receiving end to change it
into a signal or data stream that a TV or other applicable device can
understand. (Analog TVs don't understand digital signals unless the signal is
"decoded" by the set-top box for them.)
‫ ھو ﺟﮭﺎز ﯾﻌﻣل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺣوﯾل اﻻﺷﺎرة اﻟﻌﺎدﯾﺔ اﻟﻰ اﺷﺎرة ﻣﺷﻔرة ﻻﯾﺳﺗطﯾﻊ اﻟﺗﻠﯾﻔزﯾون اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل‬:‫اﻻﻧﻛودر‬
‫ﻣﻌﮭﺎ‬
Decoder
‫ ھو ﺟﮭﺎز ﻣن ﯾﻘوم ﺑﻔك ﺷﻔرة اﻻﺷﺎرة وﯾرﺟﻌﮭﺎ اﻟﻰ اﺷﺎرة ﻋﺎدﯾﺔ ﯾﺳﺗطﯾﻊ اﻟﺗﻠﯾﻔزﯾون اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل‬: ‫اﻟدﯾﻛودر‬
‫ﻣﻌﮭﺎ‬
Inside Set Top Box (STB)
Set Top Box or STB has become an integral part of TV viewing in many parts of the world. We
commonly see this sleek looking device sitting on side of TVs. Though this device looks slim
and simple but it is one of the most complex embedded systems today. STBs are increasing their
feature set day by day. Few of the common features in current generation STBs are time shift
mode viewing, recording, Internet based viewing, video on demand, Full High definition video
output
etc.
STB is very complex embedded system; it consists of 30+ hardware blocks and similar number
of software drivers. STB has lot of computing power distributed across main processor and
various co-processors. In few of top end STBs if we add operating frequencies of all co-
processors then it would be in range of 3-4 GHz.
Hardware
A typical STB would look similar to one shown in following image. This is picture of standard
definition (SD) satellite based STB being used at my home. Number of components used is
fairly less compared to complexity of this system. This credit goes to the main STB decoder chip
which integrates a lot of hardware components required into a single chip.
Inside view of Satellite Set Top Box
STB
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Power
Smart
Card
STB
DVB-CI
Satellite
Front
blocks
Supply
Slot
RAM
Decoder
Flash
Slot
End
8. RF Modulator
The above picture shows STB circuit board and major components on the board. A more logical
relationship between various components is shown in following block diagram.
Set Top Box Hardware Blocks
STB Decoder: This is heart of the whole system. In current generation STBs most of the
features required by STB system are integrated in STB decoder chips. This level of integration is
called System On Chip (SoC). STB SoCs contain a large number of blocks ranging from demultiplexer to decoders and peripherals like USB, SATA etc.
Front End: Front End part of STB is responsible for receiving the broadcasted signal,
demodulating the signal and outputting digital data output for STB decoder chip. Depending
upon broadcasting environment terrestrial or satellite or cable front end will be used.
Front end unit consist of 3 main blocks tuner to tune correct frequency, demodulator to
demodulate as per standard and forward error correction (FEC) unit for data recovery.
Power Supply: This is the main power source for board. This unit generates different voltage
required by various components on board. Input to this unit can be main line AC (220/110) or
DC 12V via standalone power adapters.
Flash: This is used to store boot loader, main application and other user specific non volatile
data. Different STBs uses different sizes of flash ranging from 8MB to 64MB.
RAM: RAM is used to store all intermediate data (such as decoded video/audio buffers) and
application variables. In many cases main application is also copied to RAM and is executed
from RAM to speed up the operation (as RAM is faster compared to Flash).
RAM size ranges from 32MB in standard definition STBs to 256MB in some top end Full HD
STBs.
Video Interfaces: STB decoder chip outputs video data in analog or digital format.
To make these signals compatible with external devices, special circuitry like filter and physical
connector are required. Current generation STBs provide many video output formats such as
CVBS, S Video, Component video and HDMI.
Audio Interfaces: STB decoder chip outputs audio data in analog as well as digital format.
In some cases high quality DACs are used to convert digital data into analog format.
Digital data is also transmitted in digital format using SPDIF standard.
Storage: Few STBs also work as digital video recorders. To aid storage of programs some
storage device (HDD) is added via any of the interfaces (SATA, eSATA, ATAPI or USB)
provided by decoder chip.
Front Panel: This is STBs interface to external world.
Front panels are different for different boxes. But most of them provide IR input/output, Status
LEDs, 7 segments or LCD and few switches to configure set top box.
These features are controlled by parallel IOs of main decoder chip. In some cases a dedicated
microcontroller is added to front end to reduce processing load for main chip and also to reduce
the number of wires going from front panel to main PCB.
DVB-CI Slot: This slot is provided to support various conditional access schemes. Conditional
Access providers provide compatible DVB-CI cards to be used with STB. The DVB-CI card
decrypts the channels encrypted by Conditional Access provider as per user’s subscription
policies.
Smart Card Slot ‫ ﻓﺗﺣﺔ دﺧول اﻟﻛﺎرت‬: This slot is provided to use smart card for Conditional
Access implementation. Unique subscriber ID is stored on each card. Smart card is also used in
decrypting the channels.
RF Modulator: This is used to modulate Audio and video into RF signal. This is mainly to be
used with older TVs which have only RF input and no composite (CVBS) input.
‫إﺷﺎرة اﻟﻔﯾدﯾو اﻟﻣرﻛﺑﺔ‬
STB Decoder SoC
STB Decoder is one of the most complex system on chip (SoC). There is generally one main
processor and lot of co-processor doing dedicated processing.
A typical decoder SoC will have following blocks.
Set Top Box Decoder blocks
Main CPU: This is the main CPU executing the STB application. It is a general purpose CPU
with lot of development tools available. Its speed range from 200MHz on standard definition
devices to near 1GHz on High Definition devices. The main CPU is generally based on industry
standard core such Super H or ARM to improve ease of tools and reusable stack availability.
Demux: Demux is a dedicated co-processor to de-multiplex the digital transport stream into
audio, video and other data. Demux checks the input stream for errors and protocol compliance
and filters the required data into desired buffers (Audio, video)
‫ﯾﻘوم ﺑﻔك اﻻﺷﺎرة اﻟﻣﺟﻣﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺻوت واﻟﺻورة واﻻﻟوان وﺷدة اﻻﺿﺎءة واﻟﻛﻧﺗراﺳت وﺧﻼﻓﮫ ﻣن اﻟﻌﻧﺎﺻر‬
‫اﻟﻣﺻﺎﺣﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺻورة اﻟﻰ ﻋدة اﺷﺎرا وﯾﻘوم ﺑﺗوزﯾﻌﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋدة ﻣﺧﺎرج ﺣﺳب ﻧوع اﻟﻣﺧرج اﻟذاھب ﻟﮫ ﻓﻘد‬
‫ﯾﻛون ﻣﺧرج اﻻ﷼ اﻟﻘدﯾم وﯾﺣﺗﺎج اﺷﺎرة اﻧﺎﻟوج اذان ﺳﺗدﺧل اﺷﺎرة اﻟﺻوت واﻟﺻورة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺣول ﯾﺣول‬
‫اﻻﺷﺎرة اﻟدﯾﺟﺗﺎل اﻟﺧﺎرﺟﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺑرﯾﺳﺳور ﺑﻌد ﺗﻔﻛﯾﻛﮭﺎ اﻟﻰ اﺷﺎرة اﻧﺎﻟوج ﺗﺧرج ﻣن ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣﻧﻔذ اﻟﺧﺎص‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻ﷼ اﻟﻘدﯾم‬
Video Decoder: This co-processor is responsible for converting compressed video (MPEG) data
into basic video format
. Current generation decoders have programmable video decoders, so video decoders can support
a variety of formats such as MPEG2, H264, VC1 etc.
‫ھﻰ داﺋرة ﻛﺷف اﻟﺿﻐط او اﻟﺗرﻣﯾز ﻟﻼﺷﺎرة داﺧل اﻟﺑرﯾﺳﺳور وﺗﺣوﯾﻠﮭﺎ اﻟﻰ اﺷﺎرة دﯾﺟﺗﺎل او اﻧﺎﻟوج‬
‫ﯾﻣﻛن ﻟﻠدواﺋر اﻟﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻌﮭﺎ ﻛﺗﻛﺑﯾرھﺎ وارﺳﺎﻟﮭﺎ اﻟﻰ ﻣﻧﺎﻓذ اﻟﺧروج‬
Graphics Engine: This co-processor is dedicated to graphics acceleration. Its main task is to
draw pictures and menus for user interface (UI). This unit is becoming more powerful these days
with introduction of 3D menus.
‫وھﻰ وﺣدة ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ اﻟﺻور اﻟﻣﺗﺣرﻛﺔ‬
Mixer: This block is responsible for mixing the video output and graphics output and producing
a final single image. This is also responsible for ordering of video and graphics plane and
transparency settings. As shown is image there are two planes one video in background on video
plane and other is rectangular window showing program information on graphics plane. These
two planes are mixed by mixer to generate a single image.
‫وھو ﻣﻛﺳر ﺧﺎص ﺑدﻣﺞ اﻟﺻور ﻣﻊ ﻣﻘﺎطﻊ اﻟﻔﯾدﯾو ﻻﺧراﺟﮭم ﻛﺎﺷﺎرة واﺣدة‬
Video Output: Final result after mixing video decoder and graphics accelerator outputs is
provided to video output block. This block is responsible for outputting data as per required
standards (PAL, NTSC, SECAM, HDMI). This block generates output in analog format using
DACs. This block also generates output in digital format using HDMI convertors.
‫ﻣرﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﻔﯾدو ھذه ﺗﻛون ﻣﺳؤوﻟﺔ ﻋن ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺻورة وﻋن ﻧظﺎم اﻻﻟوان ھل ھو ﺑﺎل او ﺳﯾﻛﺎم او ان ﺗﻰ اس‬
‫ﺳﻰ وﻛذﻟك ﻧظﺎم اﺗش دى ام اى واﻟذى ﯾﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻌﺎﺟﮭزة ﻣﺛل اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر ﻓﯾﺟب ان ﺗﻛون اﻻﺷﺎرة اﻟذاھﺑﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻰ اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر ﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺔ ﻟدواﺋره ﺑﺣﯾث ﯾﺳﺗطﯾﻊ اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻌﮭﺎ ﺑﺧﻼف اﻻﺷﺎرة اﻟذاھﺑﺔ اﻟﻰ اﻟﺗﻠﯾﻔزﯾون ﺑﺗﻛون‬
‫ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ اى ان ﻛل ﻣﻧﻔذ ﻣن ﻣﻧﺎﻓذ اﻟﺧروج ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ﻣرﻛب ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ دواﺋر ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻻﺳﺗﻘﺑﺎل اﻻﺷﺎرة ﻣن‬
‫اﻟﺑرﯾﺳﺳور وﺗﺣوﯾﻠﮭﺎ اﻟﻰ اﺷﺎرة ﯾﻔﮭﻣﮭﺎ اﻟﺟﮭﺎز اﻟذى ﺳﯾرﺑط ﻋﻠﻰ ھذا اﻟﻣﻧﻔذ‬
Audio Decoder:
‫ھﻰ اﯾﺳﻰ ﺗﻘوم ﺑﻔك ﺿﻐط اﺷﺎرة اﻟﺻوت وﺗﺣوﯾﻠﮭﺎ اﻟﻰ اﺷﺎرة ﯾﻔﮭﻣﮭﺎ اﻟﺟﮭﺎز اﻟذى ﺳﯾرﺑط ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣﻧﻔذ‬
‫وھﻰ ﺑﻛون اﻣﺎ ﻣﺟﻣﻌﺔ ﻛﺎﺷﺎرة اﻟﺻوت اﻟذاھﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻣدﺧل اﻟﻘدﯾم ﻟﻠﺗﻠﯾﻔزﯾون او ﻣوزﻋﺔ وﻣﻧﻔﺻﻠﺔ ﻋن اﺷﺎرة‬
‫اﻟﺻورة واﯾﺿﺎ ﻣﻘﺳﻣﺔ اﻟﻰ اﺷﺎرة ﺻوت ﯾﺳﺎر وﯾﻣﯾن ﻛﻣﺎ ھو ﻓﻰ اﻟﻣﻧﻔذ اﻟﺣدﯾث ﻟﻠﺻوت واﻟﺻورة‬
Audio Output: Audio output is fed to audio output block. This block provides audio output in
analog format using internal DACs and in digital format using SPDIF convertor.
Peripherals: Other than main decoders and CPU a lot of peripheral devices are supported by
STB\
SoCs
for
providing
various
features.
USB: For record/playback on external storage
SATA: used to connect HDD for providing digital video recording facility.
Ethernet: Input source for IP based STBs
UART: Debug port. Sometimes also used for software upgrade in field
I2C: Used by main STB SoC to communicate with external peripheral devices such as front end,
SCART controller, HDMI controller etc.
SPI : Used for connecting to non-volatile storage on serial flash devices.
.
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EEprom Testing-Application, Operation and Failure
Before explaining the EEprom testing subject below, you have to know the
introduction about eeprom first. Nowadays it is very common to see eeprom ic in
electronic equipment.
‫?‪What is eeprom‬‬
‫ذاﻛرة ﻛﮭرﺑﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﻘراءة ﻓﻘط ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺢ‬
‫‪EEprom means Electrical Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory and also‬‬
‫‪referred to as E²PROM chip or i2c.‬‬
‫‪As the name suggest, an EEPROM can be both erased and programmed with electrical‬‬
‫‪pulses from a programmer kit, burner or the equipment itself.‬‬
‫‪Since it can be both electrically written into and electrically erased,‬‬
‫‪the EEPROM ic can be quickly programmed and erased in circuit for reprogramming‬‬
‫‪without taking them out from the main board.‬‬
‫وھﻰ اﯾﺳﻰ ﯾﻛن ﻣﺳﺢ ﻣﺎﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ واﻋﺎدة ﺑرﻣﺟﺗﮭﺎ ﺑﺳرﻋﺔ ﺑدون ﻧزﻋﮭﺎ ﻣن اﻟداﺋرة‬
‫‪EEPROM ic is also called a non-volatile memory because when the power is switched‬‬
‫‪off, the stored data (information) in the EEPROM ic will not be erased or corrupt and‬‬
‫‪the data is still intact.‬‬
‫واﯾﺿﺎ ﺗﺳﻣﻰ ذاﻛرة ﻏﯾر ﻣﺗطﺎﯾرة ﻻﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﺣﺗﻔظ ﺑﺎﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﺗﻰ ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ ﺑﻌد ﻗطﻊ اﻟﻛﮭرﺑﺎء ﻋﻧﮭﺎ واﻟﻨﻮع اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ اﯾﺴﯿﮭﺎت اﻻﺑﺮوم ﯾﺎﺗﻰ ﻓﺎرغ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ ﺣﯿﺚ ﯾﺘﻢ ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺘﮭﺎ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ اداة ادﺧﻞ ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت او ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺔ وﻟﻮ وﺿﻌﺘﮭﺎ ﻓﻰ‬
‫اﻟﺪاﺋﺮة ﺑﺪون ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺔ ﻓﺎن اﻟﺒﺮﯾﺴﺴﻮر ﻟﻦ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﮭﺎ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻄﺒﯿﻘﺎت اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﯿﮭﺎ اﯾﺴﻰ اﻻﺑﺮوم‪:‬‬
‫اﻻﺑﺮوم ﯾﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﮫ ﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ او اﻟﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ او اى ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻠﯿﻔﺰﯾﻮن‬
‫ﻣﻦ اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺎت اﻻﯾﺴﻰ اﻻﺑﺮوم ﻓﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ اﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﻌﻄﻰ ﺑﯿﻨﺎت ﻟﻠﺒﺮﯾﺴﺴﻮر ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﻧﻮﺗﻮر ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬
‫ﻋﻦ اى ﺗﺮدد ﺳﺘﻘﻮم اﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﯾﺴﺠﻞ اﯾﻀﺎ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﻟﺘﯿﺎر اﻟﺬى ﯾﺴﺤﺒﮫ اﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ اذا اﻧﻄﻔﺎ اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ وﻋﺎد ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﯾﻌﻄﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬
‫ﻟﻠﺒﺮﯾﺴﺴﻮر ﻟﻜﻰ ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻰ ﺗﯿﺎر اﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﻘﺪر اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ وﻋﻠﯿﮫ ﺳﺘﻌﻄﻰ اﻟﺒﺮﯾﺴﺴﻮر اﻣﺮ ﺑﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ اﻟﺠﮭﻮد اﻟﻠﺰﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ اﻟﺮاﺳﻰ واﻻﻓﻘﻰ ﻟﻠﺸﺎﺷﺔ وﻟﻮ ﺣﺪث ﻋﻄﻞ ﻓﻰ اﯾﺴﻰ اﻻﺑﺮوم ﺳﺘﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﺒﺮﯾﺴﺴﻮر ﻋﻤﻞ اﯾﺴﻰ اﻟﺮاﺳﻰ واﻻﻓﻘﻰ‬
‫واﯾﻀﺎ ﺳﺘﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺑﻌﺾ دواﺋﺮ اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﻟﻮان واﻟﺼﻮت اﻻﺿﺎءة وﺧﻼﻓﮫ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻟﺬى ﯾﺠﻌﻞ اﻻﺑﺮوم ﯾﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫ارﺗﻔﺎع اﻟﺠﮭﺪ اﻟﺬى ﯾﻐﺬﯾﮫ ﯾﺘﻠﻔﮫ وﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻠﻔﮫ ﯾﺠﺐ ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺘﮫ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ‬
‫وﻟﻜﻰ ﻻﺗﺤﺘﺎر ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻠﻒ اﻻﺑﺮوم ﯾﺠﺐ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺘﮫ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ ﺷﺤﻨﮫ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻰ اﻻﺳﻔﻞ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻟﺘﻨﺰﯾﻞ ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻻﺑﺮوم او ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺘﮫ‬
‫وﻣﻜﺘﻮب اﯾﻀﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ اﻻﺑﺮوﻣﺎت اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﺤﺘﻮى ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ رﻗﻢ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ‬
‫‪http://www.lancos.com/prog.html‬‬
‫‪2402, 2404, 2408‬‬
‫‪24C02, 24C04, 24C08, 24C16‬‬
‫‪24C325, 24C645AT17C65, AT17C128‬‬
‫‪93C06, 93C46, 93C56, 93C66‬‬
‫‪25010, 25020, 25040‬‬
‫‪http://www.avsforum.com/t/1465875/iview-3500stb-tuner-dvr-owners‬‬‫‪thread/3180#post_24725268‬‬
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‫ﺧﺑﺎﯾﺎ وأﺳرار اﻟﻣﺎرد اﻟﺻﻐﯾر‬
‫ﻣﻧﻘول‬
‫ﻧظرة ﻣن اﻟداﺧل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر!‬
‫ ﻛﯾف ﺗﻌﻣل اﻟﻘطﻊ اﻹﻟﯾﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻰ اﻟداﺋرة اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ ﻟﺟﮭﺎز اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ﻟﺗﻛون ﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ اﻟوظﺎﺋف‪.‬‬‫ ﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ اﻟرﺑط ﺑﯾن ﻗﺎرئ اﻟﺑطﺎﻗﺎت اﻟذﻛﯾﺔ "‪ "Smart Card Reader‬وﻋﻣل ﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر‪ ..‬واﻟﺗﻰ ﯾﻣﻛﻧﻧﺎ ﻣن‬‫ﺧﻼﻟﮭﺎ ﻓك ﺗﺷﻔﯾر اﻟﻘﻧوات اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻠزﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﻰ ﺗﺗطﻠﺑﮭﺎ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ ﺗرﻗﯾﺔ اﻟﺑراﻣﺞ اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﯾﺔ "‪ "Software Upgrade‬وزﯾﺎدة ﻗدراﺗﮭﺎ اﻟﺑراﻣﺟﯾﺔ ﻟﻔك‬‫اﻟﻘﻧوات اﻟﻣﺷﻔرة‪.‬‬
‫ اﻹﺿﺎﻓﺎت اﻟﺗﻰ ﺗدﺧﻠﮭﺎ اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت اﻟﻣﺻﻧﻌﺔ ﻛل ﯾوم ﻋﻠﻰ أﺟﮭزة اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ﻟﺗزﯾد ﻣن إﻣﻛﺎﻧﯾﺎﺗﮭﺎ اﻟﺧدﻣﯾﺔ‪ ..‬وﺗزﯾد‬‫ﺷﻛﻠﮭﺎ ﺟﻣﺎﻻ ً ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺗﮭﻠك واﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﻌﺎدى‪ ..‬وﻛذا ﺗزﯾد ﻣن ﺗﻌﻘﯾد اﻟداﺋرة اﻟﺳﺣرﯾﺔ ﻟﻠرﯾﺳﯾﻔر "اﻟﻠوﺣﺔ اﻷم" أﻣﺎم اﻟﮭواة‬
‫واﻟﻣﺣﺗرﻓﯾن ﺣﺗﻰ ﺗﻧﻔرد ﺑﻣﯾزات اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ واﻟﺻﯾﺎﻧﺔ وﺗﺳوﯾق اﻟﺟدﯾد‪.‬‬
‫ إﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻌض اﻟﻣﻣﯾزات ﻷﺟﮭزة اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ﻣﺛل ﺗرﻛﯾب ﻗرص ﺻﻠب "‪ "Hard disk‬ﯾﺗﯾﺢ ﻟﻠﻔﯾدﯾو اﻟرﻗﻣﻰ اﻟﺗﺧزﯾن‬‫أو اﻟدﺧول ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﻧﺗرﻧت ﻋﺑر اﻷﻗﻣﺎر اﻟﺻﻧﺎﻋﯾﺔ ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة‪.‬‬
‫ﻛل ھذه اﻟﺧﺑﺎﯾﺎ واﻷﺳرار ﺳوف ﻧﻛﺷف ﻋﻧﮭﺎ ﻓﻰ "ﻋﺎﻟم دﯾﺟﺗﺎل" ﻣن أﺟل اﻟوﺻول ـ ﻣﻌًﺎ ـ إﻟﻰ اﻟطرق اﻟﺻﺣﯾﺣﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾل وﺻﯾﺎﻧﺔ اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر وﻏﯾره ﻣن اﻷﺟﮭزة اﻟرﻗﻣﯾﺔ‪ ،‬وﻟﻧﺑدأ ﺑﺈﻟﻘﺎء ﻧظرة ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟرﺳم اﻟﺗﺧطﯾطﻰ " ‪Block‬‬
‫‪ "diagram‬ﻟﻠرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ﻟﻧﺻل ﻣن ﺧﻼﻟﮫ إﻟﻰ اﻛﺗﺷﺎف أﺟزاء اﻟﺟﮭﺎز اﻟﺗﻰ ﺗﺗﺻل ﺑﺑﻌﺿﮭﺎ اﻟﺑﻌض ﻛﻣﺎ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻣﺧطط‬
‫وﻓﻲ اﻟﺑداﯾﺔ ﯾﺟب ﻋﻠﯾﻧﺎ أوﻻ أن أﻋطﯾﻛم ﻓﻛرة ﻣﺑﺳطﺔ ﺗوﺿﺢ دور ھذه اﻷﺟزاء وﺗرﻛﯾﺑﮭﺎ اﻟداﺧﻠﻰ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬وﺣدة ‪ Power supply‬اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﮫ ﻋن ﺗوﻓﯾر اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻌﻣل اﻟوﺣدات اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬داﺋرة اﻟواﺟﮭﺔ اﻷﻣﺎﻣﯾﺔ ووﺣدة اﻟﻌرض ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ‪ Front panel display‬واﻟﺗﻲ ﻣن ﺧﻼﻟﮭﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺳﺗطﯾﻊ ﻣﻌرﻓﺔ رﻗم اﻟﻘﻧﺎه اﻟﺣﺎﻟﯾﮫ أو اﻟﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ‪ Standby‬واﺣﯾﺎﻧﺎ ﯾﻛﺗب ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ ﻛﻠﻣﺎت ﻣﺛل ﻛﻠﻣﺔ ‪ boot‬ﻋﻧد‬
‫ﺑدأ اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾل ‪ .‬وﯾوﺟد ﺑﮭﺎ اﯾﺿﺎ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ ﻟﻠﻘﻧوات واﻟﺻوت واﻟﺑﺎور ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬وﺣد اﻟذاﻛرة اﻟداﺋﻣﺔ ‪ Flash memory‬اﻟﻣﺧﺻﺻﺔ ﻟﺗﺧزﯾن اﻟﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﻲ ﻟﻠرﯾﺳﯾﻔر وھﻲ ﻣﺟﺎل أﺳﺋﻠﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن اﻟﻣﺑﺗدﺋﯾن ﻷﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﺳﺑب ﻟﮭم اﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن اﻟﻣﺷﺎﻛل ﻋﻧد اﻟﺗﺣدﯾث‪ ..‬وﻟﮭذا اﻟﺳﺑب ﻓﮭم داﺋﻣًﺎ ﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﻠﮭﻔون ﻋﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻌرﻓﺗﮭﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬وﺣدة اﻟذاﻛرة اﻟﻣؤﻗﺗﺔ ‪ SRAM‬أو ‪ DRAM‬واﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﺗم ﻧﻘل اﻟﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﻲ اﻟﯾﮭﺎ ﺑواﺳطﺔ اﻟﺑوت ﻟودر " ﺟزء‬
‫ﻣن اﻟﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﻲ اﻟﻣوﺟود ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯾﻣوري" ﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذه ﻣن ﻗﺑل اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬وﺣدة اﻟـ ‪ Tuner‬اﻟﻣﺳﺋوﻟﺔ ﻋن ﺗﺣﻠﯾل اﻹﺷﺎرة اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑﻠﺔ ﻣن وﺣدة ‪ LNB‬ﻋﻠﻲ طﺑق اﻻﺳﺗﻘﺑﺎل وﺑدورھﺎ ﺗﻘوم ﺑﻧﻘل‬
‫اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻲ اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٦‬وﺣدة اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺔ اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ ‪ Processor‬وھﻰ ﺑﻣﺛﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﻌﻘل اﻟﻣدﺑر واﻟﻣﻧظم ﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﻘطﻊ اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ داﺧل اﻟداﺋرة‬
‫اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ وھﻰ ﺗﺻﻧﻊ ﻓﻰ ﻋدة ﺷرﻛﺎت‪ ..‬وﻣن ﻣودﯾﻼﺗﮭﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪!.…S 5512 – S 5518 – S 5510 – SC2000 – IBM set top box – LSI‬‬
‫· ﺗﻌﺗﺑر ھذه اﻟوﺣدة ﻣﺛل اﻟداﺋرة اﻟﻣﺟﻣﻌﺔ ))‪ Chipset‬ﻓﻰ أﺟﮭزة اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر اﻟﻌﺎدﯾﺔ‪ ..‬وھﻰ ﻟﯾﺳت ﻓﻘط ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﻣرﻛزى‬
‫ﻟﻛﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﺣﻣل ﺑداﺧﻠﮭﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟً ﺎ ﻣرﻛزﯾًﺎ ‪ Processor‬ﻣن ﻧوع‬
‫‪ST20‬‬
‫ﯾﻌﻣل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣذﺑذب‬
‫‪Crystal OSC‬‬
‫ﻣﻧﺧﻔض اﻟﺳرﻋﺔ ‪ ٢٧‬ﻣﯾﺟﺎھرﺗز‬
‫‪٣٢‬ﺑت وﺑﺳرﻋﺔ ‪ ٨١‬ﻣﯾﺟﺎھرﺗز‬
‫ﻛﻣﺎ ﺗﺣﺗوى ھذه ال ‪ chipset‬ﻋﻠﻰ دواﺋر ﻋدﯾدة اﺧري ﻣﺛل‪:‬‬
‫ ﻣﻧﻔذ اﻟﻛوم ‪RS232‬‬‫ ‪ mart Cards interface‬ﺗﻘوم ﺑﺎﺳﺗﻘﺑﺎل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت وﺗﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻰ ﻋﻣل اﻟﻛروت اﻟﺗﻰ ﺗﺗم ﻗراءﺗﮭﺎ ﺑواﺳطﺔ وﺣدة‬‫ﻗﺎرئ اﻟﺑطﺎﻗﺔ اﻟذﻛﯾﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ‪ Front End **** interface‬وھﻰ اﻟوﺣدة اﻟﻣﺳﺋوﻟﺔ ﻋن ﺗوﺻﯾل اﻟﻘرص اﻟﺻﻠب )اﻟﮭﺎرد دﯾﺳك( أو اﻟـ ‪DVD‬‬‫ﻣﺛل اﻟـ‪IDE‬اﻟﻣوﺟودة ﻓﻰ اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر‪ ..‬وھذا ﻣﺳﺗﺧدم ﻓﻰ اﻷﺟﮭزة اﻟﺗﻰ ﺗﺣﺗوى ﻋﻠﻰ ھﺎرد دﯾﺳك ‪.PVR‬‬
‫ ‪ Shared SDRAM interface‬وھذا اﻟﺟزء ﺧﺎص ﺑوﺣدة اﻟذاﻛرة اﻟﻣؤﻗﺗﺔ‪ ..‬وﯾﺳﻊ ﺣواﻟﻰ ‪ ٣٢‬ﻣﯾﺟﺎ ﺑﺎﯾت ﻣن‬‫اﻟذاﻛرة‪.‬‬
‫ ﻣﻧﻔذ اﻟﻔﯾدﯾو اﻟرﻗﻣﻰ واﻟﺗﻣﺎﺛﻠﻰ‪.‬‬‫ ﻣﻧﻔذ اﻟﺻوت‪.‬‬‫ ‪ TAG debugging interface‬ھذا اﻟﺟزء ﻻ ﯾرﻏب اﻟﻔﻧﯾون ﻓﻰ اﻟﺣدﯾث ﻋﻧﮫ‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬وﺣدة ‪ Mpeg decoder‬ﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺔ اﻟﺻوت واﻟﻔﯾدﯾو اﻟرﻗﻣﻰ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٧‬ﻗﺎرئ اﻟﺑطﺎﻗﺔ اﻟذﻛﯾﺔ أو اﻟﻛﺎﻣﺔ اﻟﻣدﻣﺟﺔ ووﺣدة اﻟﻛﺎﻣﺎت اﻟﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ واﻟﺗﻲ ﻋن طرﯾﻘﮭﺎ ﯾﻣﻛن ﺗﺷﻐﯾل اﻟﻛروت ﻟﻔك‬
‫اﻟﺷﻔرات‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٨‬اﻟﮭﺎردﯾﺳك اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧدم ﻟﺗﺳﺟﯾل اﻟﻔﯾدﯾو اﻟرﻗﻣﻲ ‪ Mpeg‬وھو ﯾﺷﺑﮫ اﻟﻣوﺟود ﻓﻲ أﺟﮭزة اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر وﻧظم ﺗﻌدﯾل‬
‫اﻻﺟﮭزة ﺣﺗﻲ ﯾﺻﻠﺢ اﺿﺎﻓﺔ ھﺎردﺳﯾك ﻟﮭﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٩‬اﻻﻧﺗرﻧت ﻋﺑر اﻟﺳﺎﺗﻼﯾت ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام اﺟﮭزة اﻻﺳﺗﻘﺑﺎل اﻟرﻗﻣﻲ ﻣﺛل اﻟﻧﯾوﺷن ﺑوﻛس وﻧوﻛﯾﺎ وﻏﯾرھﺎ ﻣن اﻻﺟﮭزة‪.‬‬
‫وﺣدة ﺗﻐذﯾﺔ اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ ‪Power supply‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺗﻣد اﻷﺟﮭزة اﻟﻛﮭرﺑﯾﺔ ﻋﻣوﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ھذا اﻟﺟزء وھو أﺷﺑﮫ ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺎء واﻟﻐذاء ﻟﮭﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺑدوﻧﮫ ﻻ ﺣﯾﺎة وﻻ روح ﻓﯾﮭﺎ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﺗﻧوع ﺗﻛوﯾن وﺣدة ﺗﻐذﯾﺔ اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﻛﮭرﺑﯾﺔ " ‪ " Power supply‬ﻣن ﺟﮭﺎز اﻟﻲ آﺧر ﻣن ﺣﯾث ﻗﯾﻣﺔ اﻟﺧرج‬
‫واﻟﺗﺻﻣﯾم وﻧظﺎم ﻋﻣﻠﮭﺎ أﯾﺿﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ اﻷﺟﮭزة اﻟﻘدﯾﻣﺔ ﻣﺛﻼ ﻛﺎن ﯾوﺟد وﺣدة اﻟﺑﺎور ﻣﻛوﻧﮫ ﻣن ﻣﺣول ﻛﮭرﺑﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﺎدي ذو اﻟﻘﻠب اﻟﺣدﯾدي اﻟﻣﻛون ﻣن‬
‫ﺷراﺋﺢ اﻟﺣدﯾدي اﻟﺳﻠﯾﻛوﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬واﻟﻣﺣول ﻗد ﯾﻛون ﻟﮫ اﻛﺛر ﻣن ﺧرج ﻟﻠﺟﮭد اﻟﻛﮭرﺑﻲ ﺣﺳب اﺣﺗﯾﺎج ﻟوﺣﺔ اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ‪،‬‬
‫وﯾﺗم ﺗﺣوﯾل اﻟﺗﯾﺎر اﻟﻣﺗردد " اﻟﺧﺎرج ﻣن اﻟﻣﺣول إﻟﻰ ﺗﯾﺎر ﻣﺳﺗﻣر ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة ﺑواﺳطﺔ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻣوﺣدات‬
‫"‪ " Diode Bridge‬واﻟﻘﻠﯾل ﻣن دواﺋر اﻟﺗﻧﻘﯾﺔ ﻛﺎن ھو اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧدم‪.‬‬
‫إﻻ أن ھذا اﻟﻧظﺎم ﻏﯾر ﻣﺳﺗﺧدم اﻵن إﻻ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﻠﯾل ﻣن اﻷﺟﮭزة اﻟﻛﮭرﺑﯾﺔ اﻟﺑﺳﯾطﺔ‪.‬‬
‫وﻋﯾوب ھذا اﻟﻧظﺎم ھﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻛﺑﯾر اﻟﺣﺟم ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﯾﻔﻘد اﻟﻛﺛﯾر ﻣن اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺳرﯾﻊ اﻟﺗﺄﺛر ﺑﺎﻟﺗﻐﯾر ﻓﻲ ﻗﯾﻣﺔ ﺟﮭد اﻟﺗﯾﺎر اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ " ‪ ٢٢٠‬ﻓوﻟت " وﯾﺗﺑﻌﮫ ﺗﻐﯾﯾر ﻓﻲ اﻟﺧرج ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬اﻟﺟﮭد اﻟﺧﺎرج " اﻟﺗﯾﺎر اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر" ﻏﯾر ﻧﻘﻲ وﯾﺣﺗوي ﻋﻠﻲ ﺷواﺋب‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﯾﻔﻘد اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ھﯾﺋﺔ ﺣرارة وﯾﺳﺑب ارﺗﻔﺎع ﻟدرﺟﺔ ﺣرارة اﻟﺟﮭﺎز‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٦‬ﻗﺻﯾر اﻟﻌﻣر‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﺻﻌب اﺳﺗﺧدام ھذا اﻟﻧوع ﻣﻊ أﺟﮭزة اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر " ﺣدﯾث اﻟﻣوﺿوع " ﺑﺳﺑب اﻻﺣﺗﯾﺎج إﻟﻰ اﻟﻘدرة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﯾﺔ ﻟﻛﺛرة‬
‫اﻟﻣﻛوﻧﺎت " ﺗﺻل أﻟﻲ ‪ ٣٠‬وات " ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟذا ﻛﺎن اﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾر ﻣﮭﻣﺎ واﻻﻋﺗﻣﺎد ﻋﻠﻲ ﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺎ ﻣﺗطورة ھو اﻟﺣل اﻷﻣﺛل ﻓﻲ ھذا اﻷﻣر‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺗم اﻻﻋﺗﻣﺎد ﺑﺻورة ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻧظﺎم وﺣدة اﻟﺑﺎور اﻟﻣوﺟودة ﻓﻲ اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ﺣﺎﻟﯾﺎ وھﻲ ﺗﺗﻛون ﻣن ﻋدة أﺟزاء ﺳوف‬
‫ﻧﻘوم ﺑﺷرﺣﮭﺎ ﻛﻠﮭﺎ وﺷرح ﻋدة ﻧﻣﺎزج ﻟﮭﺎ وطرق ﺗﺻﻣﯾﻣﮭﺎ وﺻﯾﺎﻧﺗﮭﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻣﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺷﻛل‬
‫وﯾﺳﻣﻲ ھذا اﻟﻧوع ﻣن وﺣدة اﻟﺑﺎور ﺑـ " ‪ " Switched mode power supply‬أو " ‪." SMPS‬‬
‫وﯾﻣﺗﺎز ھذا اﻟﻧظﺎم ﺑﺎﻟﻘدرة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﯾﺔ وﻋدم اﻟﺗﺄﺛر ﺑﺎﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾر ﻓﻲ ﺟﮭد اﻟدﺧل وﯾﻌﻣل ﻋﻠﻲ ﺟﮭد ﻣن ‪ ٩٠‬إﻟﻰ ‪ ٢٥٠‬ﻓوﻟت‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﻣﺗﺎز أﯾﺿﺎ ﺑﺗﺣﻣل ﺗﯾﺎر ﻛﺑﯾر ﯾﺻل إﻟﻰ ‪ ١٠‬أﻣﺑﯾر وﻗدرة ﻛﺑﯾرة ﺗﺻل إﻟﻰ ‪ ٥٠‬وات واﻟﺧرج ﻧﻘﻲ وﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﻣن‬
‫اﻟﺷواﺋب‪.‬‬
‫‪Switched Mode Power Supply‬‬
‫ﯾﺗﻛون ھذا اﻟﻧوع ﻣن ﻋدة أﻧظﻣﺔ ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧظﺎم اﻟﻌﻣل واﻟﺗﻛوﯾن وطرق ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺔ اﻟﺗﯾﺎر اﻟﺧﺎرج ﻣﻧﮭﺎ وﺳف ﻧﺷرح‬
‫ﻧوع واﺣد ﻣﻧﮭﺎ ﻓﻘط وھو ﯾﺳﻣﻲ " ‪ " Flayback‬وھو اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧدم ﻓﻲ اﻷﺟﮭزة اﻟﻛﮭرﺑﯾﺔ واﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﺳﺗﻌﻣل ﻣﻊ ھذا اﻟﻧظﺎم ﻣﺣول ﻣن ﻧوع ذو اﻟﻘﻠب اﻟﻛرﺑوﻧﻲ اﻟذي ﯾﺳﺗطﯾﻊ اﻟﻌﻣل ﺑﺗرددات ﻋﺎﻟﯾﺔ ﺗﺻل إﻟﻰ ‪ ١٥٠‬ك‬
‫ھرﺗز " ‪ " KHz ١٥٠‬دون ﻓﻘد اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ أو ﺗوﻟﯾد ﺣرارة ﻋﺎﻟﯾﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻣﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺷﻛل‬
‫وﯾوﺿﺢ اﻟﺷﻛل رﻗم )‪ (١‬ﺷﻛل اﻟﻣﺣول اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧدم " ‪ "Ferrite Core‬وﺧﺻﺎﺋﺻﮫ وﻣﻣﯾزاﺗﮫ‪.‬‬
‫وﻗد ﯾﺧﺗﻠف اﻟﻣﺣول ﻣن وﺣدة إﻟﻰ أﺧرى ﺣﺳب اﻟﺷرﻛﺔ اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺔ ﻟﮭذه اﻟﻣﺣوﻻت ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﺗم ﺣﺳﺎب اﻟﺟﮭد اﻟﺧﺎرج ﻣﻧﮭﺎ ﺣﺳب اﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﺑﯾن ﻋدد اﻟﻠﻔﺎت ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻠف اﻻﺑﺗداﺋﻲ " اﻟدﺧل " واﻟﻣﻠف اﻟﺛﺎﻧوي "‬
‫اﻟﺧرج " ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﻣﻛن أن ﯾﻛون ﻟﮭذا اﻟﻣﺣول اﻛﺛر ﻣن ﺧرج ﺣﺳب اﻟﺣﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﻰ ذﻟك‪.‬‬
‫وﻓﻲ أﺟﮭزة اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ﯾﻛون ﻟﮫ اﻛﺛر ﻣن ﺧرج وﻣﻧﮭﺎ ‪ ٣.٣‬ﻓوﻟت و ‪ ٥‬ﻓوﻟت و ‪ ١٢‬ﻓوﻟت و ‪ ٢٢‬ﻓوﻟت و‪ ٣٠‬ﻓوﻟت‪.‬‬
‫وﻟﻛل ﻗﯾﻣﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻘﯾم اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ اﺳﺗﺧدام ﻓﻲ دواﺋر اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر وﺳوف ﯾذﻛر ﻗﯾﻣﺔ ھذه اﻟﺟﮭود ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣراﺣل اﻟﺗﺎﻟﯾﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫أﻣﺎ اﻟﺷﻛل اﻟﻌﺎم ﻟداﺋر اﻟـ " ‪ " Power supply‬ﻓﮭو ﯾﺗﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﻛل رﻗم‬
‫)‪(٣‬‬
‫وھو ﻋﺑﺎرة ﻋن اﻟﻣﺣول اﻟﻣذﻛور ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ إﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧب اﻟﻣﻛوﻧﺎت اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﻣل ﻣﻌﮫ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾوﺿﺢ اﻟﺷﻛل )‪ (٣‬أﯾﺿﺎ أن اﻟﺟﮭد اﻟﻣﺗردد اﻟداﺧل إﻟﻰ وﺣدة اﻟﺑﺎور ﯾﺗم ﺗﺣوﯾﻠﮫ إﻟﻰ ﺗﯾﺎر ﻣﺳﺗﻣر ﻋن طرق‬
‫اﻟﻣوﺣدات وﺗﺛﺑﯾت ﻗﯾﻣﺗﮭﺎ ﺑواﺳطﺔ ﻣﻛﺛف اﻟﻛﺗروﻟﯾﺗﻲ ذو ‪ ٤٠٠‬ﻓوﻟت وﻋﺎدة ﻣﺎ ﯾﺻل إﻟﻰ ‪ ٨٢‬ﻣﺎﯾﻛرو ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾوﺻل اﻟطرف اﻟﻣوﺟب ﻣﻧﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﻠف اﻻﺑﺗداﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﺣول واﻟطرف اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ " اﻟﺳﺎﻟب " إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﻘطﻊ أو "‬
‫‪ " switching transistor‬وھو اﻟذي ﯾوﺻل اﻟطرف اﻟﺳﺎﻟب ﻣﻘطﻌﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﺣول ‪.‬‬
‫واﻟﺳﺑب ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘطﯾﻊ اﻟﺗﯾﺎر اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر ھو أن اﻟﻣﺣول ﻻ ﯾﻌﻣل ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﺗﯾﺎر اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر وإﻧﻣﺎ ﯾﻌﻣل ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﺗﯾﺎر اﻟﻣﺗردد "‬
‫اﻟﻣﺗﻘطﻊ" ﺣﺗﻰ ﯾﺣدث ﻧﻘل اﻟﺟﮭد إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﻠﻔﺎت اﻟﺛﺎﻧوﯾﺔ " ‪ " Power transferred‬وذﻟك ﺣﺳب اﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﺑﯾن ﻋدد‬
‫اﻟﻠﻔﺎت ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻠف اﻟﺛﺎﻧوي إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﻠف اﻻﺑﺗداﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫وﺗم ﺗﺣوﯾل اﻟدﺧل اﻟﻣﺗردد " ‪ " AC input‬إﻟﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻣر ﺣﺗﻰ ﯾﺳﮭل ﺗﻘطﯾﻌﮫ واﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﺑﮫ‪.‬‬
‫وﺑﺎﻟﺗﺄﻛﯾد ﻓﺄوﻟﻲ اﻷﻋطﺎل اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣدث ھﻲ ﺗﻠف اﻟﻣﻛﺛف اﻟﻛﺑﯾر اﻟﻣﺳؤول ﻋن ﺗﺛﺑﯾت اﻟﺗﯾﺎر اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر وذﻟك إذا ﺗﻌدت‬
‫ﻗﯾﻣﺔ اﻟدﺧل ﻋن ‪ ٤٠٠‬ﻓوﻟت " ﺣدث ﺗﻼﻣس ﺑﯾن ﺧط اﻷرﺿﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺧط اﻟﻛﮭرﺑﺎء ﻓﻲ اﻷﻋﻣدة اﻟﮭواﺋﯾﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺷوارع " ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﻛون ﺻﺎﺣب اﻟﺗﻠف اﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ ھو اﻟﻣﻘطﻊ " ‪ " Switching Transistor‬اﻟﻣﺳؤول ﻋن ﺗﺣوﯾل اﻟﺗﯾﺎر اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر إﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺗﯾﺎر ﻣﺗردد ﯾﻧﺎﺳب ﻋﻣل اﻟﻣﺣول‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﺗم اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ ﺧرج اﻟﻣﺣول وﺗﺛﺑﯾت ﻗﯾﻣﺗﮫ إذا ﺣدث أي ﺗﻐﯾر ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ اﻟﺣﻣل اﻟزاﺋد ﻓﻲ اﻟداﺋرة أو ﺗﻐﯾر ﻗﯾﻣﺔ اﻟدﺧل‬
‫ﻋن طرﯾق ﻗﯾﻣﺔ اﻟﺗردد اﻟﺧﺎرج ﻣن اﻟﻣﻘطﻊ أو ‪. Switcher‬‬
‫واﻟـ ‪ Transistor‬اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣن ﻧوع ‪ Mosfet‬اﻟﻣﻌزول ﻗﺎﻋدﺗﮫ ﺗﻣﺎﻣﺎ ﻋن أطراف اﻟـ ‪ Source‬واﻟـ ‪ Drain‬اﻟﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻣرر اﻟﺗﯾﺎر إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﺣول وﯾﺗم اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﺑﮫ ﻋن طرﯾق اﻟﺑواﺑﺔ " ‪ " Gate‬اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺻل ب وﺣد ﻗﯾﺎدة أﺧرى ‪Driver‬‬
‫وھﻲ اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﺔ ﻋن اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﺑﺎﻟداﺋرة‪.‬‬
‫وﻋﺎدة ﻣﺎ ﯾﺗم ﺗﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟـ ‪ Driver‬وال ‪ Mosfet‬ﻓﻲ داﺋرة واﺣدة ﻟﮭﺎ ﺛﻼث أو أرﺑﻌﺔ أطراف ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻣﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺷﻛل‬
‫وﯾﺿﺢ اﻟﺷﻛل )‪ (٤‬إﺣدى دواﺋر اﻟـ ‪ Driver‬اﻟﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ اﻻﺳﺗﺧدام واﻟـ ‪ Switch‬ھو ﻣن ﻧوع ‪ Mosfet‬اﻟﻣوﺿﺢ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟداﺋرة اﻟﺣﻣراء ﻓﻲ ﺷﻛل )‪. (٤‬‬
‫وﺑﺎﻟﺗﺄﻛﯾد ﻟن ﻧﺗﻌﻣق داﺧل ھذه اﻟداﺋرة ﻻن ﻣوﺿوﻋﮭﺎ ﻛﺑﯾر وﯾﺣﺗﺎج إﻟﻰ ﻋﺎم ﻛﺎﻣل ﻣن اﻟدراﺳﺔ وﻟﻛن ﯾﻛﻔﯾﻧﺎ ﻣﻧﮭﺎ‬
‫اﻟوظﯾﻔﺔ ﻓﻘط‪.‬‬
‫واﻟﻣﮭم ﺑﺎﻟطﺑﻊ أﯾﺿﺎ ھو ﻣﻌرﻓﺔ ﺷﻛل اﻟﺗﯾﺎر اﻟﺧﺎرج ﻣن ھذه اﻟداﺋرة ﻋن ﻧﻘطﺔ اﻟـ ‪ Drain‬اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺻل أﯾﺿﺎ إﻟﻰ طرف‬
‫اﻟﻣﺣول ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة أو ﻋن طرﯾق ﻣوﺣد أو ﻣﻠف وﺳوف ﻧﺷﺎھد ذﻟك ﻓﻲ ﺗﺻﻣﯾم وﺣدة ﺑﺎور ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﺗﺿﺢ ذﻟك ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﻛل )‪ (٥‬اﻟذي ﯾوﺿﺢ ﺷﻛل اﻟﺗﯾﺎر اﻟﻣﺎر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺣول إﻟﻰ اﻟـ ‪. Mosfet‬‬
‫وﻛﻣﺎ ﻧري أﯾﺿﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﻛل )‪ (٤‬ﺗوﺟد ﻧﻘطﺔ ﺗﺣﻛم أﺧرى " ‪ " Control Pin‬وھﻲ اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﺔ ﻋن ﻣﻌرﻓﺔ ﻗﯾﻣﮫ اﻟﺟﮭد‬
‫اﻟﺧﺎرج ﻣن اﻟﻣﺣول وﺗوﺻﯾﻠﮫ إﻟﻰ داﺋرة اﻟﻘﺎﺋد " ‪ " Driver‬ﺣﺗﻰ ﯾﺗم ﺗﺛﺑﯾت ﺟﮭد اﻟﺧرج إذا ﺣدث أي ﺗﻐﯾﯾر‪.‬‬
‫وﻋﺎدة ﻣﺎ ﯾﺗم اﻟرﺑط ﺑﯾن ﺟزﺋﺊ اﻟدﺧل واﻟﺧرج ﺑواﺳطﺔ ‪ " OptoCopler " " LV817‬وذﻟك ﻟﻠﺣﻣﺎﯾﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺟﮭود‬
‫اﻟﻣرﺗﻔﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫وھذه ھﻲ داﺋرة ﺑﺎور ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺣﺗﻲ ﻧﺗﻣﻛن ﻣن اﻟﺷرح ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣرﺑﻊ اﻷﺣﻣر ﯾوﺟد اﻟـ ‪ Mosfet‬واﻟﻣرﺑﻊ اﻷﺧﺿر ﺗوﺟد اﺑﺳط داﺋرة ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋد " ‪ " Driver‬واﻟداﺋرة اﻟﺣﻣراء‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻔل ﺗﺻف ﻟﻧﺎ اﻟـ ‪ Optocupler‬اﻟذي ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم ﻓﻲ اﻟرﺑط ﻛﻣﺎ ذﻛرﻧﺎ وﯾﻘوم ﺑدور اﻟﻌﺎزل أﯾﺿﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫أﻣﺎ اﻟداﺋرة اﻟزرﻗﺎء اﻟﺻﻐﯾرة ﻓﮭﻲ ﺗﺻف اﻟـ " ‪ " Zener‬اﻟﻣﺗﻐﯾر ‪. KA431‬‬
‫وﯾﺗم ﺗﺣوﯾل اﻟﺟﮭد اﻟﺧﺎرج ﺑواﺳطﺔ ﻣوﺣد واﺣد ﻓﻘط ﻣﻊ وﺟود ﻓﻠﺗر ﻣﻛون ﻣن ﻣﻛﺛف وﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﻟﻣﻧﻊ اﻟﺷواﺋب ﻣن‬
‫اﻟﻣرور‪.‬‬
‫أﺣﯾﺎﻧﺎ ﻣﺎ ﯾﺣدث ﺑﻌض اﻟﻌﯾوب ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟداﺋرة وﻣﻧﮭﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬اﻟﺧرج ﻣﺗﻘطﻊ " ﺑﻣﻌدل ﻣرﺗﯾن ﻓﻲ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ " ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬اﻟداﺋرة ﺗﻌﻣل وﻋﻧد اﻟﺗﺣﻣﯾل ﯾﺑدأ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﻘطﯾﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻻ ﯾوﺟد ﺧرج ﻧﮭﺎﺋﯾﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬اﻟداﺋرة ﺗﻌﻣل وﻟﻛن ﯾوﺟد اﺧﺗﻼف ﻓﻲ ﻗﯾم اﻟﺧرج ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ أو اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﯾﻛون اﻟﻌﯾب اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻛﺛﻔﺎت ﺗﺛﺑﯾت اﻟﺟﮭد اﻟﺧﺎرج ﻧﺎﺣﯾﺔ اﻟﺧرج وﯾﺟب اﺳﺗﺑداﻟﮭﺎ‬‫ﺑﺄﺧرى ﺳﻠﯾﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ أﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺛﺎﻟﺛﺔ ﯾﻛون اﻟﻌطل ﻧﺎﺣﯾﺔ اﻟدﺧل واﻟﻣﺳﺋول اﻷول ھو وﺣدة اﻟـ ‪ Driver‬و ‪ Mosfet‬وﯾﺟب‬‫اﺳﺗﺑداﻟﮫ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺛﺎﻟﺛﺔ أﺣﯾﺎﻧﺎ ﯾﻛون اﻟﺳﺑب ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠف اﻟﻣﻛﺛف اﻟﻛﺑﯾر ﻧﺎﺣﯾﺔ اﻟدﺧل ذو اﻟـ ‪ ٤٠٠‬ﻓوﻟت ‪ ٨٢‬ﻣﺎﯾﻛرو وﯾﺟب‬‫اﺳﺗﺑداﻟﮫ ‪ ،‬أو ﯾﻛون اﻟﺳﺑب ﻓﻲ ﺟزء اﻟـ ‪ Control‬وھو ﺗﻠف اﻟـ ‪ Zener KA431‬وﯾﺟب اﺳﺗﺑداﻟﮫ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻟﻌرض واﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ " اﻟواﺟﮭﺔ اﻷﻣﺎﻣﯾﺔ "‬
‫ﺗﻧﺎوﻟﻧﺎ أﺣﺑﺎﺋﻲ اﻟﻛرام ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺣﺎﺿرة اﻷوﻟﻰ اﻟﺟزء اﻷول ﻣن اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر وھﻲ داﺋرة اﻟﺑﺎور واﻵن ﻧﺗﻧﺎول ﺳوﯾﺎ اﻟﺟزء‬
‫اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ وھو " داﺋرة اﻟواﺟﮭﺔ اﻷﻣﺎﻣﯾﺔ "‬
‫ﺗﻛﻣن أھﻣﯾﺔ ھذا اﻟﺟزء ﻓﻲ إﺿﻔﺎء روح اﻟوﺟود ﻟﻠرﯾﺳﯾﻔر وﺑﯾﺎن ﺣﺎﻟﺗﮫ ﻣن رﻗم اﻟﻘﻧﺎة اﻟﺣﺎﻟﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻟﻌرض‬
‫وﺑﯾﺎن ﻟﻣﺑﺔ " ‪ " LED‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺷﺎرة إن وﺟدت وأﺧري ﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر " ‪ " Standby mode‬إن وﺟدت أﯾﺿﺎ‬
‫وأﺧري ﺗﺑﯾن وﺟود ﻛﺎرد أو ﻻ إن وﺟدت أﯾﺿﺎ وﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ ﻟﻠﺗﺣﻛم ﻣﻧﮭﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻧوات واﻟﺻوت و ‪ ....‬وﻛﻠﻧﺎ ﻧري ھذا‬
‫ﺑوﺿوح ﻛﻣﺎ ﻧﻌﻠم ﺟﻣﯾﻌﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫أوﻻ ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﺷف إﺷﺎرة اﻟرﯾﻣوت "‪-: " IR remote detector‬ھذا اﻟﺟزء ﯾﻘوم ﺑﺎﻟﺗﻘﺎط إﺷﺎرة اﻟرﯾﻣوت وﺗﻘوﯾﺗﮭﺎ ﺛم‬
‫إرﺳﺎﻟﮭﺎ ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة إﻟﻰ اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور‪.‬‬
‫وﻏﺎﻟﺑﺎ ﻻ ﯾﺣدث أي أﻋطﺎل ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟﻘطﻌﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ھذه اﻟوﺣدة ﻋﺑﺎرة ﻋن ﺗراﻧزﯾﺳﺗور ذو ﻗﺎﻋدة "‪ " Base‬ﺗﺗﺄﺛر ﺑﺎﻷﺷﻌﺔ ﺗﺣت اﻟﺣﻣراء ذات اﻟطول اﻟﻣوﺟﻲ ﻣن ‪٢٠‬‬
‫إﻟﻰ ‪ ٥٠‬ك‪.‬ھﯾرﺗز وﯾﺗم ﺗﻛﺑﯾرھﺎ ﺑواﺳطﺔ ﺗراﻧزﯾﺳﺗور آﺧر ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔس اﻟوﺣدة ﺗرﺳم ﺑﺎﻟﺿﺑط اﻹﺷﺎرة اﻟﻣطﻠوﺑﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ھذه اﻹﺷﺎرات اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﺗم اﻟﺗﻘﺎطﮭﺎ ھﻲ ﻋﺑﺎرة ﻋن ﺗرﺟﻣﺔ ﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ اﻟرﯾﻣوت ﻛﻧﺗرول ﺗﺻل إﻟﻰ اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور وﯾﺗم‬
‫ﺗﺣﻠﯾﻠﮭﺎ ﻟﻣﻌرﻓﺔ وظﯾﻔﺔ اﻟﻣﻔﺗﺎح اﻟذي ﺗم ﺿﻐطﮫ وﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻷﻣر ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة ﺑواﺳطﺔ اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺎ ‪ :‬ﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻟﻌرض واﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ ‪-:‬‬
‫ﯾﻧﻘﺳم اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻟﻌرض واﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ ﻓﻲ داﺋرة اﻟواﺟﮭﺔ اﻷﻣﺎﻣﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻧوﻋﯾن ھﻣﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫اﻟﻧوع اﻷول ‪ :‬اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻋن طرﯾق ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﻣﺎﯾﻛرو ﺧﺎص ﺑداﺋرة اﻟواﺟﮭﺔ اﻷﻣﺎﻣﯾﺔ "‪. " Front panel‬‬
‫اﻟﻧوع اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ ‪ :‬اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻋن طرﯾق ﺑروﺳﯾﺳور اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ﻧﻔﺳﮫ ﻣﻊ وﺟود ﺑﻌض اﻷﯾﺳﯾﮭﺎت اﻷﺧرى‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﻧوع اﻷول ﻣن اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻣوﺟود ﻓﻲ رﯾﺳﻔرات أﻣﺛﺎل ‪ :‬اﻟﮭﯾوﻣﺎﻛس ‪ OAK Model‬واﻟﻧوﻛﯾﺎ واﻟﮭﯾوﻣﺎﻧس وﻏﯾرھﺎ‬
‫وﯾوﺟد ﺑﮭﺎ ‪ Micro Controller‬ﻣﺛل ‪ Pic‬أو ﻏﯾرھﺎ اﻟﺗوﻟﻲ اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ ﻋﻣل داﺋرة اﻟواﺟﮭﺔ اﻷﻣﺎﻣﯾﺔ‪.‬‬
‫واﻟﻧوع اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﯾﻌﺗﻣد ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور وﻣﻧﮭﺎ أﺟﮭزة اﻷﺳﺗرا وﺳﺗﺎرﺳﺎت وﺗروﻣﺎن وﻏﯾرھﺎ‪.‬‬
‫وﺳوف ﻧﺑدأ ﺑﺎﻟﻧوع اﻷول ﻻﻧﮫ ﯾﻌﺗﺑر ﻣﺳﺗﻘل ﻧﺳﺑﯾﺎ ﻋن اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻋن طرﯾق ‪Micro Controller‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﻠم ﺟﻣﯾﻌﺎ أن داﺋرة اﻟواﺟﮭﺔ اﻷﻣﺎﻣﯾﺔ ﺗﺣﺗوي ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ وﺑﻌض ﻟﻣﺑﺎت اﻟﺑﯾﺎن ﻣن ﻧوع ‪ Led‬وأﯾﺿﺎ ﺗﺣﺗوي ﻋﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺗﻌرض أرﺑﻌﺔ أرﻗﺎم ھﻲ ﻣن ﻧوع " ‪" Segment display ٧‬‬
‫ ﺗﺗﻛون ﻛل وﺣدة ‪ Segment٧‬اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌرض اﻟرﻗم ﻣن ﺳﺑﻌﺔ ﺷراﺋﺢ" ‪ " Segments‬ﻛل ‪ segment‬ﻋﺑﺎرة ﻋن‬‫داﯾود ﻣﺷﻊ ﻟﻠﺿوء ‪ Led‬ﻣرﺗﺑﮫ ﺑﺣﯾث ﺗﺷﻛل اﻟرﻗم ‪ ٨‬ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺟﻠﯾزﯾﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ وﻧﻌطﻲ ﻛل ﺷرﯾﺣﺔ ﺣرف ﺑﺎﻟﺗرﺗﯾب ﻛﻣﺎ ھو واﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﻛل )‪ (٤‬ﺣﺗﻰ ﯾﺳﮭل اﻟﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﯾﮫ وﺗﻣﯾﯾزه ﻣن ﻗﺑل‬‫اﻟﻣﺎﯾﻛرو اﻟذي ﯾﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﯾﮭﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ ﯾوﺟد ﻟﻛل ﺷرﯾﺣﺔ طرﻓﺎن ﻣوﺟب وﺳﺎﻟب وﯾﺗم رﺑط اﻟطرف اﻟﻣوﺟب ﻟﻛل اﻟﺷراﺋﺢ ﻓﻲ طرف واﺣد وﯾﺧرج ﺳﺑﻌﺔ‬‫أطراف ﺳﺎﻟﺑﺔ ﻟﻠوﺣدة ﺑﺄﻛﻣﻠﮭﺎ وﺗﺳﻣﻲ ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ " ‪ " Common Anode‬أﻣﺎ إذا ﻛﺎن اﻟﻌﻛس ﻓﺗﺳﻣﻲ "‬
‫‪. " Common cathode‬‬
‫ أي اﻧﮫ ﯾﺧرج ﻣن ﻛل وﺣدة ﻋرض رﻗم واﺣد ﺗﺳﻌﺔ أطراف ﻋﺑﺎرة ﻋن طرف ﻣوﺟب ﻣﺷﺗرك و‪ ٨‬أطراف ﺳﺎﻟﺑﺔ‬‫ﺳﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﺷراﺋﺢ اﻟرﻗم وواﺣدة ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﻌﺷرﯾﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ داﺋرة اﻟواﺟﮭﺔ اﻷﻣﺎﻣﯾﺔ ﯾوﺟد وﺣدة أرﻗﺎم ﻣﻛوﻧﮫ ﻣن أرﺑﻌﺔ أرﻗﺎم‬
‫ﻛﻣﺎ ﻧري ﺑﺎﻟﺷﻛل )‪ (٥‬أن ﻋدد اﻷطراف ھو ‪ ١٢‬ﯾﻣﺛل أرﺑﻌﺔ أطراف ﻣﻧﮭﺎ اﻟﺧطوط اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ ﻟﻛل وﺣدة رﻗم‬
‫واﻷﺧرى ﻛﻣﺎ ھو ﻣﺑﯾن ﯾﻣﺛل اﻟﺷراﺋﺢ وﻛل اﻟﺷراﺋﺢ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣﻣل ﻧﻔس اﻟﺣرف ﻣرﺑوطﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺿﮭﺎ " ‪ "SA‬ھﻲ ﻋﺑﺎرة‬
‫ﻋن اﻟﺷرﯾﺣﺔ ‪ A‬ﻓﻲ اﻷرﺑﻌﺔ أرﻗﺎم ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻓﻣﺛﻼ إذا أردﻧﺎ ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ رﻗم ﻣﻌﯾن ﻣﺛل اﻟرﻗم ‪ ٣‬ﻣﺛﻼ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ اﻵﺣﺎد ﯾﺗم أوﻻ ﺗوﺻﯾل اﻟطرف ‪ LED3‬ﺑﺎﻟﻣوﺟب‬‫واﻷطراف ‪ a,b,c,d,g‬ﺑﺎﻟﺳﺎﻟب ﻓﯾﺗم ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ اﻟرﻗم ‪. ٣‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ إذا ﺗرﻛﻧﺎ اﻷطراف اﻷﺧرى ‪ LED0-LED1-LED2‬ﻏﯾر ﻣوﺻﻠﺔ ﻓﻠن ﺗﺿﻲء وﻟن ﺗﻛﺗب أي أرﻗﺎم ‪.‬‬
‫ إذا ﺗم ﺗوﺻﯾل اﻷطراف اﻟﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻣوﺟب أﯾﺿﺎ ﻓوف ﺗﻛﺗب ﻧﻔس اﻟرﻗم ﻷﻧﮭﺎ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﺷراﺋﺢ ﺑﮭﺎ ﻣوﺻﻠﮭﺎ ﺑﻣﺛﯾﻼﺗﮭﺎ‬‫‪.‬‬
‫إذا ‪ :‬ﻛﯾف ﯾﺗم ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ اﻷرﺑﻌﺔ أرﻗﺎم ﺑﺻورة ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ؟‬
‫ھذا ﻣﺎ ﺳوف ﻧﺟﯾب ﻋﻠﯾﮫ اﻵن ‪.‬‬
‫‪Mul plexing 7Segment display‬‬
‫· ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ ﯾﺗم ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ اﻟرﻗم اﻟﻣطﻠوب " ﻣﺛﻼ ‪ " ٢٠٠٥‬ﺑﮭذه اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﯾﺗم ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ اﻟرﻗم ‪ ٥‬ﻓﻲ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ اﻵﺣﺎد أوﻻ ﺑﻧﻔس اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ واﻟﺧﺎﻧﺎت اﻷﺧرى ﻣطﻔﺄة ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺑﻌد ذﻟك ﯾﺗم ﻓﺻل اﻵﺣﺎد ‪ LED3=0Volt‬ﺛم ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ اﻟرﻗم ‪ ٠‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻌﺷرات واﻟﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻣطﻔﺄ“ ‪Led0,‬‬
‫‪. " led1,led3 = 0 volt‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﯾﺗم ﻓﺻل ﺧﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻌﺷرات ﺛم ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ اﻟرﻗم ‪ ٠‬ﻋﻠﻲ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻣﺋﺎت ﻣﺛﻠﻣﺎ ﺳﺑق‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﯾﺗم ﻓﺻل ﺧﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻣﺋﺎت ﺛم ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ اﻟرﻗم ‪ ٢‬ﻓﻲ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ اﻵﻻف ﻛﻣﺎ ﺳﺑق أﯾﺿﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫وﻧﻼﺣظ اﻵﺗﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ ﯾﺗم ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ رﻗم واﺣد ﻓﻘط ﻣن اﻷرﻗﺎم اﻷرﺑﻌﺔ اﻟﻣطﻠوب ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺗﮭﺎ ‪.‬‬‫ أي ‪ ٥‬ﺛم ‪ ٠‬ﺛم ‪ ٠‬ﺛم ‪ ٢‬وﻟﻛن ﺗﻛﺗب اﻷرﻗﺎم ﺑﺎﻟﺗﺗﺎﻟﻲ وﻟﻛن ﺑﺳرﻋﺔ ﻛﺑﯾرة ﻻ ﺗﻼﺣظﮭﺎ اﻟﻌﯾن اﻟﻣﺟردة واﻟﺳرﻋﺔ ﺗﺻل‬‫إﻟﻰ ‪ ٥٠‬ﻣرة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﻟﻠرﻗم اﻟواﺣد أي ﺑﻣﻌدل ‪ ٢٠٠‬ﻣرة ﻟﻸرﻗﺎم اﻷرﺑﻌﺔ " ‪ "Hz٢٠٠‬وھذا ﯾﺷﺑﮫ إﺿﺎءة اﻟﻣﺻﺑﺎح‬
‫اﻟﻛﮭرﺑﺎﺋﻲ اﻟﻌﺎدي ﻻﻧﮫ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻘﯾﻘﺔ اﻻﻣر ﯾطﻔﺊ وﯾﺿﻲء ‪ ٥٠‬ﻣر ﻓﻲ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ اﻟواﺣدة ﺑﺳﺑب اﻟﺟﮭد اﻟﻣﺗردد اﻟﻌﺎدي ﻟﻛن‬
‫ﻻ ﻧﻼﺣظ ذﻟك ﺑﺎﻟﻌﯾن اﻟﻣﺟردة ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟذﻟك ﯾﺗطﻠب اﻷﻣر ﻣﺎ ﯾﺳﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ اﻟرﻗﻣﻲ ‪ Micro Controller‬ﻟﯾﻘوم ﺑﮭذه اﻟﻣﮭﻣﺔ ﺑواﺳطﺔ ﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﯾﺗم ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺗﮫ‬
‫وﺗﺣﻣﯾﻠﮫ ﻋﻠﻲ ھذا اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﻟﯾﻘوم ﺑدور اﻟﻌرض ﺑﮭذه اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻟﻧﺳﮭل اﻷﻣر ﻋﻠﯾﻧﺎ ﺟﻣﯾﻌﺎ ﺳوف ﻧﻌﺗﺑر اﻷﻣﺛﻠﺔ ﺗﺟرﺑﺔ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﮫ وﻧﻘوم ﺑﺷرﺣﮭﺎ ‪:‬‬‫ ﻟدﯾﻧﺎ اﻵن ‪ Led Module‬ﻛﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺻورة ﻣن ﻧوع ‪ " common Cathode‬اﻟﺧط اﻟﻣﺷﺗرك ھو اﻟﺳﺎﻟب " ﺗم‬‫ﺗوﺻﯾل اﻷطراف اﻟﻣوﺟﺑﺔ " اﻟﺷراﺋﺢ ﻣن ‪ A‬اﻟﻲ ‪ " G‬ﺑﺎﻟﺑورت ‪ B‬ﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﯾﻛرو ﻛﻧﺗروﻟر وھو اﻟﻣﺳؤول ﻋن ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫اﻟرﻗم اﻟﻣطﻠوب ‪.‬‬
‫ أﻣﺎ اﻷطراف اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ ﻓﺗم ﺗوﺻﯾﻠﮭﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺑورت ‪ A‬ﻟﻌﻣل ‪ Scanning‬ﻟﮭﺎ " أي ﻋﻣل ﻣﺳﺢ ﻟﮭﺎ‬‫‪ -‬اﻟﻣﻘﺻود ﺑﻛﻠﻣﺔ " ﻣﺳﺢ " ھو ﺗﺷﻐﯾل رﻗم واﺣد ﻓﻘط ﺛم اﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ وھﻛذا ﺑﺳرﻋﺔ ‪ ٢٠٠‬ﻣرة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﻟﻸرﻗﺎم اﻷرﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟطﺑﻊ ﯾﻣﻛن ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﻣﺛل ھذه اﻟدواﺋر ﺑﺻورة ﺻﺣﯾﺣﺔ وﺳوف ارﻓق اﻟدواﺋر واﻟﻣﻠﻔﺎت ﺑﻌد اﻟﻣﺣﺎﺿرة ‪.‬‬
‫إﻻ أن اﻟﻣﮭم ھو ﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ ﻋﻣل ھذه اﻟداﺋرة ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﻣﻛن أﯾﺿﺎ ﻟﮭذا اﻟﻣﺎﯾﻛرو ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﻣﮭﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ اﻟﻣوﺟودة ﺑداﺋرة اﻟواﺟﮭﺔ اﻷﻣﺎﻣﯾﺔ ‪ Front panel‬ﻣﻊ اﻟﻘﯾﺎم ﺑﻌﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻌرض ﻋﻠﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻷرﻗﺎم واﻟﯾﻛم اﻟﻣﺛﺎل ﻋﻠﻲ ذﻟك ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗم وﺿﻊ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ ﻣﻊ اﻷرﻗﺎم وﯾﺗم أﯾﺿﺎ ﻋﻣل ﻣﺳﺢ ﻟﮭﺎ ﺑﻣﻌدل ‪ ٥٠‬ﻣرة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻠﺣظﺔ اﻻﻧﺗﻘﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬
‫ﺑﯾن اﻷرﻗﺎم ‪.‬‬
‫إذا ﻧظرﻧﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺷﻛل اﻟﺳﺎﺑق ﻧﺟد اﻧﮫ ﯾﺗم ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺳﺢ ‪ Scanning‬ﻟﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻷرﻗﺎم واﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ ﻣﻌﺎ ﺑﮭذه اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﯾﺗم ﻋﻣل ‪ scan‬ﻟﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻷرﻗﺎم وﯾﻛون اﻟﺑورت ‪ A,B‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺧرج ‪ output‬وﯾﺗم ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ اﻷرﻗﺎم ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻓﻲ ﻟﺣظﮫ اﻧطﻔﺎء اﻟﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﯾﺗم ﻓﺻل اﻟﺑورت ‪ A‬ﻧﮭﺎﺋﯾﺎ وﯾﻧﻘﺳم اﻟﺑورت ‪ B‬إﻟﻰ ﻧﺻﻔﯾن اﻷول ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺧرج‬
‫‪ Output‬واﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟدﺧل ‪. Input‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻛﻣﺎ ﻧﻼﺣظ أن اﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ ﻋﻠﻲ ھﯾﺋﺔ ﻣﺻﻔوﻓﺔ ‪ ٤×٤‬ﺗﻌطﻲ ‪ ١٦‬ﻣﻔﺗﺎح وﯾﺗم اﻟﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﻣﻔﺗﺎح اﻟﻣﺿﻐوط ھﻛذا ‪:‬‬
‫ ﯾوﺿﻊ اﻟطرف ‪ RB4‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺧرج وﯾﻛون اﻟﺧرج ‪ Logic 1‬أي ‪ Vcc‬أو ‪ ٥‬ﻓوﻟت ﻣﺛﻼ وﺑﺎﻗﻲ اﻷطراف‬‫‪. RB5,RB6,RB7 = 0‬‬
‫ ﻛﻣﺎ ذﻛرﻧﺎ ﯾوﺿﻊ اﻟﻧﺻف اﻵﺧر ﻣن اﻟﺑورت ‪ B‬وھو ‪ RB0,RB1,RB2,RB3‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟدﺧل ‪ INPUT‬وﯾﻛون ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻧﺗظﺎر اﻟﺿﻐط ﻋﻠﻲ أي ﻣﻔﺗﺎح‪.‬‬
‫ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ‪ RB4=1‬ﯾﺗم وﺿﻊ اﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ ‪٠‬و‪١‬و‪٢‬و‪ ٣‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﺳﺗﻌداد ﻓﺈذا ﺗم اﻟﺿﻐط ﻋﻠﻲ ‪ ٢‬ﻣﺛﻼ ﯾﻛون‬‫اﻟطرﻓﺎن)‪ ( RB1,RB4=1‬واﻟﺑﺎﻗﻲ ‪ RB0,RB2,RB3,RB5,RB6,RB7=0‬ﻓﯾﺗم اﻟﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﻣﻔﺗﺎح اﻟذي ﺗم‬
‫ﺿﻐطﮫ ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺛم ﯾﻧﺗﻘل اﻟﻣﺳﺢ ﺑوﺿﻊ ‪ RB4=0‬واﻻﻧﺗﻘﺎل إﻟﻰ ‪ RB5=1‬وﯾﻛون اﻟﺻف اﻵﺧر ﻣن اﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻻﺳﺗﻌداد‬‫وھﻛذا ‪.‬‬
‫وھذا ﻣﺎ ﯾﺗم ﺗﻧﻔﯾذه ﺑﺎﻟﺿﺑط ﻣن اﻟواﺟﮭﺔ اﻷﻣﺎﻣﯾﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺛﻧﺎء أن ﻋدد اﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ ﻻ ﯾزﯾد ﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ وﻟذﻟك ﺗﻛون‬
‫ﻋﻠﻲ ھﯾﺋﺔ ﻣﺻﻔوﻓﺔ ‪ ٤×٢‬ﻓﻘط ‪.‬‬
‫وﺑﺎﻟﺗﺄﻛﯾد ﯾﻣﻛن إﺿﺎﻓﺔ أﺷﯾﺎء أﺧرى ﻣﺛل ﺳﺎﻋﺔ رﻗﻣﯾﺔ ﻣﺳﺗﻘﻠﺔ ﻋن اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ﯾﺗم ﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﮭﺎ أﺛﻧﺎء وﺿﻊ ‪Standby‬‬
‫ﻟﻠرﯾﺳﯾﻔر واﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن اﻟﻣﮭﺎم أﯾﺿﺎ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﻣﺗﺎز ھذا اﻟﻧوع ﻣن اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺗﻘﻼﻟﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻣﻠﮫ وﺗوﻓﯾر أطراف اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور ﻟﻣﮭﺎم أﺧرى واﻟﻘﯾﺎم ﺑﺎﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن‬
‫اﻟﻣﮭﺎم‪.‬‬
‫أﯾﺿﺎ ﺗﻣﺗﺎز ھذه اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ ﺑﻌدم اﻧﺷﻐﺎل اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور ﺑﻌرض اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻋﻠﻲ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻟﻌرض ﺑﺻﻔﺔ ﻣﺳﺗﻣرة وﻟﻛن ﯾﻘوم‬
‫ﻓﻘط ﺑﺈﻋطﺎء أواﻣر ﻟﻠﻣﺎﯾﻛرو اﻟﻣوﺟود ﻓﻲ اﻟﺑﺎﻧل ﻟﺗوﻟﻲ ﻣﮭﻣﺔ ﻋرض اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻣﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﯾﺢ اﻟﻔرﺻﺔ واﻟوﻗت اﻷﻛﺑر‬
‫ﻟﻠﺑروﺳﯾﺳور ﻟﻌﻣل ﻣﮭﺎم اﻛﺑر ﺑﻛﺛﯾر ﻣن دور اﻟﻌرض أو اﻟﻛﺷف ﻋن ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ ﻓﻲ اﻟواﺟﮭﺔ اﻷﻣﺎﻣﯾﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫وﻋﻧد اﻟﺿﻐط ﻋﻠﻲ أي ﻣﻔﺗﺎح " ﺗﻐﯾر ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ " ﯾﻘوم اﻟﻣﺎﯾﻛرو ﻛوﻧﺗروﻟر ﺑﺗﻧﺑﯾﮫ اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور ﻟﻠﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺟدﯾدة ﻓﻘط‬
‫ﻟﯾﻘوم ﺑﺗﻧﻔﯾذھﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﺗم اﻟرﺑط ﺑﯾن اﻟواﺟﮭﺔ اﻷﻣﺎﻣﯾﺔ واﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور ﻏﺎﻟﺑﺎ ﺑﻌدة أطراف ھﻲ ‪ (SDA (serial data‬و ‪SCL (serial‬‬
‫‪ (clock‬و ‪ Gnd‬و ‪ Vcc‬و ‪ IR‬وھذا ﻣﺎ ﯾﺳﺎﻋد ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾل ﻣن اﻷطراف ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻋن طرﯾق اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور‬
‫ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ ﯾﺗم اﻟﻌرض ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﺷﺎﺷﺔ وﻛﺷف ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ ﻣن اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة دون أي وﺳﯾط وﻛﺄﻧﮫ ﺗم‬
‫اﺳﺗﺑدال اﻟﻣﺎﯾﻛرو ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ ﺑﺟزء ﻣن اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور ‪. PORT Output‬‬
‫وھﻧﺎ ﯾﺗم ﻣﺣﺎوﻟﺔ ﺗﺧﻔﯾض ﻋدد اﻷطراف أﯾﺿﺎ ورﺑﻣﺎ وظﺎﺋف ﺑﻌدد اﻷطراف ﻟﺗﻌﻣل ﻋﻠﻲ ﻧظﺎم اﻷواﻣر ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌض‬
‫اﻷﺣﯾﺎن ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﺗم اﺳﺗﺧدام ﻣﺎ ﯾﺳﻣﻲ ‪ Shift Register‬ﻟﺗﺧزﯾن اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻷﺧﯾرة ﻟﻘﯾم اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻟﻠﻌرض وﺗﻌﻣل ﻋﻠﻲ ﻧظﺎم ﻧﻘل‬
‫اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﺗﺳﻠﺳﻠﻲ ‪.‬‬
‫· ﯾﺗم اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ اﻟﺑﺎﻧل ﺑﻌدة أطراف ﺗﺧرج ﻣن اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور وھﻲ ‪. Key0-Key1-SDA-SCL-A-B-C-D-IR :‬‬
‫· ﯾﺗم إرﺳﺎل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت إﻟﻰ اﻟـ‪ register‬ﺗﺳﻠﺳﻠﯾﺎ ﻋﺑر اﻟطرف ‪ SDA‬وﯾﺟب ﺗوﻓر اﻟﻧﺑﺿﺎت اﻟﺗﺳﻠﺳﻠﯾﺔ أﯾﺿﺎ ‪ SCL‬إﻟﻰ‬
‫اﯾﺳﻲ اﻟـ ‪ Register‬ﺣﺗﻰ ﯾﺳﺗطﯾﻊ ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﻣﮭﻣﺗﮫ ‪.‬‬
‫· وﯾﻘوم اﻟـ ‪ Register‬ﺑﺗﺣوﯾل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻣن اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟﺗﺳﻠﺳﻠﻲ ‪ Serial data‬اﻟﻲ اﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟﻣﺗوازي ‪Parallel data‬‬
‫ﻟﺗوﺻﯾﻠﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻟﻌرض ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة وھﻛذا ﺑواﺳطﺔ طرﻓﯾن ﻓﻘط ﺗم ﻧﻘل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫· ﺑواﺳطﺔ اﻷطراف ‪ A-B-C-D‬ﯾﺗم اﻟﻣﺳﺢ ﻋن ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻣﻔﺎﺗﯾﺢ وﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻟﻌرض‪.‬‬
‫· وﻋن طرﯾق اﻟطرﻓﯾن ‪ Key0-Key1‬ﯾﺗم ﻣﻌرﻓﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻣﻔﺗﺎح اﻟذي ﺗم اﻟﺿﻐط ﻋﻠﯾﮫ وﻧﻘﻠﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور ﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذ‬
‫اﻷﻣر اﻟﻣطﻠوب ‪.‬‬
‫" اﻟذاﻛرة " ﻛﻠﻣﺔ واﺣدة ‪ ،‬ﻟﻛﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﺣﻣل ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﺑﯾرة ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﯾﺳﺗطﯾﻊ اﻹﻧﺳﺎن اﻟﻌﯾش ﺑدوﻧﮭﺎ ‪ ،‬وإﻻ ذھب ﻣﻊ اﻟرﯾﺎح ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟم اﻟﻧﺳﯾﺎن ‪.‬‬
‫اﻣﺗﻸ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت واﻷﻓﻛﺎر ‪ ،‬ﻟﯾﺳﺟل ﻣﻧﮭﺎ اﻹﻧﺳﺎن ﻓﻲ ذاﻛرﺗﮫ ﻣﺎ ﯾﺣﺗﺎﺟﮫ ﻣﻧﮭﺎ ﻟﯾﻔﻛر وﯾﺑدع ‪ ،‬أو ﻟﯾﺗﻌﺎرف‬
‫وﯾﺗواﺟد ﺑﯾن ﻏﯾره ﻣن ﺑﻧﻲ اﻟﺑﺷر‪ ،‬وإذا ﻓﻘدھﺎ اﺻﺑﺢ ﻻ ﺷﺊ ﻣﺛﻠﮫ ﻣﺛل اﻟﺟﻣﺎد ﻻ ﯾﺛﻣر وﻻ ﯾﻐﻧﻲ ﻣن ﺟوع ‪.‬‬
‫اھﺗم ﺑﮭﺎ اﻟﻌﻠﻣﺎء واﻟﺧﺑراء ﻓﺻﻧﻌوا ﻣﻧﮭﺎ أروع ﻣﺎ أﻧﺗﺟﮫ اﻟﻌﻘل اﻟﺑﺷري ﻣن آﻻت إﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ دﻗﯾﻘﺔ أﺻﺑﺣﻧﺎ ﻻ ﻧﺳﺗطﯾﻊ‬
‫اﻟﺣﯾﺎة ﺑدوﻧﮭﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻧﮭﺎ أﺟﮭزة اﻟﻛوﻣﺑﯾوﺗر واﻟﻛﺎﻣﯾرا وأﺟﮭزة اﻟﻔﯾدﯾو واﻟﺻوت واﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر وﻏﯾرھﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺗﻧﺎول ﻣﻧﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻟم دﯾﺟﯾﺗﺎل ﻣوﺿوﻋﻧﺎ اﻵن ﺟﮭﺎز اﻻﺳﺗﻘﺑﺎل اﻟرﻗﻣﻲ " اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر " وﻧﺗﻌﻣق ﻓﯾﮭﺎ ﻟﻧﻌرف ﻣﻌﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻛوﯾﻧﮭﺎ وأﻧواﻋﮭﺎ وطرﯾﻘﺔ ﻋﻣﻠﮭﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻧﻘﺳم اﻟذاﻛرة اﻟﻣوﺟودة ﻓﻲ اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر اﻟرﻗﻣﻲ إﻟﻰ ﻧوﻋﯾن وھﻣﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ذاﻛرة ﻣؤﻗﺗﺔ ) ‪. ( Random Access Memory RAM‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ذاﻛرة داﺋﻣﺔ ‪. Flash Memory‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ذاﻛرة داﺋﻣﺔ ‪. EEProm‬‬
‫وﺗوﺿﺢ اﻟﺻورة ﺷﻛل)‪ (١‬أﻣﺎﻛن اﻟذاﻛرة ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﻠوﺣﺔ اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ ﻟﻠرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟذاﻛرة اﻟﻣؤﻗﺗﺔ ) ‪( RAM‬‬
‫اﻟذاﻛرة ‪ RAM‬ذاﻛرة ﻣؤﻗﺗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣﻊ وﺣدة اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ اﻟﻣرﻛزى )اﻟﺑر وﺳﯾﺳور( ﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻟﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﻲ ﺑﮭﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫وﺗﺧزﯾن اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻣؤﻗﺗﺎ ﻗﺑل ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺗﮭﺎ ﺑﺻﻔﮫ داﺋﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯾﻣوري ‪.‬‬
‫وھذا اﻟﻧوع ﻣن اﻟذاﻛرة ﻋﺑﺎرة ﻋن ﻣﻛﺛﻔﺎت ﻣﺗﻧﺎھﯾﺔ اﻟﺻﻐر ‪ ،‬وﯾﻣﺛل ﻛل ﻣﻛﺛف )ﺑﺎﯾت( واﺣد ﻣن ﺣﺟم اﻟذاﻛرة ‪،‬‬
‫وﺗﺗﻛون اﻟﻣﻛﺛﻔﺎت ﻣن ﻣﺻﻔوﻓﺔ ﺗﺷﻛل ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺿﮭﺎ اﻟﺣﺟم اﻟﻧﮭﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠذاﻛرة ‪.‬‬
‫إذا ﻛﺎن اﻟﻣﻛﺛف ﻣﺷﺣون ﻓﯾﻣﺛل اﻟرﻗم "‪ "١‬ﺑﻧظﺎم اﻟﻌد اﻟﺛﻧﺎﺋﻲ ‪ ،‬وإذا ﺗم ﺗﻔرﯾﻐﮫ " ﻻ ﯾوﺟد ﺑﮫ ﺷﺣﻧﮫ " ﻓﮭو ﯾﻣﺛل اﻟرﻗم‬
‫"‪ "٠‬وھذا ﯾﺗم ﺑﺳرﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﯾﺔ ﺗﺻل إﻟﻲ ‪ ١٦٠‬ﻣﯾﺟﺎھرﺗز ‪.‬‬
‫وﺗﺳﻣﻲ ﻣﺻﻔوﻓﺔ اﻟﻣﻛﺛﻔﺎت ﺑﺎﻟﺧﻠﯾﺔ " ‪ " memory cell array‬واﻟﺧﻼﯾﺎ ﺗﻛون وﺣدة اﻟﺗﺧزﯾن واﻟﺗﻰ ﺗﺷﺑﺔ‬
‫)اﻟﺑﻧك ( ‪ ،‬وﯾﺗم ﺗﺷﻛﯾل اﻟﺑﺎﻧﻛﺎت ﻋﻠﻲ ھﯾﺋﺔ ﻣﺻﻔوﻓﺔ اﻛﺑر ‪ ،‬وھﻛذا ‪.....‬‬
‫وﯾﻠزم ﻟﻛل ﺑﻧك وﺣدة )دﯾﻛودر( ﯾﻘوم ﺑﺗﻧظﯾم اﻟوﺻول إﻟﻲ اﻟﺧﻼﯾﺎ وﺗﻧﺷﯾطﮭﺎ ﻛﻠﻣﺎ ﻟزم اﻷﻣر ‪.‬‬
‫واﻟذاﻛرة ﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﻣﻌﻘدة ﻧوع ﻣﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻣﻛﺛﻔﺎت ﺑﻌد وﻗت ﻗﺻﯾر ﺗﻔﻘد ﺷﺣﻧﺗﮭﺎ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﯾﺎ وﯾﻠزﻣﮭﺎ اﻟﺗﻧﺷﯾط ﺑﺎﺳﺗﻣرار ﻛل ﻓﺗره‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻟذا ﯾﻠزﻣﮭﺎ ﻣﺎ ﯾﺳﻣﻲ " ‪ " self ******* logic& timer‬وھو ﻣﺎ ﯾﻘوم ﺑﺈﻋﺎدة ﺷﺣن اﻟﻣﻛﺛﻔﺎت إذا وﺟد إن ﻗﯾﻣﺗﮭﺎ‬
‫ﺑدأت ﺗﺗﻌدي ‪ %٧٥‬ﻣن إﺟﻣﺎﻟﻲ ﻗﯾﻣﺔ ﺷﺣﻧﺔ اﻟﻣﻛﺛف ‪.‬‬
‫واﻟذاﻛرة ﻟﮭﺎ ‪ Address Bus‬و ‪ Data Bus‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻲ ﺧطوط اﻟﺗﺣﻛم " ‪ "Control lines‬ﺗﺗﺻل ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة ﻋﻠﻲ‬
‫وﺣدة اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ اﻟﻣرﻛزى)اﻟﺑروﺳﯾﺳور( ‪ ،‬وﺗﺑدأ اﻟذاﻛرة اﻟﻌﻣل ﻋﻧد ﺑدأ اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾل ‪ ،‬ﻓﯾﻘوم )اﻟﺑوت ﻟودر( أو اﻟﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫اﻷوﻟﻰ ﺑﻧﻘل اﻟﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﻲ ﻣن وﺣدة اﻟذاﻛرة اﻟداﺋﻣﺔ " اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯾﻣوري " إﻟﻲ اﻟذاﻛرة ‪ RAM‬ﻟﺑدأ ﺗﻧﻔﯾذه ‪.‬‬
‫أﯾﺿﺎ ﯾﺗم اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟذاﻛرة ‪ RAM‬ﻋﻧد ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﺑﺣث ﻋﻠﻲ اﻟﻘﻧوات أو ﺗﺣرﯾرھﺎ ﺛم ﺑﻌد إﻧﮭﺎء اﻟﻣﮭﻣﺔ ﯾﺗم اﻟﺗﺧزﯾن ﻋﻠﻲ‬
‫اﻟذاﻛرة اﻟداﺋﻣﺔ " اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯾﻣوري " ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟذاﻛرة اﻟداﺋﻣﺔ ) ‪( Flash Memory‬‬
‫اﻟذاﻛرة اﻷﻛﺛر ﺷﮭرة واھﺗﻣﺎم ﻓﻲ أﺟﮭزة اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ﻟﻣﺎ ﺗﺳﺑﺑﮫ ﻣن أﻋطﺎل ﻓﻘد اﻟﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﻲ)اﻟﺳوﻓت وﯾر( ‪،‬‬
‫واھﺗﻣﺎم اﻟﻔﻧﯾﯾن ﺑﮭﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ﻟﺣﻔظ اﻟﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﻲ واﻟﻘﻧوات ﺑﺻﻔﺔ داﺋﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ ‪.‬وﻗد ﺗﺎﺧز ﺑﻌض اﻵﺷﻛﺎل ﻣﺛﺎل ﺷﻛل)‪:(٥‬‬
‫وﺗﺻل ﺳﻌﺔ اﻟﺗﺧزﯾن ﺑﮭﺎ إﻟﻲ ‪ ٨‬ﻣﯾﺟﺎﺑﺎﯾت وھﻲ ﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺔ إﻟﻲ ﺣد ﻣﺎ ﻟﻠﺑراﻣﺞ اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻌﺎدﯾﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾوﺿﺢ ﺷﻛل)‪ (٦‬ﻣﺧطط ھذه اﻟوﺣدة‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﺷﺑﮫ اﻟذاﻛرة اﻟﻣؤﻗﺗﺔ ‪ RAM‬إﻟﻲ ﺣد ﻛﺑﯾر ‪ ،‬إﻻ اﻧﮫ ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم ﺑﮭﺎ ﺗراﻧزﯾﺳﺗور ﯾﺣﺗﻔظ ﺑﺎﻻﻟﻛﺗروﻧﺎت ﺑﺻﻔﺔ داﺋﻣﺔ ﺑدﻻ‬
‫ﻣن اﻟﻣﻛﺛف ‪.‬‬
‫ ﯾﺗﻛون اﻟﺑت اﻟواﺣد أو اﻟﺧﻠﯾﺔ " ‪ " cell‬ﻣن ﺗراﻧزﯾﺳﺗور ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻲ ﺑواﺑﺔ ﻣﻧطﻘﯾﺔ اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻧوع )ﺑوﻟﻲ‬‫ﺳﻠﯾﻛون( ﻣﻌزوﻟﺔ ﻛﮭرﺑﯾﺎ ﺗﺳﺗطﯾﻊ ﺗﺧزﯾن ﺷﺣﻧﮫ " اﻻﻟﻛﺗروﻧﺎت " وھو ﻣﺎ ﯾﺳﻣﻲ ﺑــ " " ‪electrically isolated‬‬
‫‪. polysilicon floating gate‬‬
‫ وﻓﻛرة ﻋﻣل ھذا اﻟﺗراﻧزﯾﺳﺗورﺗﻌﺗﻣد ﻋﻠﻲ ﻋدد اﻻﻟﻛﺗروﻧﺎت " اﻟﺷﺣﻧﺔ " اﻟﻣوﺟودة ﺑﯾن اﻟﺑواﺑﺔ اﻟﻣﻧطﻘﯾﺔ اﻹﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ‬‫وطرﻓﻲ ﺗوﺻﯾل اﻟﺟﮭد اﻟﻛﮭرﺑﻲ ‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋدم وﺟود اﻟﺷﺣﻧﺎت ﺗﻣﺛل اﻟرﻗم " ‪ " ١‬وﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ وﺟودھﺎ ﺗﻣﺛل اﻟرﻗم "‬
‫‪."٠‬‬
‫ ھذه اﻟﺗراﻧزﺳﺗورات ﻣﺗﻧﺎھﯾﺔ اﻟﺻﻐر إﻟﻲ درﺟﺔ ﻛﺑﯾرة ﺟدا وھذا ﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﯾﺢ ﺻﻧﻊ أﻛﺛر ﻣن ‪ ٦٤٠‬ﻣﻠﯾون ﺗراﻧزﯾﺳﺗور‬‫ﻓﻲ ﻗطﻌﺔ واﺣدة ھﻲ اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯾﻣوري ‪.‬‬
‫ ﯾﺗم اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺻﻔوﻓﺔ ﺑـوﺣدة ﻓك ﺷﻔرة ﺗﺳﻣﻰ " ‪ " XY decoder‬وﻣﻧﮭﺎ إﻟﻲ دواﺋر أﺧري ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ إﻟﻲ ﺧطوط‬‫اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت واﻟﻌﻧﺎوﯾن واﻟﺗﺣﻛم ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﺣﺗوي وﺣدة اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯾﻣوري ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻧﺎطق ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻧﮭﺎ ﻣﻧطﻘﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ وھﻲ اﻟﺑوت ﺑﻠوك " ‪" boot block‬‬‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﺑدأ ﺗﺣﻣﯾل اﻟﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﻲ ‪.‬‬
‫ ﯾﻣﻛن اﻟﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ وﻣﺳﺢ ﻛل ﺧﻠﯾﮫ ﺑواﺳطﺔ وﺣدة ﺗﺣﻛم ﺿﻐﯾرة ﺟدا ﺗﺳﻣﻰ )ﻣﺎﯾﻛرو ﻛﻧﺗروﻟر( " ‪micro controller‬‬‫" ﻣدﻣﺞ ﻓﻲ وﺣدة اﻟﻔﻼش وﺗﺗﺣﻣل ﻛل ﺧﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻌدد ﯾﺻل اﻟﻲ ‪ ١٠٠٠٠٠‬ﻣرة ﺑﻌدھﺎ ﺗﺗﻠف ھذه اﻟﺧﻼﯾﺎ وﯾﺟب‬
‫اﺳﺗﺑدال وﺣدة اﻟﻔﻼش ﺑﺄﻛﻣﻠﮭﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ ﯾﺗم ﺗﺣﻣﯾل اﻟﻣﻠف اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﻲ " ‪ " Dump file‬ﻋﻠﻲ وﺣدة اﻟﻔﻼش ﺑﻣﺑرﻣﺟﺎت اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯾﻣوري أو ﻏﯾرھﺎ ‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬ﺗﺗﻛون اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯾﻣوري ﻣن ﺑﻠوﻛﺎت ﺑﺄﺣﺟﺎم ﺛﺎﺑﺗﺔ وﻟﻛل ﺑﻠوك ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ وﺑداﯾﺔ وﯾﻣﻛن ﻣﺳﺢ ﻣﺣﺗوﯾﺎﺗﮫ ﺟﻣﻠﺔ واﺣدة ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟذاﻛرة اﻟداﺋﻣﺔ ‪EEProm‬‬
‫ھﻲ ﻣﺛل اﻟﻔﻼش ﻣﯾﻣوري ﺑﺎﺧﺗﻼف طرﯾﻘﺔ ﻧﻘل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ‪ ،‬ﻓﮭﻲ ﺗﻧﻘل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﺑﺎﻟﻧظﺎم اﻟﺗﺳﻠﺳﻠﻲ وﺣﺟﻣﮭﺎ ﺻﻐﯾر ﻧﺳﺑﯾﺎ‬
‫وﺑطﯾﺋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ھذه اﻟذاﻛرة ﻓﻲ ﺗﺧزﯾن ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟرﯾﺳﯾﻔر ﻣﺛل آﺧر ﻗﻧﺎة ﻗﺑل اﻹﻏﻼق أو اﻟرﻗم اﻟﺳري وأﺣﯾﺎﻧﺎ ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺧزﯾن اﻟﻘﻧوات ﻣﺛﻠﻣﺎ ﻛﺎن ﻣوﺟود ﻣﺳﺑﻘﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ ﯾﺗﯾﺢ ﻧظﺎم ھذه اﻟذاﻛرة ﺑﺈﻣﻛﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﺗوﺻﯾﻠﮭﺎ ﻣﻊ أﻛﺛر ﻣن وﺣدة ﻣﺛﻠﮭﺎ ﻣﻣﺎ ﯾﺳﻣﺢ ﺑزﯾﺎدة اﻟﺣﺟم ‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم ھذا اﻟﻧوع أﯾﺿﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛروت اﻟﺗﺷﻔﯾر ﺑدرﺟﺔ ﻛﺑﯾرة ﺟدا وذﻟك ﻟﺗﺧزﯾن أﻛواد اﻟﺗﺷﻔﯾر ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺳم ﷲ اﻟرﺣﻣن اﻟرﺣﯾم‬
‫‪ SERIAL PORT‬اﻟﻣﻧﻔذ اﻟﺗﺳﻠﺳﻠﻲ‬
‫أھم ﻣﺷﺎﻛل وﺻﻠﺔ‬
‫‪RS-232‬‬
‫وطرق إﺻﻼﺣﮭﺎ وﺿﺑط إﻋدادﺗﮭﺎ ﯾدوﯾﺎ وﺑﺈﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺑراﻣﺞ‬
‫‪ RS-232‬وﺻﻠﺔ‬
‫)‪(Recommended Standard-232‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﻌب ھذه اﻟوﺻﻠﺔ دورا ھﺎﻣﺎ وﺣﯾوﯾﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﺎل أﻧظﻣﺔ اﻻﺳﺗﻘﺑﺎل ﻣن اﻷﻗﻣﺎر اﻟﺻﻧﺎﻋﯾﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑل أﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﻌد واﺣدة ﻣن أھم‬
‫ﻣﻧﺎﻓذ اﻹﺗﺻﺎل ﺑﯾن وﺳﺎﺋط اﻟﻣﯾدﯾﺎ ﺣﯾث ﺗرﺑط ھذه اﻟوﺳﺎﺋط ﺑﻌﺿﮭﺎ اﻟﺑﻌض ﻋﻼوة ﻋﻠﻰ رﺑطﮭﺎ اﯾﺿﺎ ﺑﺄﺟﮭزة‬
‫اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر واﻟﻣﺑرﻣﺟﺎت واﻟﻣودم واﻟدﻧﺎﺟل وھﻲ ﺑواﺑﺔ اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻣرﺳﻠﺔ واﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑﻠﺔ ووﺳﯾﻠﺔ اﻟﺗﺧﺎطب واﻹﺗﺻﺎل‬
‫‪ .‬واﻟﺗﺑﺎدل اﻟﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ وأداة اﻟرﺑط ﺑﯾن ﻋﻧﺎﺻر ﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ھذه اﻟوﺳﺎﺗط‬
‫ﻓﻣﻌظم أﺟﮭزة اﻟرﺳﯾﻔرات ﺗﺗﺿﻣن ھذا اﻟﻣﻧﻔذ اﻟﺗﺳﻠﺳﻠﻲ ﺣﯾث ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم ﻷﻏراض اﻟﺗﺣدﯾﺛﺎت اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣرة أو ﻟﻠﻣﺷﺎھدة‬
‫ﺑﺄﻷﺟﮭزة اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗدﻋم ھذه اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ـ وﺑﯾن اﻟدﻧﺟل ‪ Dongle‬ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ ) اﻟﺷﯾرﻧﺞ( ﻛﻣﺎ ﯾرﺑط ﺑﯾﻧﮭﺎ وﺑﯾن اﻟدﻧﺟل‬
‫واﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر ‪ ،‬ﺳواء ﻷﻏراض اﻟﺗﺣدﯾﺛﺎت أو ﻷﻏراض اﻟﺷﯾرﻧﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﺻل ﻗﺎرئ اﻟﻛروت ﺑﮭذه اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ ﺳواء‬
‫‪ .‬ﻛﺎن ﻟﺑرﻣﺟﺔ اﻟﻛروت أو ﻟﻘراءة ﻣﺣﺗوﯾﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬
‫وﻋﻠﻰ اﻟرﻏم ﻣن ظﮭور ﺑﻌض اﻟﻣﺷﺎﻛل أﺛﻧﺎء إﺟراء اﻟﺗﺣدﯾﺛﺎت أو ﻋﻧد اﻟﻣﺷﺎھدة ﻋن طرﯾق اﻟﺷﯾرﻧﺞ اﻟﻣﻌﺗﻣد ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن ﻏﺎﻟﺑﯾﺔ ھذه اﻟﻣﺷﺎﻛل ﯾﻣﻛن ﺣﻠﮭﺎ ﺑﺳﮭوﻟﺔ إذا ﻛﺎن ﻟدﯾﻧﺎ ﻓﮭم وﻟو ﺑﺳﯾط ﻋن اﻟﻛﯾﻔﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ‪ RS-232‬اﺳﺗﺧدام ﻣﻧﻔذ‬
‫‪ .‬ﯾﻌﻣل ﺑﮭﺎ ھذا اﻟﻣﻧﻔذ وطرق ﻧﻘل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻋن طرﯾﻘﮫ‬
‫وﻧظرا ﻷھﻣﯾﺔ ھذه اﻟوﺻﻠﺔ وﻣﺎ ﻗد ﯾﻧﺷﺄ ﻋﻧﮭﺎ ﻣن أﻋطﺎل ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ ﺗوﻗﻔﮭﺎ ﻋن اﻟﻌﻣل ‪ ،‬رأﯾت أن أﺿﻊ ﺑﯾن اﯾدﯾﻛم طرق‬
‫ﺗﺣدﯾد ھذه اﻷﻋطﺎل وطرق إﺻﻼﺣﮭﺎ ﺳواء ﺑﺎﻟوﺳﺎﺋل اﻟﺑﺳﯾطﺔ أو ﺣﺗﻰ اﻹﺣﺗراﻓﯾﺔ‬
‫أوﻻ ‪ :‬إﺟراءات ﻋﻼﺟﯾﺔ ﺑﺳﯾطﺔ وﻣﻧﮭﺎ‬
‫اﻟﺗﺄﻛد ﻣن ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﺗوﺻﯾﻼت وﺗواﻓق اﻟﻛﺎﺑل اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧدم ﻣﻊ ﻧوع اﻟرﺳﯾﻔر ‪1-‬‬
‫ذو اﻟﺗﺳﻌﺔ أﺳﻧﺎن ‪ D-SUB-9pin‬وﻧظﺎم ﺗوﺻﯾﻠﮭﺎ أطراﻓﮭﺎ ﺑﺎل ‪ null modem cable‬ﻛﺎﺑﻼت اﻟﺗﺣدﯾث (‬
‫‪ COM‬واﻟذي ﯾﺧﺗﻠف ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌض اﻟرﺳﯾﻔرات ﻋن ﺑﻌﺿﮭﺎ اﻵﺧر ﻓﻲ طرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺗوﺻﯾل ( أو ﻓﻲ وﺣدة اﻻﺗﺻﺎل ﺑﺎل‬
‫ﻧﻔﺳﮭﺎ واﻟﻣﺗﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﻧﮭﺎﯾﺗﻲ اﻟﻛﺎﺑل ) )‪PORT D-SUB-9pin‬‬
‫واﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﻟﺗوﺻﯾل أطراف ھذا اﻟﻛﺎﺑل ﺗﻛون ﻋﻠﻰ ھذا اﻟﺷﻛل‬
‫ﺑﯾﻧﻣﺎ ﺗوﺟد طرق أﺧرى ﻛﺛﯾرة ﻟﻠﺗوﺻﯾل وﻛﻠﮭﺎ ﺗﺗوﻗف ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧوع اﻟرﺳﯾﻔر ﻧﻔﺳﮫ‬
‫وﻋﻣوﻣﺎ ﯾﺟب اﻟﺗﺄﻛد ﻣن ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ھذا اﻟﻛﺎﺑل وﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﻠﺣﺎﻣﺎت ﺑﻧﮭﺎﯾﺎﺗﮫ اﻟطرﻓﯾﺔ وﻋدم وﺟود أي ﺗﻼﻣس ﺑﯾن أطراﻓﮫ‬
‫‪ .‬وذﻟك ﺑﺈﺳﺗﺧدام ﺟﮭﺎز اﻵﻓوﻣﯾﺗر أو ﺑﺗﺟرﺑﺗﮫ ﻋﻠﻰ رﺳﯾﻔر آﺧر ﺳﻠﯾم أو ﺗﺟرﺑﺔ ﻛﺎﺑل آﺧر ﺳﻠﯾم‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺿﺑط اﻹﻋدادات ﺑﻣﻧﺎﻓذ اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر‬
‫‪ :‬اﻟﻣﺗﺻل ﺑﺎﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر ﯾﺗم إﺧﺗﯾﺎر ‪ COM PORT‬ﻟﺿﺑط إﻋدادات ال‬
‫‪ COM3, COM1 ,COM2‬اﻟﻣدﺧل أو اﻟﻣداﺧل‬
‫‪ Baud rate‬أو ‪ Transfer speed‬ﺳرﻋﺔ اﻟﺗﻘل‬
‫‪19200, 38400, 57600, 115200‬‬
‫‪ Data bits‬ﻋدد اﻟﺑﯾﺗﺎت‬
‫‪5, 6, 7, 8‬‬
‫‪Parity bit‬‬
‫وھﻛذا‬
‫ وﻟﺿﺑط ھذه اﻻﻋدادات‬:
Windows XP COM port setting
‫ ﻣن ﻗﺎﺋﻣﺔ إﺑدأ‬Start >
Control Panel >
‫ دﺑل ﻛﻠﯾك‬system >
Hardware >
Device manager >
‫ ( دﺑل ﻛﻠﯾك‬Ports ( COM & LPT >
‫ أو ﻛﻠﯾك ﯾﻣﯾن ﻋﻠﻰ ال‬COM ‫>اﻟذي ﺗرﯾد ﺿﺑط إﻋداداﺗﮫ‬
‫ ﻛﻠﯾك‬Properties >
Port Settings tab
‫ ﺿﻊ اﻻﻋدادات اﻟﻣطﻠوﺑﺔ ﺛم‬OK
‫‪ Advanced‬إﺧﺗﺎر‬
‫‪ OK‬وﺿﻊ اﻟﻣؤﺷر ﻛﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺻورة ﺛم‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ ﻏﯾﺎب أﺣد ﻣﻠﻔﺎت ﻧطﺎم اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾل ‪ COM PORT‬ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺎ ‪ :‬ﻗد ﯾﻛون ﻋدم اﻟﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﻰ ال‬
‫‪ System File Compatibility‬واﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌرف ﺑﻣﻠﻔﺎت ﺗواﻓق اﻟﻧظﺎم‬
‫أو ﺗﺣدﯾث ﻧﺳﺧﺔ اﻟوﯾﻧدوز ‪ system32‬وﯾﻣﻛن ﻧﺳﺦ ھذه اﻟﻣﻠﻔﺎت ﺑﻣﺟﻠد‬
‫‪ commport.dll‬وأھم ھذه اﻟﻣﻠﻔﺎت ھو‬
‫وﯾﻣﻛن ﺗﺣﻣﯾﻠﮫ ﻣن ھﻧﺎ‬
‫‪commport.dll‬‬
‫أﻣﺎ اﻟﻣﻠﻔﺎت اﻷﺧرى ﻓﮭﻲ‬
‫‪advapi32.dll‬‬
‫‪mfc42.dll‬‬
‫‪msvcirt.dll‬‬
‫‪msvcrt.dll‬‬
‫‪ole32.dll‬‬
‫‪oleaut32.dll‬‬
‫‪olepro32.dll‬‬
‫‪rpcrt4.dll‬‬
‫‪wininet.dll‬‬
‫وھذا اﻟﻣوﻗﻊ ﯾﺳﺎﻋدك ﻓﻲ ﺗﺣﻣﯾل وإﺻﻼح ھذه اﻟﻣﻠﻔﺎت‬
‫‪http://www.dll-files.com/‬‬
‫‪ registry‬وﻗد ﺗﻛون ھﻧﺎك ﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ أﯾﺿﺎ ﺑﺎﻟرﯾﺟﺳﺗري ﻟذا ﯾﺟب اﺳﺗﺧدام أﺣد ﺑراﻣﺞ إﺻﻼح اﻟرﯾﺟﺳﺗري وﻣﻧﮭﺎ‬
‫و ﻏﯾرھﺎ ‪ regtweaker‬و ‪booster‬‬
‫أو ﺗﻠف أﺣد اﻟﻣﻠﻔﺎت ﻗد ﺗظﮭر ﺑﻌض اﻟرﺳﺎﺋل ﻣﺛل ‪ COM PORT‬وﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋدم اﻟﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﻰ ال‬
‫ﺑراﻣﺞ ﻣﻔﯾدة ﻟﻠﺗﻌرف ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﺑورﺗﺎت وﺿﺑط إﻋداداﺗﮭﺎ‬
‫ﻣن اﻟﻣوﻗﻊ اﻟرﺳﻣﻲ‬
‫‪http://www.aggsoft.com/‬‬
‫ﺣﻣل ﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬
‫‪comstresstest‬‬
‫واﻟﯾك ﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ آﺧر‬
‫‪aspmon4‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌض اﻷﺟﮭزة ‪ RS232‬ﺛﺎﻟﺛﺎ ‪ :‬ﺿﺑط اﻻﻋدادات اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻟل‬
‫ﺑﻛﻔﺎﺋﺔ ﯾﺗم ﺿﺑطﮭﺎ ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﻠودر اﻟﺧﺎص ‪ RS232‬ﻓﮭﻧﺎك أﺳﺑﺎب أﺧرى ﺗﺗﻌﻠق ﺑﺎﻹﻋدادات اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﯾﻌﻣل ﻣﻧﻔذ‬
‫ﺑﺷرط ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﻠودر ﻧﻔﺳﮫ وﺗواﻓﻘﮫ ﻣﻊ ﻣودﯾل ‪ RS232‬ﺑﺗﺣﻣﯾل اﻟﺳوﻓﺗوﯾر أو ﻣن اﻟﺑراﻣﺞ ذات اﻟﺻﻠﺔ ﺑوﺻﻠﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺟﮭﺎز‬
‫وﻣن أﻣﺛﻠﺗﮭﺎ ﻟودر ﺗﺣﻣﯾل اﻟﻘﻧوات ﻟﻠﮭﯾوﻣﺎﻛس‬
‫راﺑﻌﺎ ‪ :‬إﺟراءات ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻧﯾﯾن ﻓﻘط ﻷﺳﺑﺎب ﺗﺗﻌﻠق ﺑﺗﻠف داﺧﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻟرﺳﯾﻔر‬
‫وﻗد ﺗﺣﺗوي ﺑﻌض اﻟرﺳﯾﻔرات ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔس اﻟﻣﺗﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ وﻟﻛن ﺑﺄﺳﻣﺎء ‪ IC MAX 232‬ﻓﯾﺟب اﻟﺗﺄﻛد ﻣن ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﺗﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫‪ ADM 239‬أو ‪ HIN 239‬وﻓﻲ اﻟﮭﯾوﻣﺎﻛس ﻣﺛﻼ ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم ‪ HIN 232‬أﺧري ﻣﺛل‬
‫) اﻟداﺋرة اﻟﻔﻧﯾﺔ اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺟزء اﻟﻣﺳﺋول ﻋن ﻧﻘل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻣن وإﻟﻰ وﺣدات اﻟﺗﺧزﯾن ) اﻟﻔﻼﺷﺎت واﻟراﻣﺎت داﺧل اﻟرﺳﯾﻔر‬
‫ﻻﺣظ أﻧﮫ ﯾوﺟد ﺟﮭد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟطرف رﻗم ‪ ١٦‬ﻗدره ‪ ٥‬ﻓوﻟت وھو ﺟﮭد ﻣﺣﻛوم ﻣﻧظم وﯾﻣﻛن اﻟﺣﺻول ﻋﻠﯾﮫ ﻣن وﺣدة‬
‫‪٧٨٠٥ LM‬‬
‫ﻛﻣﺎ أن اﻟطرف رﻗم ‪ ١٥‬ﻣوﺻل ﺑﺄرﺿﻲ اﻟﺟﮭﺎز‬
‫وﻋﻠﻰ ذﻟك ﯾﺟب اﻟﺗﺄﻛد ﻣن وﺟود اﻟﺟﮭد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟطرف ‪ ١٦‬ﻣﻊ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﻛﺛﻔﺎت ﻗﺑل ﺗﻐﯾﯾر اﻷﯾﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر ‪ COM PORT‬ﺣل ﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ ﻋدم وﺟود أو ﺗﻠف اﻟـــ‬
‫وﺗﺣﺗوي ﻓﻘط ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻧﻔذ ‪ Serial RS232 DB9‬ﻣﻌظم أﺟﮭزة اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر اﻟﻣﺣﻣوﻟﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺣﺗوي ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻧﻔذ اﻟﺳﯾ﷼‬
‫‪USB‬‬
‫‪ Serial RS232 DB9 Adapters to USB‬أو ‪ USB to Serial Converter‬وﯾﻌﺗﺑر‬
‫وﻣﻧﮭﺎ أﺟﮭزة ‪ Serial RS232 DB9‬ھو اﻟﺣل اﻷﻣﺛل ﻟﻌﻼج ھذة ﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ اﻟﺗوﺻﯾل ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻠﺣﻘﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣﺗوي ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫اﻟرﺳﯾﻔر واﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗرات اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ اﻟﻌﺎدﯾﺔ‬
‫‪ FT232RL‬وﯾﺣﺗوي ھذا اﻟﻣﺣول ﻋﻠﻰ داﺋرة ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم اﻟﻣﺗﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫وﯾﻣﻛن ﺻﻧﻌﮫ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻧﺣو اﻟﻣﺑﯾن ﺑﺎﻟداﺋرة‬
‫ھذه اﻟﺻورة ﻣﺻﻐره ‪ ...‬ﻧﻘره ﻋﻠﻰ ھذا اﻟﺷرﯾط ﻟﻌرض اﻟﺻوره ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻘﺎس اﻟﺣﻘﯾﻘﻲ ‪ ...‬اﻟﻣﻘﺎس اﻟﺣﻘﯾﻘﻲ‬
‫‪ .‬واﻟﺣﺟم ‪ ٢٦‬ﻛﯾﻠوﺑﺎﯾت ‪٦٤٤x291‬‬
‫ھذه اﻟﺻورة ﻣﺻﻐره ‪ ...‬ﻧﻘره ﻋﻠﻰ ھذا اﻟﺷرﯾط ﻟﻌرض اﻟﺻوره ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻘﺎس اﻟﺣﻘﯾﻘﻲ ‪ ...‬اﻟﻣﻘﺎس اﻟﺣﻘﯾﻘﻲ‬
‫‪ .‬واﻟﺣﺟم ‪ ٢٦‬ﻛﯾﻠوﺑﺎﯾت ‪٦٦٨x273‬‬
‫وﯾﻣﻛن ﺗﺛﺑﯾﺗﮫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑوردة ﺑﮭذا اﻟﺷﻛل‬
‫ﻣﮭﻧدس ﻗرﯾﺎﻧﻰ وطرﯾﻘﺔ رﻓﻊ اﻻﯾﺳﻰ اﻟﻣﺗﻌدد اﻻرﺟل ﻣﺛل اﻟراﻣﺎت واﻟﻔﻼﺷﺔ واﻟﺑرﯾﺳﺳور‬
‫طرﯾﻘﺔ ﻓك اﻻﯾﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻛل ﻓﻧﻲ ﻟﺔ طرﯾﻘﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﯾﺗﺑﻌﮭﺎ ﺑﻔك اﻻﯾﺳﻲ‬
‫وھذة طرﯾﻘﺗﻲ‬
‫اوﻻ‪ ،،‬ﻧدھن ال ‪ FLUX‬اﻟﺳﺎﺋل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ ﺟواﻧﺑﮭﺎ‬
‫ھﺬة ﻣﻦ ﺻﻨﻌﻲ ﺳﻠﻜﯿﻦ رﻓﯿﻌﯿﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺪن اﻟﺒﻮﻻد ﻻ ﯾﻨﻄﻌﺠﺎن‬
‫دﺧﻞ ھﺬﯾﻦ اﻟﺴﻠﻜﯿﻦ ﺑﯿﻦ اطﺮاف اﻻﯾﺴﻲ وﻧﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﯾﺪﯾﻨﺎ وﻧﺒﺪأ ﺑﺘﺴﻠﯿﻂ اﻟﮭﻮاء اﻟﺴﺎﺧﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻطﺮاف ﺑﺸﻜﻞ داﺋﺮي‬
‫وﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﻚ اﻟﻠﺤﺎم ھﺬة اﻻﺳﻼك اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ادﺧﺎﻟﮭﺎ ﺑﯿﻦ اﻻطﺮاف ﺳﺘﺠﻌﻞ اﻻﯾﺴﻲ ﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﮭﺎ‬
‫ﯾﺗم اﻟﺗﻧظﯾف ﻣﻛﺎﻧﮭﺎ ﺟﯾدآ‬
‫وﯾﺗم ﺗﻠﺣﯾﻣﮭﺎ ﺑﺎﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﻣذﻛورة ﺑﻛﺎوي اﻟﺷﻔرة‬
‫ﻟﻣن ﻻ ﯾﻣﻠﻛون ھذا‬
‫ﺗﺳﺗطﯾﻊ ﻋﻣل واﺣد ﻣﺷﺎﺑﺔ ﺗﺎﺗﻲ ﺑراس ﻛﺎوي وﺗﺑردة )ﺗﺣﻔﺔ (ﻟﯾﺻﺑﺢ ﻧﻔس اﻟﺷﻛل‬
‫وھذا ﻣﺎ اﻧﺎ ﻋﻣﻠﺗﺔ‬
‫ﯾﺻﺎدﻓﻧﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﻌض اﻟﺣﺎﻻت وﺟود اﻻﯾﺳﻲ ﺑﻣﻛﺎن ﺿﯾق‬
‫ھﻧﺎ ﻧﺑدل راس اﻟﻛﺎوي ﺑﺎرﻓﻊ ﻟﻛﻲ ﯾﻛون اﻟﮭواء اﻟﻣﺳﻠط ﺑﺎدق وﻻ ﯾؤﺛر ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻧﺎﺻر اﻻﺧرى‬
‫ﻧﻘوم ﺑﺗﺳﻠﯾط اﻟﮭواء اﻟﺳﺎﺧن ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻطراف‬
‫ﺑﻌد ﻓﻛﮭﺎ ﯾﺗم اﻟﺗﻧظﯾف‬
‫وﺑﻧﻔس اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ ﯾﺗم ﺗﻠﺣﯾﻣﮭﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺟﻤﯿﻞ ﻟﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ ﻟﺤﺎم اﻻﯾﺴﻰ‬
http://www.solderingtraining.com/gallery.php
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=erb6-i54tbo&feature=youtu.be
‫ﻛﯿﻒ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﺮوت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ ؟‬
‫إذا أردت أن ﺗﺤﺘﺮف ﺻﯿﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻜﺮوت وﺟﺐ ﻋﻠﯿﻚ اﻹﻟﻤﺎم أوﻻ وﺑﺸﻜﻞ أﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﻜﻞ إﺣﺘﯿﺎﺟﺎت ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻜﺮوت ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻼﺣﯿﺔ اﻟﻜﺎرت ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﮫ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﺳﺒﺎب ﺗﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﻜﺎرت ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﻟﻌﺪة ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻣﻨﮭﺎ ﻏﯿﺎب أﺣﺪ إﺣﺘﯿﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ ‪ ،‬وﺑﺪوﻧﮭﺎ ﻟﻦ‬
‫ﯾﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﻜﺎرت ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺢ ‪.‬‬
‫وﻟﻨﺒﺪأ أوﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺮف ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ ﻷي ﻛﺎرت ‪:‬‬
‫ﻧﻼﺣﻆ أن ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﮭﺎردوﯾﺮ ﻟﻜﺮوت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ ﯾﺘﻜﻮن ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮﺣﺪات اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﯿﺔ اﻵﺗﯿﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ‬
‫‪ -٢‬وﺣﺪة ال ‪LNB POWER‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻛﺎﺷﻒ اﻟﺘﻌﺪﯾﻞ‬
‫‪ -٤‬دﯾﻜﻮدر اﻟﻔﯿﺪﯾﻮ واﻷودﯾﻮ واﻟﺠﺮاﻓﻜﺲ‬
‫وﻧﻼﺣﻆ أﯾﻀﺎ أن ﻛﺎرت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ ذو ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺐ ﺑﺴﯿﻂ ﺟﺪا وﻣﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮ اﻟﻌﺎدي‬
‫وھﻮ ﯾﻌﺘﻤﺪ إﻋﺘﻤﺎدا ﻛﻠﯿﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ إﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎت ﺟﮭﺎز اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﮫ ) اﻟﺮاﻣﺎت – اﻟﮭﺎرد دﺳﻚ – اﻟﻤﯿﻜﺮوﺑﺮوﺳﺴﻮر‬
‫– ﻛﺎرت اﻟﺼﻮرة – وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ (‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺐ واﻹﺗﺼﺎل ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ اﻷم واﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻒ وﺗﻨﺼﯿﺐ ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ وﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﺗﮭﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﺼﻞ اﻟﻜﺮوت ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ اﻷم ‪ motherboard‬ﻋﻦ طﺮﯾﻖ ﻣﺎ ﯾﻌﺮف ﺑﺎل ‪Peripheral Component‬‬
‫‪(Interconnect (PCI‬‬
‫‪PCI – connector‬‬
‫وذﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل أي ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺘﺤﺎت ال ‪PCI slot‬‬
‫ﻓﻌﻦ طﺮﯾﻖ ھﺬه ال ‪ PCI slots‬ﯾﺘﻢ إﺗﺼﺎل اﻟﻜﺎرت ﺑﺎﻟﻤﯿﻜﺮو ﺑﺮوﺳﺴﻮر )‪central‬‬
‫‪ (processing unit‬واﻟﺮاﻣﺎت ‪ main memory /RAM‬واﻟﮭﺎرد دﺳﻚ ‪hard disk‬‬
‫وﻛﺎرت اﻟﺼﻮت ‪card sound‬وﻛﺎرت اﻟﺼﻮرة ‪ graphics card‬وﺟﻤﯿﻊ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺬ ‪ports‬‬
‫وﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎت اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ اﻷﺧﺮى ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﯾﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﻨﮭﺎ اﻟﻜﺎرت ﺟﮭﻮد اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﮫ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﯿﺔ ﺑﺠﮭﺎز اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ ‪main power supply‬‬
‫وﻣﻦ أﻋﻄﺎل ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫رداﺋﺔ اﻹﺗﺼﺎل ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ اﻷم أو ﻓﻘﺪ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﺎت‬
‫ﻓﻮﺟﻮد أي إﺗﺼﺎل ردئ أو أﺗﺮﺑﺔ أو ﺣﺪوث ﺗﻠﻒ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎل ‪ PCI slots‬أو ﻛﺴﺮ ﺑﻨﻘﻂ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻼﻣﺲ ﺳﯿﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﻜﺎرت ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ ھﺬه اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻒ ال‬
‫‪ PCI – connector‬ﻣﻦ اﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ وﺗﻤﺴﺢ ﺑﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻗﻤﺎش ﻧﻈﯿﻔﺔ وﯾﺘﻢ اﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻂ اﻟﺘﻮﺻﯿﻞ ﺑﮭﺎ أو ﺑﺎل ‪ slot‬أو ﯾﻨﻘﻞ اﻟﻜﺎرت ل ‪ slot‬آﺧﺮ وﯾﺘﻢ إﻋﺎدة ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔﮫ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﺎت ‪: Drivers‬‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻒ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ ﺳﻮﻓﺘﻮﯾﺮ ﯾﺴﺎﻋﺪ اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮﻋﻠﻰ اﻹﺗﺼﺎل ﻣﻊ اﻟﮭﺎرد وﯾﺮ اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪ‬
‫وﺗﺮﺟﻊ أھﻤﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﺎت ﻛﻮﻧﮭﺎ وﺳﯿﻠﺔ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻖ اﻟﺘﻌﺎرف واﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﯿﻦ ھﺎردوﯾﺮ‬
‫اﻟﻜﺎرت وﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت وﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎت و ﻧﻈﺎم إدارة اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎت ‪ Device manager‬ﺑﺠﮭﺎز‬
‫اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ وﻣﻌﻈﻢ اﻟﺪراﯾﻔﺮز ) اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﺎت ( اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻤﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻟﮭﺎردوﯾﺮ ﯾﺤﻤﻠﮭﺎ‬
‫اﻟﻮﯾﻨﺪوز أﺛﻨﺎء ﺗﻨﺼﯿﺒﮫ ‪ ،‬ﻓﯿﻤﺎ ﻋﺪا ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ أي ھﺎردوﯾﺮ‬
‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪ وﺗﻜﻮن ﻣﺤﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ أﺳﻄﻮاﻧﺔ ‪ ، CD‬وﯾﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ أﯾﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل‬
‫اﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻊ اﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ‪manufacturer's website‬‬
‫وﻛﺎرت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺒﮫ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﮭﺎز ﻟﻠﻤﺮة اﻷوﻟﻰ ﯾﺠﺐ ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔﮫ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄي ھﺎردوﯾﺮ‬
‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ‪ new hardware‬أو ﻛﺄي ‪ new device‬ﯾﻀﺎف ﻟﺠﮭﺎز اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ وﺑﺪون ھﺬا‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻒ ﻟﻦ ﯾﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﮭﺎردوﯾﺮ اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ أﻧﮫ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺒﺪﯾﻞ ﻣﻜﺎن اﻟﻜﺎرت ب ‪ PCI slots‬آﺧﺮ ﻷي ﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﻦ اﻷﺳﺒﺎب ﻓﺈﻧﮫ‬
‫ﯾﺠﺐ إﻋﺎدة ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔﮫ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﺣﺘﻰ وﻟﻮ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔﮫ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﮫ اﻷول ﻷن ﻣﻜﺎﻧﮫ‬
‫اﻟﺠﺪﯾﺪ ﯾﻌﺮف ك ‪ PCI/bus‬ﺟﺪﯾﺪ‬
‫إذن ﻓﻘﺪ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻒ ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ أﺣﺪ أﺳﺒﺎب ﺗﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﻜﺮوت ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫واﻟﯿﻜﻢ ﻣﻮاﻗﻊ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﺎت ﻟﻨﻮﻋﯿﻦ ﺷﮭﯿﺮﯾﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﺮوت ‪:‬‬
‫‪SkyStar 2‬‬
‫وﯾﻤﻜﻨﻚ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﺎت ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﮭﺎ اﻷﺻﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ھﻨﺎ‬
‫‪http://www.technisat.com/index9fc5.h...ownloads,en,33‬‬
‫أو ﻣﻦ ھﻨﺎ‬
‫‪http://www.dvbskystar.com/down_drivers.html‬‬
‫وﯾﻤﻜﻨﻚ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺰﯾﺪ وأھﻢ اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﯿﺔ ﻣﻦ ھﻨﺎ‬
‫‪http://www.dvbskystar.com‬‬
‫أﻣﺎ اﻟﺘﻮﯾﻨﮭﺎن ‪Vision plus OR TwinHan‬‬
‫ﻓﯿﻤﻜﻨﻚ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔﺎﺗﮭﺎ ﻣﻦ ھﻨﺎ‬
‫‪/http://drivers.brothersoft.com/display/twinhan‬‬
‫ﺗﻨﺼﯿﺐ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﺒﻞ وﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﺗﮫ ووﺿﻊ إﻋﺪادات ﺳﻠﯿﻤﺔ ﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻹﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل )‪: (DiSEq/ LNB‬‬
‫وﻟﻦ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ھﺬه اﻟﻜﺮوت إﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻠﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ‪ ،‬و ﺗﻮﺟﺪ اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ وﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬
‫‪ ProgDVB‬و ‪ MyTheatre‬وﻏﯿﺮھﺎ‬
‫ووظﯿﻔﺔ ھﺬه اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ ‪:‬‬
‫ وﺿﻊ اﻹﻋﺪادات اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻨﻈﺎم اﻹﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل اﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻲ اﻟﻤﺘﺎح ) ﻛﺈﻋﺪادات إﺳﻢ‬‫اﻟﻘﻤﺮ وﻧﻮع ال ‪ - LNB‬ﺗﻔﻌﯿﻞ اﻟﺪاﯾﺴﻚ – اﻟﺘﺮددات اﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﯿﺘﻢ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻨﮭﺎ ‪.....‬‬
‫(‬
‫ إﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿﺔ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات وﺗﺨﺰﯾﻨﮭﺎ وإﻋﺎدة ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺒﮭﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻷﻗﻤﺎر وﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت طﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﺮﻏﺒﺎت‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬
‫ ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎت اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ ﻛﺎﻟﺒﻠﺠﻨﺰ ‪ Plugins‬اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺨﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات‬‫اﻟﻤﺸﻔﺮة وﻣﻨﮭﺎ ‪ S2emu, vplug, softcam‬و ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﺸﯿﺮﯾﻨﺞ ﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫‪ v_dcw_sharing‬و ‪ Yankse‬و ‪WinCSC‬‬
‫وﻣﻦ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻊ ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ اﻟﻤﺰﯾﺪ ﻣﻦ ھﺬه اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ وأﺣﺪﺛﮭﺎ‬
‫‪http://skystar-2.com/softcam.htm‬‬
‫‪http://www.makadvb.com/news.php‬‬
‫وﻣﻦ اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﮭﺎﻣﺔ أﯾﻀﺎ واﻟﺘﻲ ﯾﺠﺐ ﺗﻨﺼﯿﺒﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﮫ اﻟﻜﺮوت‬
‫ﺑﻨﺠﺎح ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﻜﻮدﻛﺲ وﻣﻦ أھﻤﮭﺎ ‪ mpeg2_decoders‬ﻟﻠﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ اﻟﺠﯿﺪ ﻟﻠﺼﻮت‬
‫واﻟﺼﻮرة وﻟﻌﻼج ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ إﺧﺘﻔﺎء أواﻟﺘﻘﻄﯿﻊ أﺛﻨﺎء اﻟﻌﺮض وھﻮ ﻛﻮدﯾﻚ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
‫ﻟﻤﻌﻈﻢ أﻧﻮاع ﻛﺮوت اﻟﺴﺘﺎﻻﯾﺖ وﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ‬
‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﯾﺠﺐ ﺗﻨﺼﯿﺐ اﻟﻔﻠﺘﺮ ‪ elecard‬ﻟﻌﻼج ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ اﻟﺼﻮت واﻟﺼﻮرة وإﺧﺘﻔﺎء رﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﺨﻄﺄ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﮭﺮ‬
‫أﺣﯿﺎﻧﺎ‬
‫وﺗﻠﻒ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﻲ وﺗﻮﻗﻔﮫ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ أي وﻗﺖ ‪ ،‬ﯾﺆدي إﻟﻰ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﻜﺎرت‬
‫ﻋﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬أﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ وﺟﻮد أﺧﻄﺎء ﻓﻨﯿﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻹﻋﺪادات ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن ذﻟﻚ ﯾﺆدي إﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺣﺪوث ﺧﻠﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺂداء اﻟﻜﺎرت ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺮوت اﻟﺴﺘﺎﻻﯾﺖ ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ اﻟﺠﻮدة أو ﻓﺎﺋﻘﺔ اﻟﻮﺿﻮح‬
‫‪High Definition DVB-S PCI card‬‬
‫ھﺬا اﻟﻨﻮع ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﺮوت ‪ DVB-S2 HDTV‬ﯾﺤﺘﺎح إﻟﻰ ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﻜﻮدﻛﺲ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺑﺄﺣﺪث‬
‫إﺻﺪاراﺗﮭﺎ ﻟﺘﺘﻮاﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺜﻞ ھﺬه اﻟﻜﺮوت ﻟﯿﻌﻄﻲ آداء ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ ‪ ،‬أﻣﺎ اﻟﮭﺎردوﯾﺮ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ﻓﯿﻜﻮن ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫‪:For DVB-S2 HDTV‬‬
‫* ‪GHz CPU or above, Dualcore CPU ٣.٠‬‬
‫* ‪GB RAM or Above١‬‬
‫* ‪Graphic Card with at Least 64MB RAM‬‬
‫وظﯿﻔﺔ ﻛﺮوت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ وﻛﯿﻒ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﺮوت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ ‪ DVB-S PCI CARD‬ﻣﺜﻠﮭﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ أي رﺳﯿﻔﺮ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻮﺣﺪة ال ‪ LNB‬ﻋﻦ‬
‫طﺮﯾﻖ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺤﻮري ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﺴﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﻨﮫ اﻹﺷﺎرات واﻟﺘﺮددات اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام أﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻹﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل‬
‫ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ذﻟﻚ أن ﻛﺮوت اﻟﺴﺘﺎﻻﯾﺖ ﺗﻜﻮن ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﺔ أﯾﻀﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺪ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺪة ال ‪LNB‬‬
‫وھﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺟﮭﺪ ﻗﺪره ‪ ١٣‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﻮﺣﺪة وﺟﻌﻠﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ وﺿﻊ إﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل ﺗﺮددات اﻹﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎب اﻟﺮأﺳﻲ‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺟﮭﺪ ﻗﺪره ‪ ١٨‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﻮﺣﺪة وﺟﻌﻠﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ وﺿﻊ إﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل ﺗﺮددات اﻹﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎب اﻷﻓﻘﻲ‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻧﺒﻀﺎت اﻟﺒﺮﺳﺖ ‪ Tone Burst‬اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ اﻟﺪاﯾﺴﻚ واﻟﺘﻮن ‪Tone Burst‬‬
‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﯿﻦ اﻟﺘﺮددات اﻟﻔﻮﻗﯿﺔ أو اﻟﺘﺤﺘﯿﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﺎﻟﯿﺔ ) ﻓﻮق ‪ ( ١١٧٠٠‬و‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ) أﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ ( ١١٧٠٠‬وھﻮ ﻣﺎ ﯾﻌﺮف ﺑﺎل ‪ ،BAND SWITCHING‬وأﯾﻀﺎ ‪Data‬‬
‫‪ Burst‬ﻟﺘﻔﻌﯿﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﯿﺔ إﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ اﻟﺪوﻟﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬
‫)اﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ( ﻋﻦ طﺮﯾﻖ اﻹﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل اﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫واﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮل اﻷول ﻋﻦ إﻧﺘﺎج وﺗﻮﻓﯿﺮ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت ھﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﯿﺪ وﺣﺪة ال ‪LNB‬‬
‫‪POWER‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ اﻟﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮات إﻻ أن ھﺬه اﻟﻮﺣﺪة ﻓﻲ ﻛﺮوت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ ﺗﻜﻮن‬
‫ذات ﺧﺎﺻﯿﺔ إﺿﺎﻓﯿﺔ ﺗﻤﯿﺰھﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮات اﻟﻌﺎدﯾﺔ وﺳﻨﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻋﻨﮭﺎ ﻻﺣﻘﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫وﯾﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻟﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮ اﻟﻌﺎدي ﻋﻦ ﻛﺮوت اﻟﺴﺘﺎﻻﯾﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺣﯿﺚ اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺐ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻌﺮوف‬
‫أن اﻟﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮ اﻟﻌﺎدي ﻟﮫ وﺣﺪة ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﮭﻮد اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ أﻧﮫ‬
‫ﯾﺘﻀﻤﻦ وﺣﺪات ذاﻛﺮة داﺋﻤﺔ وﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ وﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ ووﺳﺎﺋﻞ وﻣﻨﺎﻓﺬ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﯾﺚ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﻓﺘﻮﯾﺮات‬
‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﯾﺨﺘﺰن ﺑﺮاﻣﺠﮫ وﻗﻨﻮاﺗﮫ ﺑﺬاﻛﺮﺗﮫ وﺑﺪاﺧﻠﮫ ‪ ،‬ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ ﯾﺘﺸﺎﺑﮫ ﻣﻊ‬
‫اﻟﻜﺮوت ﻓﻲ وﺣﺪات اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻹﺷﺎرة ﻛﺎﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ وﻣﺎ ﯾﻠﯿﮭﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ ﻛﺸﻒ‬
‫اﻹﺷﺎرة وإﺳﺘﺨﻼص وإﺧﺮاج إﺷﺎرات اﻟﺼﻮت واﻟﺼﻮرة ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼوة ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫اﻷﺟﮭﺰة ﻋﻠﻰ وﺣﺪات ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻜﺮوت اﻟﺬﻛﯿﺔ وﻏﯿﺮھﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫]‪[center‬أﻋﻄﺎل اﻹﺷﺎرة ﺑﻜﺮوت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ‬
‫]‪[size/‬‬
‫وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮا ﻟﻠﺘﻘﺪم اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ اﻟﻤﺬھﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎل ﺗﻘﻨﯿﺎت اﻟﻤﯿﻜﺮوﺷﯿﺐ ‪ ،‬أﻣﻜﻦ إﻧﺘﺎج وﺣﺪات‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮف ﺑﺎﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ اﻟﺴﯿﻠﯿﻜﻮﻧﻲ ‪ ، SILICON TUNER‬وھﻲ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ ﺷﯿﺐ ‪ IC‬ﯾﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬
‫داﺧﻠﯿﺎ وﺣﺪة ﻣﻜﺒﺮ ﺗﺮددات ﻣﺘﻨﺎھﯿﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺬﺑﺬب ‪ OSCILLATOR‬ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﻛﺮﯾﺴﺘﺎﻟﺔ وﻣﺎزج ‪ MIXER‬ﻹﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ اﻟﺒﯿﻨﻲ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬وﻗﺪ ﺷﺎع‬
‫إﺳﺘﺨﺪام ھﺬا اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﺑﺄﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﺘﻠﯿﻔﺰﯾﻮن اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺜﺔ ‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ أﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻮل وﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻛﺜﯿﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮات وﻛﺮوت ‪DVB-S/S2 PCI CARD‬‬
‫اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ اﻟﺴﯿﻠﯿﻜﻮﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ‬
‫ﺗﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﺳﻠﯿﻜﻮﻧﻲ ﺧﺎرﺟﯿﺎ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ ﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﺳﻠﯿﻜﻮﻧﻲ آﺧﺮ‬
‫ﺗﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﺳﯿﻠﯿﻜﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﻜﺎرت ‪PCTV Sat pinnacle‬‬
‫ﻛﺎرت آﺧﺮ ﺑﮫ ﺗﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﺳﯿﻠﯿﻜﻮﻧﻲ‬
‫وظﯿﻔﺔ اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ‬
‫إﻧﺘﺨﺎب اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﺮددات اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﺳﻠﮭﺎ وﺣﺪة ال‬
‫‪ LNB‬ﺗﻢ ﺗﻜﺒﯿﺮ ھﺬا اﻟﺘﺮدد وﺧﻔﺾ ﻗﯿﻤﺔ ﺗﺮدده وإﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﺒﯿﻨﻲ اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ وﺑﯿﻨﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫وﺗﺪﺧﻞ اﻹﺷﺎرة ﻟﻠﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﻋﻦ طﺮق اﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ اﻟﻤﺤﻮري اﻟﻤﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻄﺮف ال ‪F connector‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﺜﺒﺖ ﺑﺄﺣﺪ أطﺮاف وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻤﺮ ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﺠﮭﻮد اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬
‫ال ‪ LNB‬ﻓﺘﺘﻢ ﻋﻦ طﺮﯾﻖ ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ اﻟﻤﺤﻮري ‪ ،‬وھﻲ ﺟﮭﻮد ﺗﻢ إﻋﺪادھﺎ وإﻧﺘﺎﺟﮭﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺣﺪة ال ‪ LNB POWER‬وﻟﯿﺲ ﺑﻮﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﺪ ﯾﺘﺨﯿﻞ اﻟﺒﻌﺾ ‪.‬‬
‫وﻟﻜﻲ ﯾﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ إﺷﺎرة ﻗﻮﯾﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼوة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪة ﺟﮭﻮد‬
‫ﯾﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﻣﻦ وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻐﺬي ﺟﻤﯿﻊ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬
‫اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ ‪ ،‬وﻣﻦ أھﻤﮭﺎ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ‪ V٣.٣‬وﺟﮭﺪ ال ‪ AGC‬اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫اﻷوﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﺴﺐ ) وﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮة اﻹﺷﺎرة اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﺔ (‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ أﻋﻄﺎل اﻹﺷﺎرة وﻋﻼﺟﮭﺎ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ إﻧﻘﻄﺎع ﻛﻠﻲ ﻟﻺﺷﺎرة‬
‫ﯾﺠﺐ أن ﻧﻔﺮق ھﻨﺎ ﺑﯿﻦ ﻣﺴﺒﺒﯿﻦ ‪:‬‬
‫‪-١‬ﻣﺴﺒﺐ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ ‪ :‬وﯾﺮﺟﻊ ﻟﺘﻠﻒ وﺣﺪة ال ‪ LNB‬أو ﺧﻠﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﮭﻮد‬
‫اﻟﻤﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﻟﮭﺎ أوﻋﺪم ﺿﺒﻂ إﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺑﮭﺎ ‪ ،‬أوﺗﻠﻒ اﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ اﻟﻤﺤﻮري أوﻋﺪم ﺗﻮﺟﺒﮫ اﻟﻄﺒﻖ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﯿﮭﺎ دﻗﯿﻘﺎ ‪ ،‬أو ﺗﻠﻒ اﻟﺪاﯾﺴﻚ ) ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎل وﺟﻮده (‬
‫‪-٢‬ﻣﺴﺒﺐ داﺧﻠﻲ ﯾﺮﺟﻊ ﻟﻠﻜﺎرت ﻧﻔﺴﮫ أو ﻟﻠﺠﮭﻮد اﻟﻤﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﻟﮫ أو ﻓﻘﺪان اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻒ أو ﺗﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﻲ‬
‫أو وﺿﻊ إﻋﺪادات ﺧﺎطﺌﺔ ﻟﻞ ‪LNB‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ أن ﺗﻠﻒ وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﯾﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﮫ إﻧﻘﻄﺎع ﻛﻠﻲ‬‫ﻟﻺﺷﺎرة وﯾﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﻌﮫ ﻣﺸﺎھﺪة ﺟﻤﯿﻊ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻷﻓﻘﯿﺔ واﻟﺮأﺳﯿﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﯿﺔ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻟﻐﯿﺎب ھﺬه اﻹﺷﺎرة ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﯾﺠﺐ اﻷﺧﺬ ﻓﻲ اﻹﻋﺘﺒﺎر ﻣﺎ ﯾﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ أن إﻧﻔﺼﺎل أي طﺮف ﻣﻦ أطﺮاف اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ أو وﺟﻮد ﻟﺤﺎم ردئ ﻗﺪ ﯾﺴﺒﺐ أﯾﻀﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ھﺬه اﻷﻋﻄﺎل‬‫ وأﻧﮫ ﯾﺠﺐ اﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻮﺻﯿﻞ اﻟﺠﯿﺪ ﻟﻠﻜﺎرت وﺳﻼﻣﺔ ال ‪ slot‬وﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬‫ﻧﻘﻂ اﻟﺘﻼﻣﺲ ﻣﻦ اﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ وﯾﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻞ اﻟﻜﺎرت إﻟﻰ ‪ slot‬آﺧﺮ وﻻ ﺗﻨﺴﻰ إﻋﺎدة‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔﮫ‬
‫ وﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ أي ﺷﺊ ﯾﺠﺐ اﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﺠﮭﻮد اﻟﻮاﺻﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎرت ﺑﺎﻟﻘﯿﺎس ) ﺟﮭﺪ ‪ ٣.٣‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ‪ ٥ ،‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‬‫‪ ١٢ ،‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ (‬
‫ وﯾﺠﺐ اﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ أﯾﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻮﺻﯿﻞ اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺢ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺑﻞ اﻟﻤﺤﻮري وﺳﻼﻣﺔ ال ‪ LNB‬ﺑﺘﺠﺮﺑﺘﮭﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ رﺳﯿﻔﺮ‬‫ﺳﻠﯿﻢ‬
‫ وﯾﺠﺐ ﻗﯿﺎس اﻟﺠﮭﻮد اﻟﻤﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﻟﻞ ‪ ) LNB‬ﯾﺘﺤﻤﯿﻠﮭﺎ وﺑﺪون ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻠﮭﺎ ( وذﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬‫إﺳﺒﻠﯿﺘﺮ ﻣﻔﺘﻮح وﯾﺘﻢ اﻟﻘﯿﺎس ﻣﻦ داﺧﻠﮫ‬
‫ ﻛﻤﺎ أن أي إﻧﺤﺮاف ﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﻤﺬﺑﺬب اﻟﻜﺮﯾﺴﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﯾﺼﺎﺣﺒﮫ ﻏﯿﺎب‬‫اﻟﻤﺸﺎھﺪة أﯾﻀﺎ أوﺗﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪ ،‬وﻗﺪ ﯾﺤﺪث أﺣﯿﺎﻧﺎ ﺗﺮﺣﯿﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﺮدد اﻟﻤﺮاد اﻟﺤﺼﻮل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻨﻮاﺗﮫ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﯾﺎدة أو اﻟﻨﻘﺼﺎن ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ ﻟﮭﺬا اﻹﻧﺤﺮاف ‪ ،‬وﺗﺤﺪث ھﺬه اﻟﻈﺎھﺮة‬
‫أﯾﻀﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ اﻹﻋﺪادات اﻟﺨﺎطﺌﺔ ﻟﻞ ‪ " LNB settings " LNB‬وإﺧﺘﯿﺎر ﻧﻮع ﻏﯿﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻨﮭﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ أﺣﯿﺎﻧﺎ ﯾﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺨﯿﻦ اﻟﺒﺴﯿﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﮭﻮت إﯾﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻜﺮﯾﺴﺘﺎﻟﺔ أن ﺗﻌﻮد ﻟﺘﻌﻤﻞ‬‫طﺒﯿﻌﯿﺎ وﻟﻔﺘﺮة ﻗﺼﯿﺮة ﺟﺪا ﺛﻢ ﺗﻌﺎود اﻟﻌﻄﻞ ﺑﻤﺠﺮد أن ﺗﺒﺮد ﺣﺮارﺗﮭﺎ ‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ ھﺬه‬
‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻻ ﺟﺪوى ﻣﻨﮭﺎ وﯾﺠﺐ ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮھﺎ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻏﯿﺎب أﺣﺪ اﻟﺠﮭﻮد اﻟﻤﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﻟﻞ ‪ LNB‬أو ﻏﯿﺎب ﻧﺒﻀﺎت اﻟﺒﺮﺳﺖ ‪Tone Burst‬‬
‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ اﻟﺪاﯾﺴﻚ واﻟﺘﻮن ‪ Tone Burst‬اﻟﺨﺎص ﺑﺎل ‪BAND SWITCHING‬‬
‫ذﻛﺮﻧﺎ أن وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﯿﺔ ﺑﺠﮭﺎز اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ ‪ main power supply‬ھﻲ اﻟﻤﺼﺪر اﻟﻮﺣﯿﺪ ﻟﻠﺠﮭﻮد‬
‫داﺧﻞ ﺟﮭﺎز اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ‬
‫واﻟﺠﮭﻮد اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﺠﮭﺎ ھﺬه اﻟﻮﺣﺪة ھﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺟﮭﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﻗﺪره ‪ ١٢‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺟﮭﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﻗﺪره ‪ ٥‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺟﮭﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﻗﺪره ‪ ٣.٣‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺟﮭﺪ ﺳﺎﻟﺐ ﻗﺪره ‪ ١٢‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺟﮭﺪ ﺳﺎﻟﺐ ﻗﺪره ‪ ٥‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‬
‫ﻧﻼﺣﻆ أن ھﺬه اﻟﺠﮭﻮد ﻻ ﯾﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﯿﻨﮭﺎ أي ﻣﻦ اﻟﺠﮭﻮد ‪١٣‬‬
‫ﻓﻮﻟﺖ أو ‪ ١٨‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ ال ‪ LNB‬ﻋﻼوة ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ ﻧﻮع اﻹﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎب ‪،‬‬
‫وھﻲ ﺟﮭﻮد أﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ أﻛﺒﺮ ﺟﮭﺪ ﺗﻨﺘﺠﺔ وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ وھﻮ ‪ ١٢‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‬
‫وﺣﺪة ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ ال ‪LNB‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ اﻟﺠﮭﻮد ‪ ١٣‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ و ‪ ١٨‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ﺑﻜﺮوت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻧﮫ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام أي رﺳﯿﻔﺮ ﻋﺎدي ﺑﺨﻼف ﻛﺮوت‬
‫اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ ﻓﺈن ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ھﺬه اﻟﺠﮭﻮد ﯾﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل وﺣﺪة ﺑﺪاﺧﻞ ﻛﻞ رﺳﯿﻔﺮ ﺗﻜﻮن‬
‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ وﺗﻨﻈﯿﻢ واﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ھﺬه اﻟﺠﮭﻮد ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﻟﯿﺪ اﻟﺘﻮن ‪ ٢٢‬ك‬
‫وﯾﻌﺮﻓﮭﺎ اﻟﺠﻤﯿﻊ أﻧﮭﺎ وﺣﺪة ال ‪ LNB POWER = LNBP‬وﻣﻨﮭﺎ ‪، LNBP15 . LNBP20‬‬
‫واﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﺪ ھﺬا اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ﺑﺘﺨﻔﯿﺾ ﺟﮭﺪ اﻟﻤﺼﺪر اﻟﻤﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﮭﺎ ) ﻣﻦ وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮ ( واﻟﺬي ﯾﺼﻞ إﻟﻰ ‪ ٢٤‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‬
‫أﻣﺎ ﺟﮭﺎز اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ ﻓﺠﮭﺪ اﻟﻤﺼﺪر ﻻ ﯾﺘﻌﺪى ‪ ١٢‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ وھﻮ أﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﮭﺪ ﺗﻨﺘﺠﮫ أي وﺣﺪة ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﺑﺄي ﺟﮭﺎز‬
‫ﻛﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻤﻦ أﯾﻦ ﺳﻨﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺠﮭﻮد ‪ ١٣‬و ‪ ١٨‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ أي ‪ LNB‬؟‬
‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎن ﻻﺑﺪ ﻟﻜﺮوت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ وأن ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﺑﺪاﺧﻠﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ وﺣﺪة ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﻟﮭﺬا اﻟﺠﮭﺪ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ‪ ١٣‬و ‪١٨‬‬
‫ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ أي ‪ LNB‬ﻹﻓﺘﻘﺎر وﺣﺪة اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ ﻟﮭﺬه اﻟﺠﮭﻮد ‪ ،‬وھﺬه اﻟﻮﺣﺪة ھﻲ أﯾﻀﺎ وﺣﺪة‬
‫‪ LNB POWER‬وﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮع ﺧﺎص وﻣﻨﮭﺎ وﺣﺪة ال ‪ ، LNB POWER 21‬وﺣﺪة ال ‪LNB‬‬
‫‪ POWER 23‬وﺗﻤﺘﺎز‬
‫ھﺬا اﻟﻨﻮﻋﯿﺔ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿﺔ رﻓﻊ ﻗﯿﻤﺔ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ‪ ١٢‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ إﻟﻰ ﺟﮭﺪ ﯾﺼﻞ إﻟﻰ ‪ ٢٢‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‬
‫ﻓﯿﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺨﻔﯿﻀﮫ داﺧﻞ ھﺬه اﻟﻮﺣﺪة ﺑﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺟﮭﻮد ‪ ١٣‬أو ‪١٨‬‬
‫ﺣﺴﺐ ﻗﻄﺒﯿﺔ اﻹﺷﺎرة اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﺔ ) رأﺳﻲ أو أﻓﻘﻲ (‬
‫وﻋﻠﻰ ذﻟﻚ ﻓﺈن وﺣﺪة ال ‪ LNB‬ھﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﮭﺎ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻊ أﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮ ﻷﻧﮫ ﻻ دﺧﻞ ﻟﮭﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﻟﯿﺪ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ‬
‫اﻟﺨﺎص ﺑﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﮭﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ وﺣﺪة ال ‪ ( LNB POWER )LNBP‬ھﻲ اﻟﺠﺰء اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮل ﺑﺸﻜﻞ رﺋﯿﺴﻲ ﻋﻦ إﻧﺘﺎج‬
‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت ﻋﻤﻞ وﺣﺪة ال ‪ ، LNB‬وھﺬه اﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت ھﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﮭﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﻤﺤﺪدات اﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻈﻢ آداء ﻋﻤﻞ ال ‪LNB‬‬
‫‪LNB CONTROL‬‬
‫‪Band selection: 22 KHz‬‬
‫‪Polarity selection: 13/18 V‬‬
‫‪Tone burst mode‬‬
‫‪DiSEqC 1.0‬‬
‫وﻣﻦ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺤﺪدات ﻧﻮﻋﯿﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺠﮭﻮد ‪ power‬وﻧﻮﻋﯿﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺒﻀﺎت ‪: interface signals‬‬
‫ اﻟﻨﻮع اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ وﻗﺪره ‪ ١٣‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ﻓﯿﺨﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻨﻮات‬‫اﻟﺮأﺳﯿﺔ وﻏﯿﺎب ھﺬا اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ﺗﺨﺘﻔﻲ ﻛﻞ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻟﺮأﺳﯿﺔ وﻻ ﯾﻤﻜﻦ إﯾﺠﺎدھﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫أو ﺣﺘﻰ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﻠﻔﺎت اﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻟﺠﺎھﺰ ‪ ،‬وﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ إﻋﺎدة ﺗﺼﺤﯿﺢ وإﺻﻼح ھﺬا‬
‫اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ھﺬه اﻟﻘﻨﻮات‬
‫ اﻟﻨﻮع اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ وﻗﺪره ‪ ١٨‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ﻓﯿﺨﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻷﻓﻘﯿﺔ وﻏﯿﺎﺑﮫ ﻟﮫ‬‫ﻧﻔﺲ اﻷﺣﻜﺎم اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ وﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎب اﻷﻓﻘﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ وﻣﺎ ﯾﺨﺺ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات‬
‫اﻷﻓﻘﯿﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ أﻣﺎ اﻟﻨﻮع اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺒﻀﺎت ﻓﮭﻮ ﺗﺮدد ﻗﺪره ‪ ٢٢‬ﻛﯿﻠﻮھﺮﺗﺰ ‪ kHz ٢٢‬وظﯿﻔﺘﮫ ‪:‬‬‫أﻧﮫ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻮاﺟﺪه ﻓﺈﻧﮫ ﯾﻨﻘﻞ اﻟﻤﺬﺑﺬب اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻲ ﺑﻮﺣﺪة ال ‪ LNB‬ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﯿﺰ أﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺮدد ﺑﻤﺎ ﯾﺘﯿﺢ ﻟﮫ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺘﺮددات اﻟﻔﻮﻗﯿﺔ أو‬
‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﯿﺔ ) أي اﻟﺘﻲ ﯾﺘﻌﺪى ﺗﺮددھﺎ اﻟﻘﯿﻤﺔ ‪ ، ( GHz 11700‬ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﻄﻌﮫ‬
‫وإﻧﻌﺪاﻣﮫ ‪ ،‬ﯾﺒﺪأ اﻟﻤﺬﺑﺬب اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺘﺮددات اﻟﺘﺤﺘﯿﺔ أي‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ) أﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ ( GHz 11700‬وھﻮ ﻣﺎ ﯾﻌﺮف ﺑﺎل ‪BAND SWITCHING‬‬
‫‪-‬‬
‫واﻟﻨﻮع اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺒﻀﺎت ﻧﺒﻀﺎت اﻟﺒﺮﺳﺖ اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪاﯾﺴﻚ‬
‫وﻧﻌﻮد ﻟﻠﺴﺆال اﻟﺬي طﺮﺣﻨﺎه ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ وھﻮ ﻣﻦ أﯾﻦ ﻧﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ھﺬه اﻟﺠﮭﻮد اﻟﻌﺎﻟﯿﺔ ؟‬
‫واﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ھﻲ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻧﻮع ﺧﺎص ﻣﻦ ال ‪ LNB POWER‬ﺗﻜﻮن ﻟﮫ ﺧﺎﺻﯿﺔ أو ﻗﺪرة ﻋﻠﻰ رﻓﻊ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪ DC‬واﻟﺬي ﺗﺘﻐﺬى ﺑﮫ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ) وھﻮ ﺟﮭﺪ إﺑﺘﺪاﺋﻲ = ‪ ١٢‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ( إﻟﻰ ﺟﮭﺪ آﺧﺮ ﻗﺪ ﯾﺼﻞ إﻟﻰ ‪٢٢‬‬
‫ﻓﻮﻟﺖ وذﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪم دواﺋﺮ وأﻧﻮاع ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮﺳﻔﺖ ﺑﺪاﺧﻞ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪Built-in DC-DC‬‬
‫‪ ، converter for single 12 V supply‬وﺗﻌﺮف ھﺬه اﻟﺪاﺋﺮة ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺢ ‪Step-Up‬‬
‫‪Converter DC-DC‬‬
‫وھﻲ داﺋﺮة ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻤﺤﻮل راﻓﻊ ﻟﻠﺠﮭﺪ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫أﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪ ﻧﺒﻀﺎت اﻟﺘﻮن ‪ ٢٢‬ﻛﯿﻠﻮھﺮﺗﺰ ﻓﯿﺘﻢ ﻋﻦ طﺮﯾﻖ ﻣﻮﻟﺪ ﻧﺒﻀﺎت داﺧﻞ وﺣﺪة ال‬
‫‪ LNB POWER‬ﻧﻔﺴﮭﺎ ‪ Built-in 22kHz tone generator‬وﻟﯿﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺬﺑﺬب ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﯿﺚ ﺗﻤﺘﺎز اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﻘﯿﻖ إﻛﺘﻔﺎء ذاﺗﻲ ﻹﻧﺘﺎج ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺤﺪدات ﻋﻤﻞ وﺣﺪة ال‬
‫‪LNB‬‬
‫وﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮف أﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ھﺬه اﻟﻮﺣﺪات واﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻨﮭﺎ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪ LNBH21‬و اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪LNBH23‬‬
‫ﺳﻨﺘﻨﺎول ﺑﺎﻟﺪراﺳﺔ اﻟﺘﺨﻄﯿﻄﯿﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ ،‬اﻟﻨﻮع اﻷﺣﺪث وھﻮ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪LNBH23‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺜﺎل ﻟﮭﺬه اﻷﻧﻮاع واﻟﺘﻲ ﯾﺘﻀﺢ ﻣﻨﮭﺎ طﺮﯾﻔﺔ ﺗﺤﻮﯾﻞ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ‪ ١٢‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ إﻟﻰ ﺟﮭﺪ ﯾﺼﻞ‬
‫إﻟﻰ ‪ ٢٢‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺤﻮل اﻟﺮﻓﻊ ‪ ، DC-DC converter‬وﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﯾﻜﻮن‬
‫اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ﻗﺪ وﺻﻞ ﻟﺤﺪ ﻛﺒﯿﺮ ﯾﺸﻐﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻷﻓﻘﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﮭﺪ أﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ‬
‫‪ ١٧‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎن ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮاﺟﺐ ﻋﻤﻞ داﺋﺮة ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ ) ﻣﯿﻜﺮوﻛﻨﺘﺮوﻟﺮ (‬
‫ﺑﺪاﺧﻞ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﯿﻖ إﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿﺔ ﺧﻔﺾ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ إﻟﻰ ‪ ١٣‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ﻟﻤﺸﺎھﺪة‬
‫وﺑﺮﻣﺠﺔ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات ذات اﻹﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎب اﻟﺮأﺳﻲ ‪ ،‬وﯾﺘﻢ اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻮﻋﯿﺔ اﻹﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎب‬
‫ھﺬه ﺑﺘﻌﻠﯿﻤﺎت ﺗﻌﻄﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﯿﻜﺮوﻛﻨﺘﺮوﻟﺮ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد ﺑﺪاﺧﻞ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺳﻮاء ﻛﺎن ذﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯿﺎ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺮﯾﻤﻮت ﻛﻨﺘﺮول أو ﻋﻦ طﺮﯾﻖ اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ اﻵﻟﻲ اﻟﻤﺒﺮﻣﺞ أو ﻋﻦ‬
‫طﺮﯾﻖ اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﯿﺔ وﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﻌﻄﯿﺎت اﻹﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎب وﻣﻌﻄﯿﺎت ال ‪Band‬‬
‫‪ switching‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻗﻨﻮات ﺗﺨﺰن ﺑﮫ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﻌﻄﯿﺎت ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ أﺛﻨﺎء ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫واﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺣﯿﺚ ﺗﺘﺤﻮل ھﺬه اﻟﻤﻌﻄﯿﺎت إﻟﻰ ﻧﺒﻀﺎت ﺗﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺘﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻘﯿﻢ )‪ (٠,١‬ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻄﺮف ‪ VSEL‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ) ﯾﻈﮭﺮ ھﺬا اﻟﻄﺮف ﺑﺪاﺧﻞ اﻟﺼﻮرة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮﻛﻦ اﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﯾﺴﺎرا (‬
‫وﻋﻠﯿﮫ ﯾﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ ﻗﯿﻤﺔ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﻲ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻄﺮف ‪ VoRx‬اﻟﻤﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻮﺣﺪة ال ‪ LNB‬ﻟﯿﺼﺒﺢ إﻣﺎ ‪١٣‬‬
‫ﻓﻮﻟﺖ أو ﯾﻈﻞ ‪ ٢٢‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‬
‫وﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻔﺾ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ‪ ٢٢‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ إﻟﻰ ﺟﮭﺪ أﻗﻞ ) ‪ ١٨‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ( ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ ال ‪ LNB‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﺠﮭﺪ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﯾﺘﻢ أﯾﻀﺎ وﺑﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﻜﯿﻔﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﯾﻦ ﻧﺒﻀﺎت اﻟﺒﺮﺳﺖ اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪاﯾﺴﻚ‬
‫وھﺬه داﺋﺮة ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪة ﺗﻮﺿﺢ طﺮﯾﻘﺔ آداء اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺣﯿﺚ ﯾﺪﺧﻞ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ال ‪ ١٢‬ﻓﻮﻟﺖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻄﺮف ‪ Vcc‬وﯾﺨﺮج ﺟﮭﺪ ﻗﺪره ‪ v١٨/١٣‬ﻣﻊ ﻧﺒﻀﺎت اﻟﺘﻮن ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل‬
‫اﻟﻄﺮف ‪VoRx‬‬
‫اﻷﻋﻄﺎل اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻒ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪: LNB power‬‬
‫ اﻟﺘﻠﻒ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﯾﻌﻨﻲ ﻏﯿﺎب ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻺﺷﺎرة ﺳﻮاء اﻷﻓﻘﯿﺔ أو اﻟﺮأﺳﯿﺔ‬‫ اﻟﺘﻠﻒ اﻟﺠﺰﺋﻲ ﻟﮭﺎ ﻗﺪ ﯾﺴﺒﺐ ‪:‬‬‫ ظﮭﻮر اﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻷﻓﻘﯿﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ دون اﻟﺮأﺳﯿﺔ أو اﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬‫ظﮭﻮر اﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻟﻔﻮﻗﯿﺔ ) ﺗﺮددھﺎ أﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ‪ ( ١١٧٠٠‬أو اﻟﺘﺤﺘﯿﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻏﯿﺎب اﻟﺘﻮن‬
‫ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺣﺎﻻت اﻟﻘﺼﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ اﻟﻤﺤﻮري اﻟﻤﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎل ‪ LNB‬ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻒ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ أو‬‫ﺣﺪوث ﻗﺼﺮ داﺧﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻒ اﻟﺬي ﯾﺮﺑﻂ ﺧﺮج اﻟﻮﺣﺪة ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﺑﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻧﺠﺪه ﯾﺘﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻮازي ﺑﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﻣﺠﺰئ ﺗﯿﺎر ﻗﯿﻤﺘﮭﺎ ﺻﻐﯿﺮة ﺟﺪا ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ ‪ ١٥‬أوم ﻟﺤﻤﺎﯾﺘﮫ ‪ ،‬وﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺘﺮق ھﺬه اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ اﻟﺤﻤﻞ اﻟﺰاﺋﺪ وﯾﺼﺒﺢ اﻟﺤﻤﻞ ﻛﻠﮫ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻠﻒ وﺣﺪه ‪،‬‬
‫وﺗﻠﻒ ھﺬا اﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻗﺪ ﯾﺤﺪث ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ ﺣﺪوث ﻗﺼﺮ داﺧﻠﻲ ﺑﮫ ﯾﺠﻌﻠﮫ ﯾﺴﺨﻦ ﺑﺸﺪة وﺗﺰداد‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎﻧﻌﺘﮫ ﻣﻤﺎ ﯾﺆدي إﻟﻰ ﻓﻘﺪان ﻧﺒﻀﺎت اﻟﺘﻮن وھﻮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﯿﻮب اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺸﺮة ﺑﻜﺎرت‬
‫اﻟﺴﻜﺎي ﺳﺘﺎر‪ ٢‬وﻣﻈﮭﺮه ﻓﻘﺪ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻟﻔﻮﻗﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﮫ ﺑﺠﻮار‬
‫اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﻣﻜﺘﻮب ﻋﻠﯿﮫ اﻟﺮﻗﻢ ‪ ١٠٢‬ﻣﻦ أﻋﻠﻰ رﻗﻢ أﻣﺎ رﻗﻤﮫ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺒﻮرده ﻓﮭﻮ ‪L7‬‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎﻧﻌﺘﺔ ‪ ١‬ﻣﯿﻜﺮوھﻨﺮي ‪ mH١‬و ﺷﺪة ﺗﯿﺎره ‪ mA٥٠٠‬واﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﯿﮫ ﻟﯿﺲ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ اﻟﺼﻌﺐ ‪،‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﮭﻢ أن ﯾﺘﺤﻤﻞ ﺗﯿﺎر ﺷﺪﺗﮫ ‪mA٥٠٠‬‬
‫وأﺣﯿﺎﻧﺎ أﺧﺮى ﯾﻜﻮن ھﺬا اﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺘﺢ )‪ (open‬ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ وﺟﻮد داﺋﺮة ﻗﺼﺮ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﺑﻞ ال ‪coax‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎل ‪LNB‬‬
‫وﻋﻨﺪ إﺳﺘﺒﺪال اﻟﻤﻠﻒ وﯾﺠﺐ اﻹﺣﺘﺮاس أﺛﻨﺎء ﻓﻚ ﻟﺤﺎﻣﺎت اﻟﻘﺪﯾﻢ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫اﻟﺒﻮردة وﻣﺎ ﺣﻮل اﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺎت وﻣﻜﺜﻔﺎت دﻗﯿﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬وﯾﻔﻀﻞ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﮭﻮت إﯾﺮ‬
‫وﯾﻔﻀﻞ ﻓﺼﻞ اﻟﻤﻜﺜﻒ ‪ C5‬اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد ﺑﯿﻦ اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ واﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﻟﺘﺴﮭﯿﻞ رؤﯾﺔ اﻟﻠﺤﺎﻣﺎت‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻧﺒﻀﺎت اﻟﺪاﯾﺴﻚ ﯾﺆدي إﻟﻰ ﻣﺸﺎھﺪة ﻗﻤﺮ واﺣﺪ وإﻧﻘﻄﺎع ﺑﺎﻗﻲ اﻷﻗﻤﺎر‬‫واﻟﺴﺆال اﻵن ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﯿﻒ ﺗﻔﺮق ﺑﯿﻦ ﺗﻠﻒ اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ أو ﺗﻠﻒ ال ‪ LNB power‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻐﯿﺎب اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات وإﻧﻘﻄﺎع‬
‫اﻹﺷﺎرة؟‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻐﯿﺎب اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات وإﻧﻘﻄﺎع اﻹﺷﺎرة ﻣﻦ ﻣﻈﺎھﺮ اﻟﺤﺎﻻت اﻟﺘﻲ ﯾﺸﺘﺮك ﻓﯿﮭﺎ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ‬
‫واﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫وﯾﺘﻢ اﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ أوﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﺈﺟﺮاء إﺧﺘﺒﺎرﺑﺴﯿﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻓﯿﺘﻢ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ أوﻻ وذﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﯿﺎس ﺟﮭﺪ اﻟﺨﺮج اﻟﻤﻮﺻﻞ ﻟﻞ ‪LNB‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ وﺑﺪون ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ ‪ ،‬وﯾﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻔﮭﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻣﮫ ﺑﺄﻹﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ أﯾﻀﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮ آﺧﺮﺳﻠﯿﻢ ﯾﻜﻮن ھﻮ اﻟﻤﺼﺪر اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ واﻟﺘﻮن وﯾﻮﺻﻞ ﻣﻌﮫ ﻛﺎرت‬
‫اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ ﺑﻤﺪﺧﻞ ‪ LNB2‬ﺑﺤﯿﺚ ﯾﻜﻮن اﻟﻜﺎرت ھﻮ اﻟﺘﺎﺑﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن أﻣﻜﻦ ﻣﺸﺎھﺪة‬
‫اﻟﻘﻨﻮات ﻋﻦ طﺮﯾﻖ ﻛﺎرت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ ﯾﻜﻮن اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﺳﻠﯿﻢ واﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺗﻨﺤﺼﺮﺑﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ال ‪LNB POWER‬‬
‫أﻣﺎ إذا إﺳﺘﻤﺮ اﻟﻌﻄﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﺠﮭﻮد ﻓﯿﺤﺘﻤﻞ وﺟﻮد ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ أو ﺑﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺼﺪر ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﺘﺪﯾﺎت درﯾﻢ ﺳﺎت اﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬
‫‪٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﺒﻊ اﻹﺷﺎرة ﺑﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ واﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ‬
‫‪IF stage & Demodulator‬‬
‫ﻓﻜﺮة ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺔ ﻟﻜﻨﮭﺎ ھﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻔﮭﻢ طﺒﯿﻌﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﯾﻦ اﻹﺷﺎرة وﺗﺘﺒﻌﮭﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﺮﻓﻨﺎ أن اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ھﻮ اﻟﺠﺰء اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮل ﻋﻦ إﻧﺘﺨﺎب اﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ واﻟﺘﻲ ﯾﺤﻤﻠﮭﺎ اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ‪Carrier‬‬
‫‪.wave‬‬
‫ھﺬا اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ھﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﮫ اﻹﺷﺎرة اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻤﺮ اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬وھﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﯿﮫ ‪Transponder‬‬
‫وﯾﻜﻮن ﻋﻠﻰ ھﯿﺌﺔ إﺷﺎرة ﺗﻨﺎظﺮﯾﺔ ) أﻧﺎﻟﻮج ( ﻣﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ﻋﺪة ﻗﻨﻮات‬
‫رﻗﻤﯿﺔ ) اﻟﺼﻮت ‪ ،‬اﻟﺼﻮرة ‪ ،‬اﻟﺘﺰاﻣﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت دﻟﯿﻞ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات ‪Electronic‬‬
‫‪ (Program Guide (EPG‬وﻗﻨﻮات اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ‪ Teletext‬واﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت ‪، Data‬‬
‫وﯾﻤﯿﺰ ﻛﻞ ﻗﻨﺎة ﻋﻦ اﻷﺧﺮى داﺧﻞ ﻛﻞ ‪ Transponder‬ﺑﺒﻌﺾ اﻟﺘﻌﺎرﯾﻒ اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻜﻞ ﻗﻨﺎة وھﻲ ‪،‬‬
‫‪ ( PMT VPID , APID, PCR‬وﺗﻜﻮن ﻛﻞ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت أو ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ رﻗﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻀﻐﻮط وﻣﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ھﺬا اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ‪impressed onto an analog carrier wave‬‬
‫ھﺬا اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﻨﺎظﺮي ﯾﺘﻢ إﺧﺘﯿﺎره ﻣﻦ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻋﺪة ﺗﺮددات ﯾﺮﺳﻠﮭﺎ اﻟﻘﻤﺮ‬
‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﯿﺠﺎ ھﺮﺗﺰ ‪ GHz‬وﺗﺨﺮج ﻣﻦ وﺣﺪة ال ‪ LNB‬ﺑﻘﯿﻢ ﺗﺘﺮاوح ﻓﯿﻤﺎ ﺑﯿﻦ‬
‫‪ ٢١٥٠ -٩٥٠‬ﻣﯿﺠﺎ ھﺮﺗﺰ ‪MHz‬‬
‫وﻛﻤﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﻨﺎ ﻓﺈن اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﯾﻘﻮم ﺑﺨﻔﺾ ھﺬا اﻟﺘﺮدد ﻟﺠﻤﯿﻊ اﻟﺘﺮددات اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺨﺮج‬
‫ﺟﻤﯿﻌﮭﺎ ﺑﺘﺮدد ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻮﺣﺪ ‪ ( Intermediate frequency (IF‬ﻗﺪره ‪ ٤٥٠‬ﻣﯿﺠﺎھﺮﺗﺰ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻞ ‪ Transponder‬ﺗﻢ إﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﮫ ﺑﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ‬
‫ھﺬا اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﯾﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻟﺮﻗﻤﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﻀﻐﻮطﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻠﺔ أﯾﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮدد ﺗﻨﺎظﺮي وﻟﻜﻨﮫ‬
‫أﻗﻞ ﺗﺮددا ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ اﻷﺻﻠﻲ‬
‫واﻟﺼﻮرة ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ رﺳﻢ ﺗﺨﻄﯿﻄﻲ ﻟﻮﺣﺪة ﺗﯿﻮﻧﺮ ﺳﯿﻠﯿﻜﻮﻧﻲ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ اﻹﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺑﻜﺮوت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ‬
‫‪Cx24109‬‬
‫وﯾﺘﻢ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﻟﻘﻨﻮات ﻋﻦ ھﺬا اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﻜﺎﺷﻒ ‪ ،‬وﻟﻜﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻔﮭﻢ ﻛﯿﻒ ﺗﺘﻢ ھﺬه اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ ﯾﺠﺐ أوﻻ أن ﻧﻠﻘﻲ ﻧﻈﺮة ﺳﺮﯾﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﻟﻘﻨﻮات ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻤﺤﻄﺎت اﻹرﺳﺎل وﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﺜﮭﺎ ﻟﻸﻗﻤﺎر‬
‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬
‫ﺣﯿﺚ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ أﻧﮫ ﯾﺤﺪث ﻣﺰج ﻟﻤﺎ ﯾﻌﺮف إﺻﻄﻼﺣﯿﺎ ب ‪ IQ data‬وھﻲ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻟﺮﻗﻤﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﻀﻐﻮطﺔ ) وﺗﻈﮭﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮرة اﻟﻌﻠﯿﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻮﺟﺎت ﻣﺮﺑﻌﺔ (‬
‫واﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺰج ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﻨﺎظﺮي ‪ carrier wave‬ﻟﻜﻞ ‪ Transponder‬اﻟﺬي‬
‫ﯾﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﻟﯿﺪه ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ ﻣﺬﺑﺬب ﻣﺤﻠﻲ ‪ ) local oscillator‬وﯾﻈﮭﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮرة ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ اﻟﺠﯿﺒﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﺮدد ( ‪ ،‬وﯾﺘﻢ اﻟﻤﺰج ﻋﻦ طﺮﯾﻖ ‪ Mixer‬وﺗﻨﺘﺞ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺪﻟﺔ وھﻲ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻈﮭﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻄﺮ اﻷﺧﯿﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺼﻮرة وﺗﻌﺮف‬
‫إﺻﻄﻼﺣﯿﺎ ﺑﻤﻐﯿﺮ اﻟﻮﺟﮫ رﺑﺎﻋﻰ اﻟﻄﻮر أو ﺑﺎل ‪ QPSK‬أو ‪Quadrature phase shift‬‬
‫‪keying (QPSK) modulators‬‬
‫وھﻨﺎك طﺮﯾﻘﺔ أﺧﺮى ﺗﻌﺮف إﺻﻄﻼﺣﯿﺎ ﺑﻤﻐﯿﺮ اﻟﻮﺟﮫ ﺛﻨﺎﺛﻲ اﻟﻄﻮر أو ﺑﺎل ‪ BPSK‬وھﻲ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮرة اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ وﺗﻌﺮف ﺑﺎل ‪(Binary phase shift keying (BPSK‬‬
‫‪modulators‬‬
‫وھﻨﺎ ﺗﺠﺪ طﺮق أﺧﺮى ﻣﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت اﻟﺘﻌﺪﯾﻞ وﻣﻨﮭﺎ – ﻣﻦ أﻋﻠﻰ ﯾﻤﯿﻦ‬
‫اﻟﺼﻮرة ﻓﺄﺳﻔﻞ ‪ :‬اﻟﺘﻌﺪﯾﻞ اﻹﺗﺴﺎﻋﻲ واﻟﺘﺮددي ﺛﻢ اﻟﺬي ﯾﮭﻤﻨﺎ وھﻮ ﻣﻐﯿﺮ اﻟﻮﺟﮫ‬
‫‪٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﻮد ﻟﻠﺮﯾﺴﻔﺮ ﻣﺮة اﺧﺮى‬
‫‪Demodulatation‬‬
‫وﻓﻲ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﯾﺘﻢ إﻋﺎدة إﺳﺘﺨﻼص اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات ﻣﻦ داﺧﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﮫ وھﻮ ﻋﻤﯿﻠﺔ ﻋﻜﺴﯿﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺪﯾﻞ ‪ modulatation‬اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺖ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﻄﺎت اﻹرﺳﺎل ‪ ،‬ﺣﯿﺚ ﺗﺠﺮى ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ ﻛﺸﻒ ھﺬا اﻟﺘﻌﺪﯾﻞ ﺑﻤﺎ ﯾﻌﺮف ﺑﺎل‬
‫‪ Demodulatation‬وذﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺤﻮﯾﻞ اﻹﺷﺎرة ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﺎظﺮي إﻟﻰ رﻗﻤﻲ ‪Analog to‬‬
‫‪Digital convertor A/D‬‬
‫وﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻼت اﻟﺸﮭﯿﺮة اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﻮم ﺑﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺑﻜﺮوت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪CX24123‬‬
‫أﻋﻄﺎل ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬
‫ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻟﮭﺎ أھﻤﯿﺔ ﻛﺒﺮى ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت اﻟﺒﺤﺚ اﻟﻌﺎدي اﻟﯿﺪوي واﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫اﻷوﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﻜﻲ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات وھﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ إﺗﻤﺎم ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪى ﻗﺪره ‪ ١٠ ±‬ﻣﯿﺠﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻗﯿﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﻔﻌﻠﯿﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ أﻧﮭﺎ ﻟﮭﺎ أھﻤﯿﺔ ﻛﺒﺮى ﻓﻲ ﻓﻚ ﻛﻮد ﺗﺼﺤﯿﺢ اﻟﺨﻄﺄ اﻷﻣﺎﻣﻲ ‪Forward Error‬‬
‫‪ ، Correction (FEC) decoder‬وأﯾﻀﺎ رﻓﻊ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻜﺴﺐ اﻷوﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﻜﻲ ﻟﻺﺷﺎرة‬
‫)‪ automatic gain control (AGC‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ وﺟﻮد اﻟﺴﺤﺐ اﻟﻜﺜﯿﻔﺔ أو وﻗﺖ ﺳﻘﻮط‬
‫اﻷﻣﻄﺎر‬
‫وﯾﺘﻀﺢ أن ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻛﻠﯿﺔ ﯾﻌﻨﻲ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ و إﻧﻘﻄﺎع اﻹﺷﺎرة وإﻧﻌﺪام اﻟﻤﺸﺎھﺪة ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺪ ﯾﺘﺴﺒﺐ اﻟﺨﻠﻞ اﻟﺠﺰﺋﻲ ﺑﻤﺤﯿﻂ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ) ﻣﻜﺜﻔﺎت ‪ -‬ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺎت ( ﻓﻲ ﺣﺪوث اﻟﺘﻘﻄﯿﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮرة أو‬
‫ﺗﺠﻤﺪھﺎ ‪ ،‬وﻛﺬا اﻟﺘﻘﻄﯿﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮت‬
‫اﻟﻤﺼﺪر ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﺘﺪﯾﺎت درﯾﻢ ﺳﺎت اﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﯿﺔ‪http://ahmed2010.dahek.net/t3698- :‬‬
‫‪topic#ixzz3cwYE2vwP‬‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ اﻟﻔﯿﺪﯾﻮ ) اﻟﺼﻮرة ( واﻷودﯾﻮ ) اﻟﺼﻮت (‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮف ﻋﻠﻰ أھﻤﯿﺔ ال ‪ ، MPEG‬وال ‪ Codec‬ﻓﻲ أﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻹﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل اﻟﺘﻠﯿﻔﺰﯾﻮﻧﻲ اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻮاء اﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻲ أواﻷرﺿﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ اﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﯾﺒﻘﻰ ﻟﺪﯾﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﻟﺼﻮرة واﻟﺼﻮت وﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﻷﺧﺮى ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ أي إﺷﺎرة ﺗﻠﯿﻔﺰﯾﻮﻧﯿﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺰاﻣﻦ واﻟﻨﺼﻮع‬
‫واﻷﻟﻮان واﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات‬
‫وﻗﺪﯾﻤﺎ وﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻈﺎم اﻷﻧﺎﻟﻮج وﻗﺒﻞ ظﮭﻮر اﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺮﻗﻤﯿﺔ ﻛﺎن ﻛﻞ ‪ Transponder‬ﯾﺤﻤﻞ ﻗﻨﺎة واﺣﺪة ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬
‫أﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺮﻗﻤﯿﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن ﻛﻞ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت واﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺪد ﻛﺒﯿﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات ﯾﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻄﮭﺎ ﺑﺈﺳﻠﻮب وطﺮﯾﻘﺔ ﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻌﯿﻨﺔ ﻟﯿﺘﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪ ‪ Transponder‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﻞ ھﺬه اﻟﻘﻨﻮات واﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﮭﺎ دﻓﻌﺔ واﺣﺪة‬
‫وﺗﻌﺮف ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ ھﺬه ﺑﺎل ‪، digital video compression‬‬
‫وﯾﺘﻢ ﻓﯿﮭﺎ إﺧﺘﺼﺎر ودﻣﺞ ﺟﻤﯿﻊ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ واﻟﻤﻜﺮرة ﺑﯿﻦ ﻋﺪد ﻣﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻘﻨﻮات ووﺿﻌﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻀﻐﻮط أﺛﻨﺎء ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ اﻹرﺳﺎل وﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﯾﻌﺮف ﺑﺎل‬
‫‪ ،Mpeg Encoder‬ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ ﯾﺘﻢ ﻓﻚ ھﺬا اﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﺄﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬
‫اﻹﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل اﻟﺮﻗﻤﯿﺔ ﺳﻮاء ﻛﺎﻧﺖ رﺳﯿﻔﺮات أو ﻛﺮوت ﺳﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ أو ﺣﺘﻰ أﺟﮭﺰة‬
‫اﻟﺘﻠﯿﻔﺰﯾﻮن اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺜﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات اﻟﺮﻗﻤﯿﺔ وﯾﻌﺎد ﻟﻜﻞ ﻗﻨﺎة اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬
‫اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﮭﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﺎ ﯾﻌﺮف ﺑﺎل ‪Mpeg Decoder‬‬
‫أي أن اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ ‪ compressing/decompressing‬أو ‪coding/decoding‬‬
‫وﻟﺘﻘﺮﯾﺐ ھﺬا اﻟﻤﻔﮭﻮم وﺗﺒﺴﯿﻄﮫ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﮫ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﺸﺎھﺪ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻓﯿﺪﯾﻮ ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣﻀﻐﻮط ﻣﺪﺗﮫ ‪ ٥‬دﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻓﺈﻧﮫ ﯾﻠﺰﻣﻚ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻦ ﺿﺨﻤﺔ ﺟﺪا ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﮭﺎزك ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام وﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺿﻐﻂ اﻟﻔﯿﺪﯾﻮ أو اﻷودﯾﻮ أﻣﻜﻦ ﺗﺼﻐﯿﯿﺮ ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎت‬
‫وﺗﺨﺰﯾﻨﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ وﺳﺎﺋﻂ اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ وﯾﺘﻢ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﮭﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﻚ ﺿﻐﻄﮭﺎ‬
‫وﺗﺤﻮﯾﻠﮭﺎ ﻟﺼﯿﻐﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﮭﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﮭﺎزك ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﻜﻮدﻛﺲ‬
‫واﻟﻤﻠﺘﯿﻤﯿﺪﯾﺎ اﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻨﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺎھﺪﺗﺔ أو اﻹﺳﺘﻤﺎع اﻟﯿﮫ ‪ ،‬وﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺸﺎھﺪة اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮة ﻣﻦ اﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ أن اﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﯾﺘﻢ ﻓﻚ ﺿﻐﻄﮫ ﻋﻠﻰ دﻓﻌﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﻓﻨﺸﺎھﺪه ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ أﺛﻨﺎء ﻓﻚ ﺟﻤﯿﻊ أﺟﺰاءه واﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺨﺰن ﺑﺬاﻛﺮة‬
‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ اﻟﻤﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ وﻣﺘﺰاﻣﻦ أﯾﻀﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫وﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ وﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ دوﻟﯿﺔ ﻗﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ ھﺬه ﺳﻮاء ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﻟﺼﻮرة أو اﻟﺼﻮت‬
‫‪International standard for digital compression of audio and video signals‬‬
‫ھﺬه اﻟﻤﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ ﯾﻀﻌﮭﺎ ﺧﺒﺮاء ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﻮن ﻓﻲ أﻋﻤﺎل اﻟﻤﺴﺢ اﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺼﻮر اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ ) اﻟﻔﯿﺪﯾﻮ( وﻣﻦ ھﺬه‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ ﻣﺎ ﯾﻌﺮف ﺑﺎل ‪MPEG‬واﻹﺳﻢ إﺧﺘﺼﺎر ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻠﺔ‬
‫‪Moving Picture Experts Group‬‬
‫وال ‪ MPEG - 2‬ھﻮ اﻣﺘﺪاد وﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ ﻟﻞ ‪MPEG – 1‬‬
‫وال ‪ MPEG –1‬ھﻮ ﻣﻌﯿﺎر ﯾﺨﺘﺺ ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻔﯿﺪﯾﻮ‬
‫) اﻟﺼﻮرة ( اﻟﻤﻤﺴﻮﺣﮫ ﺿﻮﺋﯿﺎ ﺗﺪرﯾﺠﯿﺎ وﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﻷودﯾﻮ ) اﻟﺼﻮت( ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺪﻻت ﺑﺖ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻞ اﻟﻰ ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ ‪ ، Mbit/s ١.٥‬وﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم ھﺬا اﻟﻤﻌﯿﺎر ﻓﻲ أﻧﻈﻤﺔ إﺳﻄﻮاﻧﺎت‬
‫اﻟﻔﯿﺪﯾﻮ واﻷودﯾﻮ ال ‪ compact disc interactive‬وھﻲ ال ‪CD-i‬‬
‫ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ ال ‪ MPEG – 2‬ﻓﮭﻮ ﻣﻌﯿﺎر ﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻔﯿﺪﯾﻮ‬
‫واﻷودﯾﻮ ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻻت أﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻜﺜﯿﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ MPEG –1‬وﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﻲ أﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﺚ اﻟﻘﻨﻮات‬
‫اﻟﺘﻠﯿﻔﺰﯾﻮﻧﯿﺔ اﻟﺮﻗﻤﯿﺔ ﺳﻮاء اﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﯿﺔ أو اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬
‫وﻋﻠﻰ ھﺬا اﻻﺳﺎس ﻓﺎل ‪ MPEG – 4‬ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪة طﺮق‬
‫وأﺳﺎﻟﯿﺐ ﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻔﯿﺪﯾﻮ واﻷودﯾﻮ ) اﻟﺴﻤﻌﯿﺎت واﻟﻤﺮﺋﯿﺎت اﻟﺮﻗﻤﯿﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻀﻐﻮطﺔ ‪ compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data‬ﺑﻤﻌﺪﻻت أﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺘﮭﺎ وﻓﻖ اﻟﺘﻘﺪم اﻟﻤﺬھﻞ ﺑﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﺒﺚ واﻻﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل اﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻲ واﻻرﺿﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻤﺨﺘﻠﻒ وﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻت اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺜﺔ )‪(streaming media‬ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ اﻟﺠﻮدة‬
‫وﻓﻲ أﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻹﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل ‪ ،‬ﯾﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ ھﺬه اﻷﺟﮭﺰة ﺑﺎﻟﮭﺎردوﯾﺮ ‪ hardware decoders‬وأﯾﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﻓﺘﻮﯾﺮ‬
‫واﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺮف ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻮدك )‪ (codec‬وھﻮ إﺧﺘﺼﺎر ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻠﺔ ‪COder/DECoder‬‬
‫وﺗﺮﺟﻊ أھﻤﯿﺔ ھﺬا اﻟﻜﻮدك إﻟﻰ أﻧﮫ ﯾﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ إﺷﺎرات اﻟﺼﻮت واﻟﺼﻮرة اﻟﺮﻗﻤﯿﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻀﻐﻮطﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﯿﺚ ﯾﺤﻮﻟﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ ﺻﯿﻐﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻹرﺳﺎﻟﮭﺎ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻣﺤﻄﺎت اﻹرﺳﺎل وذﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺑﺮﺗﻮﻛﻮﻻت ﻣﻌﯿﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﯾﻌﯿﺪ ھﺬه اﻟﺼﯿﻎ إﻟﻰ ﺻﯿﻎ أﺧﺮى ﯾﻔﮭﻤﮭﺎ ﺟﮭﺎز‬
‫اﻟﺮﺳﯿﻔﺮ أو ﻛﺎرت اﻟﺴﺎﺗﻼﯾﺖ أو اﻟﺘﻠﯿﻔﺰﯾﻮن اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫اﻟﺒﺮوﺗﻮﻛﻮﻻت ‪ ،‬وﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﯾﺠﺐ أن ﺗﺼﻤﻢ أﺟﮭﺰة اﻹﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل ﻟﺘﻜﻮن ﻣﺘﻮاﻓﻘﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺜﯿﻼﺗﮭﺎ ﻣﻦ أﺟﮭﺰة اﻹرﺳﺎل‬
‫ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪا ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﺘﻠﻒ أو ﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻠﻲ واﻟﻜﻮدك اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
‫‪ ،‬وﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻜﻮن ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ وﺣﺪة ھﺎردوﯾﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ وﻣﻦ أﻣﺜﻠﺘﮭﺎ ‪، Cx23416‬‬
‫‪ CX23883-19‬وﻏﯿﺮھﺎ‬
‫أوﺗﻜﻮن ﻣﺪﻣﺠﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪ chipset‬ﻛﻤﺎ أﻧﻈﻤﺔ ال ‪ Digital Set-top Box‬أو ﻣﺪﻣﺠﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺷﯿﺒﺎت أﺧﺮى ﻛﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪ B2C2‬اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﻜﺎرت اﻟﺴﻜﺎي ﺳﺘﺎر ‪skystar2 ٢‬‬
‫وھﻨﺎك أﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم ھﺎردوﯾﺮ ﺑﻞ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺴﻮﻓﺘﻮﯾﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫وھﻨﺎك أﻧﻈﻤﺔ أﺧﺮى ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻼ اﻟﮭﺎردوﯾﺮ واﻟﺴﻮﻓﺘﻮﯾﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت ﻓﻚ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ وﺗﺤﻮﯾﻼت اﻟﺼﯿﻎ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﯾﺘﺒﯿﻦ ﻟﻨﺎ أن ‪:‬‬
‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﮭﺬه اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﯾﻌﻨﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻛﻠﯿﺔ أو ﺗﻠﻒ ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﺗﮭﺎ وﻣﻜﻤﻼﺗﮭﺎ أو ﺑﺮاﻣﺠﮭﺎ ﯾﻌﻨﻲ إﻧﻘﻄﺎع اﻟﺼﻮت واﻟﺼﻮرة ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﺎم‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﯾﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ إﻧﻘﻄﺎع اﻹﺷﺎرة ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ وﺗﻜﻮن ﺷﺒﯿﮭﺔ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﺑﺄﻋﻄﺎل اﻟﺘﯿﻮﻧﺮ أو‬
‫اﻟﺘﻠﻒ اﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻮﺣﺪة ال ‪ LNB‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﻈﮭﺮ أي دﻻﻻت ﻟﻘﻮة اﻹﺷﺎرة ﺳﻮاء ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﯿﻦ‬
‫اﻟﺠﻮدة ‪ Signal Quality‬أو ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﯿﻦ اﻟﻘﻮة ‪Signal Strength‬‬
‫وﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺒﺪأ ﻓﺬه اﻷﻋﻄﺎل ﺑﺘﻘﻄﯿﻊ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺼﻮت أو ﺗﻤﺰﯾﻖ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺼﻮرة أو ﻗﺪ ﯾﺤﺪث اﻟﻌﻄﻞ دون ﺳﺎﺑﻖ إﻧﺬار‬
‫أﻣﺎ اﻟﻌﻄﻞ اﻟﺠﺰﺋﻲ ﻓﻘﺪ ﯾﻈﮭﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻏﯿﺎب اﻟﺼﻮت أو ﺗﻘﻄﯿﻌﮫ‬
‫ﻏﯿﺎب اﻟﺼﻮرة أوﺗﻘﻄﯿﻌﮭﺎ أو ﺗﺠﻤﯿﺪھﺎ‬
‫إﺧﺘﻔﺎء اﻟﺼﻮرة ﻣﻊ ظﮭﻮر ﺧﻠﻔﯿﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮن واﺣﺪ أو ﻟﻮﻧﯿﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺑﯿﻦ اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ أﻟﻮان اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ ) اﻷﺣﻤﺮ‬
‫واﻷﺧﻀﺮ واﻷزرق (‬
‫ظﮭﻮر أﻟﻮان ﻏﯿﺮ ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮرة أو أﻟﻮان ﺑﺎھﺘﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺄﺧﺮ اﻟﺼﻮت ﻋﻦ اﻟﺼﻮرة أو ﺗﺄﺧﺮ اﻟﺼﻮرة ﻋﻦ اﻟﺼﻮت أو ﻓﻘﺪان اﻟﺘﺰاﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﮭﺎز‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ظﮭﻮر اﻟﺼﻮر اﻟﻤﻤﺰﻗﺔ وھﺒﻮط ﻣﺴﺘﻮى ﻣﺒﯿﻦ ﺟﻮدة اﻹﺷﺎرة ‪. Signal Quality‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ أن ھﺬه اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻜﻔﺎءة إﻻ ﻓﻲ وﺟﻮد ﺳﻮﻓﺘﻮﯾﺮ وﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﻜﻮدك ﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫‪ mpeg2_decoders‬و ‪ elecard‬و ‪ K-Lite Codec‬و ‪ ivx MPEG-4٣‬و ‪FFDShow‬‬
‫‪MPEG-4 Video Decoder‬‬
‫وﯾﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ أﺣﺪث ھﺬه اﻟﺒﺮﺗﻤﺢ واﻟﻔﻼﺗﺮ واﻟﻜﻮدﯾﻚ ﻣﻦ ھﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻔﯿﺪﯾﻮ‬
‫‪http://www.codecs.com/Video_Codecs.htm‬‬
‫ﻟﻼودﯾﻮ‬
‫‪http://www.codecs.com/Audio_Codecs.htm‬‬
‫وﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻠﻒ ھﺬه اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻈﮭﺮ اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ ﻣﻦ رﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﺨﻄﺄ ﻋﻼوة ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻮء ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺼﻮت واﻟﺼﻮرة أو‬
‫إﻧﻌﺪاﻣﮭﺎ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺼﺪر ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﺘﺪﯾﺎت درﯾﻢ ﺳﺎت اﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﯿﺔ‪http://ahmed2010.dahek.net/t3698- :‬‬
‫‪topic#ixzz3cwYxl62u‬‬
‫‪٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠‬‬
‫اﻟﻔﺮق ﺑﯿﻦ اﺷﺎرﺗﻰ اﻟﻔﯿﺪﯾﻮ‬
‫‪Composite Video vs. S-video‬‬
Diffen ›
Technology ›
Consumer Electronics
Composite video adapts the format of an analog picture signal which is
then combined with sound signals and subsequently modulated through an
R F Carrier. It is a composite signal from three different sources called the
Y, U and V, which are combined with sync pulses. Y represents
luminance; U and V carry the hue and saturation, which together
constitutes the chrominance. So, U and V together carry the information
on the color signals. Composite video is also often called the CVBS,
which is an abbreviation for Colour, Video, Blank and Sync.
S-video is known as "separate video" and sometimes also wrongly
addressed as the "super video". This is also a video analog signal that
carries the information in two different signals, namely the chroma, which
means colour; and luma, which means luminance. It carries standard
definition video in a single cable, and does not combine it with audio
signals. Both S-video and Composite Video are different from each other
in various aspects.
Type
Analog video connector
Analog video connector
External
yes
Yes
Video signal
NTSC, PAL, or SECAM video NTSC, PAL, or SECAM video
Pins
1 plus screen
Connector
RCA connector, 1/8 inch Jack
Mini-DIN connector
plug, etc.
4 or 7
Separate Video , more
Composite video is the
commonly known as S-Video,
format of an analog
also called Y/C, and
Introduction television (picture only)
sometimes incorrectly
(from
signal before it is combined referred to as Super Video , is
Wikipedia)
with a sound signal and
an analog video signal that
modulated onto an RF
carries video data as two
carrier.
separate signals: luma
(luminance) and chroma
(color). This differs fro
Hot pluggable Yes
Yes
Through single low quality
Picture Signals
signal
Carried through 2 separate
signals
Low pass
Filter
Not Required
Required
Picture Clarity Good
Usage
Excellent
Decreased usage due to low Increasingly in consumer
picture clarity
durables
History and Evolution
Composite video was extensively used in the 1980s, in older versions of
game consoles, VCRs and television sets. In the year 1987, the S-Video
cable standard was used for the first time in JVC's S-VHS. In the late
1990s larger television sets started incorporating S-Video, making it
compatible with video game consoles, DVD players and satellite
receivers.
Cost
The cost of installing composite video is far cheaper than the more
advanced S- Video. The cables and adapters required for installing the
latter, are substantially dearer.
Functional Differences and Picture Quality
Composite video is an analog signal, and carries the video or picture
through a single, low quality signal. In comparison, S-video carries the
picture through two signals, namely the chroma (colour) and luma
(luminance). This video signal is of far better quality than what composite
video has to offer. In composite video, the luminance signal is low pass
filtered to prevent any cross talk between the color sub carrier and the
luminance information. This luminance information is essentially high
frequency. However, S-video keeps the two signals separate, so that this
act of low pass filtering is not required. This automatically provides a
wider bandwidth for luminance and also brings down the intensity of the
colour cross talk issue. This helps in offering better picture clarity by
keeping the information from the original video source intact.
Composite and S-video Connectors
Both S-video and composite video depend on analog based video signals.
Both of them work on PAL, NTSC, and SECAM coding standards.
However, their connectors are different from each other.
S-video signal generally uses a cable with 4-pin mini-DIN connector
which is somewhat similar to the regular mini-DIN cables. Alternatively,
simple cables can also be used, but they do not offer superior picture
quality. The prices of connectors are pretty reasonable, however the
quality of the pins are weak and may bend with extensive usage. Before
the advent of these cables, simple plugs capable of carrying S Video
signals were used for the same purpose.
Composite video, on the other hand, uses typical yellow RCA connector
or a 1/8 inch jack plug, especially when used in consumer durables. When
the same signal is used in gaming devices, there is a single composite
output cable with 4 connectors.
There are special cables that can connect to an S-video output jack (for
example, from a laptop) and feed the signal to a TV that has a composite
input port.
Usage
Initially, composite video was used in larger television sets and earlier
versions of VCRs. This was steadily replaced by S-Video, due to its better
picture quality , It is being extensively used as a popular alternative for
televisions, high end VCD players, video game consoles and graphic
cards. Though composite video offers good signals, S-video is more
popular for its better picture clarity.
CVBS and RGB video signals are analog, the difference between them
TAG: KD401 SD/HD KD401-C-IP KD401-H-IP KD401-S-IP
CVBS (composite video broadcast signal) composite television broadcast
signals , including video ( image ) signal , horizontal and vertical sync
signals , horizontal and vertical blanking signal , after equalizing pulse
.signals ; RGB refers to the video signal does not contain other signals
. rgb video quality is better than cvbs. because cvbs cause cross color
‫؟‬I see a lot of output are used cvbs, rather than rgb, what is the reason
RGB is a three-way signal output, the way in which the synchronization
( signal ( possible , remember
Composite CVBS output , RGB color is converted into luminance , and
color are superimposed on the modulated compressed luminance (
Contract step ) signal
After CVBS modulated RF (plus audio ) can be fired , the receiver needs
to be done bright end to the separation cvbs action
Monitor receive CVBS do color decoding , as long as the separate RGB
received a synchronous system to scan just fine ; CVBS can use two
.transmission lines , RGB transmission requires a minimum of four lines
Chinese explanation: composite video broadcast signal or composite video
blanking and sync
Full name : Composite Video Broadcast Signal or Composite Video
Blanking and Sync
It is an analog television program (image ) signal is combined with the
. sound signal and modulated onto an RF carrier prior to formatting
CVBS is "Color, Video, Blank and Sync", "Composite Video Baseband
Signal", "Composite Video Burst Signal", or "Composite Video with
Burst and Sync". Acronym
CVBS standard has been widely used , also called baseband video or RCA
video image data transmission method is the traditional National System
Committee (NTSC) television video signal , which is transmitted to an
analog waveform data .
Composite video contains color ( hue and saturation ) and luminance (
brightness ) information and the blanking pulses are synchronized with the
.same signal transmission
In the fast scan NTSC television , VHF (VHF) or ultra high frequency
(UHF) carrier is used to adjust the amplitude of the composite video ,
which is generated by the signal width of approximately 6MHz . Some
CCTV system using coaxial cable close-up composite video transmission ,
several DVD players and video tape recorders (VCR) via phono jack
provides composite video inputs and outputs, this outlet also called RCA
.connectors
Composite video , the interference color and brightness information is
inevitable , especially when the signal is weak . This is why the use of
long-distance VHF or UHF television station with the NTFS old whip
antenna " rabbit ears" , or the world outside of the "air " often contain
. false or shake down the color
VGA is a monitor display, most mainstream than the computer monitor.
VGA is a general term , can only achieve true VGA 720X576, and the
.current resolution computer monitors are 1024X768, is SVGA mode
CVBS is a relatively old display more accurate to say that the first
generation of video display output ( second generation S-VIDEO, the third
generation is VGA, the fourth generation is DVI, the fifth generation is
HDMI), due to the current display devices such as televisions, computer
monitors ) , etc. are cvbs interface, so virtually CVBS interface has also
become more mainstream . With the current resolution of the display
device to improve , especially the emergence of large-screen LCD TVs ,
.more and more devices to provide VGA and HDMI interfaces
CVBS
‫اﻋداد ﻣﮭﻧدس ‪ /‬اﺣﻣد ﯾوﺳف اﻟﻣﺻرى‬
‫اﻟﮭﯾوﻣﺎﻛس‬
‫ﺑﻌض اﻻﯾﺳﯾﮭﺎت اﻟﻣوﺟوده ﻓﯾﮫ‬
‫ﻣﻧظم اﻟﺟﮭد اﻟذى ﯾﺣول اﻟﺧﻣﺳﺔ ﻓوﻟت اﻟﻰ ‪ ٣.٣‬ﻓوﻟت‬
‫ﻓﻰ ﺑوردة اﻟرﺳﯾﻔر‬
TCL1117
5V TO 3.3V
‫اﯾﺳﻰ اﻟﺻوت ھﯾوﻣﺎﻛس‬
‫‪UDA1334B‬‬
‫‪LNBP20A‬‬
‫اﯾﺳﻰ ﺗﻐذﯾﺔ اﻻﺑرة ﺑﺎﻟﺟﮭد واﻟﺗون )ھﯾوﻣﺎﻛس(‬
‫ﻣﻧظم ﺟﮭد ‪SC2602‬‬
‫اﻻﯾﺳﻰ اﻟﺗﻰ ﺗﺷﺑﮫ اﻟﺑرﯾﺳﺳور‬
‫ﻋﺑﺎرة ﻋن ﻣودﯾوﻟﯾﺗور وﻣﺣول ﻣن اﻧﺎﻟوج اﻟﻰ دﯾﺟﺗﺎل وﺑﯾﺷﻐل اﻟدﯾﺳك اﯾﺿﺎ واﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ اﻟﻛﺎرت‬
‫‪٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠‬‬
‫اﺳﺗرا‬
‫ﺑﻌض اﯾﺳﯾﮭﺎﺗﮫ‬
‫‪HC04‬‬
‫ھﺎﯾﻛس اﻧﻔرﺗر‬
‫ھﺎﯾﻛس اﻧﻔرﺗر اﺧر‬
‫‪HCU04‬‬
٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠
‫ﺗﺎﯾﺟر‬
‫ﺑﻌض اﯾﺳﯾﮭﺎﺗﮫ‬
‫ﻓﻼش ﻣوﻣرى‬
‫ﻻﺣظ ان ﺟﮭد ﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﮭﺎ ﻣن ‪ ٣‬ﻓوﻟت اﻟﻰ ‪ ٣.٦‬ﻓوﻟت او اﻻﺧرى ‪ ٢.٧‬ﻓوﻟت اﻟﻰ ‪ ٣.٦‬ﻓوﻟت‬
‫ﺟوﻟد ﺳﺎت‬
‫اﯾﺳﻰ اﻟﺻوت‬
‫‪CS4330‬‬
‫اﯾﺳﻰ ﺗﻌﻣل ﻛﻣﻔﺗﺎح ﻣﺗﻌدد ﺳرﯾﻊ ﻟﻠرﺑط ﻣﻊ اﻟﺧرج‬
‫‪IDTQS3245‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
Humax DirecTV D11 Set-Top Box Teardown
‫اﯾﺳﻰ اﻟﺗﯾوﻧر ‪cx24109‬‬
‫ﻻﺣظ ان ﻓﯾﮫ ﻣذﺑذب داﺧﻠﻰ ﺑﺗﺷﻐﻠﮫ اﻟﻛرﺳﺗﺎﻟﺔ ﻣن ﺑره‬
‫اﯾﺳﻰ اﻟﯾواﺳﺑﻰ‬
DIRECTV DVR R15 Teardown
DirecTV H24-700 HD Set-Top Box Teardown
DirecTV Plus HR22-100 HD DVR Set-Top
Top Box Teardown
DirecTV H24-100 HD Set-Top Box Teardown
‫اﯾﺳﻰ اﻟﻛﺎرت‬
‫اﻟراﻣﺔ‬
DirecTV D12-300 Satellite Receiver Set-Top Box Teardown
DIRECTV DVR R15 Teardown
Humax DirecTV D11 Set-Top Box Teardown
Motorola VIP1200 IPTV Set-Top Box Teardown
Main PCB
(Sigma Designs - SMP8634LF - Media Processor - MPEG
MPEG-4.10 (H.264), SMPTE 421M (VC-1
Interface
HomePNA 3.0 - CopperGate - CG3011QIR-10 - Digital IC
Ethernet Switch - Marvell - 88E6035-LAJ1 - 3-Port
DAC - AKM Semiconductor - AK4384ET - 2-Ch, 24-Bit, 128 Times Oversampling
HDMI Transmitter - Silicon Image - Sil9002 - V1.2 PHY
Memory
SDRAM - Samsung - K4H561638H-UCCC - DDR400, 256Mb (16x16M), 2.6V
Flash - Macronix - MX29LV800CBTC-90G - 8Mb, CMOS, 3V, 90ns
Flash - Spansion - S29GL256N10TFI010 - 256Mb, 3V, 100ns, 110nm, MirrorBit
(Power Supply (External
Motorola / Delta - EADP-24DB A - AC Adapter Power Supply Module - Switching (24W), Input: 100-120VAC, 50/60Hz, 1A - Output:
12V, 2A
High definition / standard definition IPTV Set-Top Box with HPNA v 3.0, DRM and HCP support, HDMI output, component output, and two-way IP communication. MPEG-4 (H.264), VC-1, and MPEG-2 video
codecs. This box is part of Motorola's VIP1200/VIP1200e series which includes two non-DVR versions and two DVR version, 160GB version (VIP1216) and an 80GB version (VIP1208) - all models are HDTVenabled.
Per Motorola: "The Motorola VIP1200 is a compact, superior, high-definition (HD) television IP set-top that also supports high-definition (HD) and standard-definition (SD) high-quality digital video. Its two-way IP
capability allows it to be used in multiple applications, including Multicast TV and VoD, and can support multiple middleware software solutions. The VIP1200 includes a high-end icroprocessor and enhanced graphics
to decode HD and SD digital TV, as well as output high-quality surround sound audio.
Motorola VIP1200 IPTV Set-Top Box Main Image
Target Market
Captive customer base of 'cable alternative' service providers - ie telco service providers. Whether VDSL, FiOS or other high-speed delivery system, IPTV will gain popularity as a cost-effective competitor of cable and
satellite, as the pipeline required to deliver IPTV will also provide coincidental improvement in broadband service and facilitate the quality and quantity of VoIP devices.
Released
2005 assumed. Exact date unknown.
Motorola VIP1200 IPTV Set-Top Box - Main PCB Top
Pricing and Availability
Pricing for this kind of product (at the consumer level) is meaningless as it is typically a completely subsidized part of a service package, and since it cannot function without being properly set-up by a service provider,
after market product and prices have no validity.
The product should be available in the US (via ATT) and in Japan. It may be available more broadly - but evidence of this was not found in Motorola literature and press releases.
Volume Estimations
For the purposes
rposes of this teardown analysis, we have assumed that Motorola will produce 1 million units of this STB during the product llifetime, which may, depending on the acceptance and penetration of IPTV may be
more, but based on our preliminary research this box doesn't seem to have a high number of service providers picking it up - so real production volumes may differ dramatically.
We have changed our assumptions and lowered our estimates for IPTV STB volumes in general in light of new research within iSu
iSuppli on worldwide rollout volumes for IPTV.
As a reminder, volume production assumptions are not meant to be necessarily 'market accurate', and our meant primarily to be used for our cost analysis in terms of amortized NRE and tooling costs, especially for
custom components specific to the model being analyzed (mechanical components especially).
Motorola VIP1200 IPTV Set
Set-Top Box - Main PCB Bottom
Function / Performance
No performance testing was performed.
Motorola VIP1200 IPTV Set
Set-Top Box Cost Analysis
Cost Notes
The VIP1200 is in line with other set-top
top boxes analyzed from the world of satellite and terrestrial TV. In fact, if it weren't for the HomePNA v3 chip from Copper
Coppergate, it would be comparable to very low end boxes we
have previously analyzed in terms of amount of core silicon, components counts, etc. Essentially - most functionality is integrated into the Sigma Designs chip.
Furthermore, Motorola has a great deal of market presence and leverages their purchasing power to the best of their ability, making their prices very competitive for all purchased components.
Motorola VIP1200 IPTV Set-Top Box - Enclosure Main Front Panel
Motorola VIP1216 Set-Top Box Teardown
Cisco IPN430MC Set-Top Box Teardown
Main PCB
A/V Processing
Sigma Designs - SMP8634LF - Media Processor - MPEG-4.10 (H.264), SMPTE 421M (VC-1)
I/O & Interface
HomePNA 3.0 - CopperGate - CG3011QIR-10 - Digital IC
Ethernet Switch - Marvell - 88E6061-LAJ1 - 6-Port
HDMI Transmitter - Silicon Image - Sil9002CSU - V1.2 PHY
MCU - Freescale - MC9S08RD16DWE - 8-Bit, HCS08 Core
Memory
SDRAM - Qimonda - HYB25DC256160CE-5 - DDR, 256Mb (16Mx16), 200MHz, 2.5V
Flash - Spansion - S29AL016D70TFI02 - NOR, 16Mb, 3.0V, 70ns
Front-End
Front End - Analog Devices - AD9865BCP - Mixed Signal, Broadband
Other Sub-Assemblies
Hard Drive
Western Digital - WD1600BB - 160 GB, 3.5', PATA, 7200 RPM, 2 MB Buffer
Motorola QIP6200 Hybrid QAM-IPTV HD Set-Top Box Teardown
Motorola QIP2500 Hybrid QAM-IPTV Standard Definition Set-Top Box Teardown
Amstrad DRX895-C DVR Set Top Box Teardown
٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠
Samsung SMT-2110C Set-Top Box Teardown
Main PCB
Audio/Video Processing
Conexant - CX24153-25MZ - Set Top Box Decoder - Single Chip, MPEG2, 200MHz ARM920 32 Bit CPU
I/O & Interface
Conexant - CX24943 - Cable Modem IC - Single-Chip, 225MHz System Processor, Integrated IEEE802.3 MAC, MII,
USB1.1 Transceiver, and Host Interface
Infineon - ADM7001 - Ethernet Transceiver - Single-Chip, 10/100Mbps, PHY, 1-Port
ST Microelectronics - STV6412ADT - Switch - Audio/Video Switch Matrix
Memory
Samsung Semiconductor - K4S281632F-TC60 - SDRAM - 128Mb, 8Mx16, 3.3V, 166MHz
Samsung Semiconductor - K4S641632H-TC60 - SDRAM - 64Mb, 4Mx16, 3.3V, 166MHz
Other Sub-Assemblies
Power Supply (Internal)
Tuner Module / RF Modulator:
Sharp - Model number unknown
Samsung Semiconductor - DTMPD15MV204B
Samsung Semiconductor - RMUP74055AK - RF modula
Tips for using Satellite finder / सैटेलाइट फाई डर उपयोग के सुझाव
‫ﺟﮭﺎز ﻗﯿﺎس ﺷﺪة اﺷﺎرة اﻟﺴﺘﺎﻻﯾﺖ‬
|
3. If there is a full-scale deflection, reduce the reading by turning knob accordingly and again check for peak signals.
३. सैटेलाइट फाई डर क सुई फुल केल होते ह र डंग कम कर बटन घुमाकर और फर से जाँच |
4. If the LNB Output Signal gain is more than 70dB, connect a 100 Ohms resistor to act as an Attenuator.
४. अगर एल.एन.बी का स नल गेन ७० dB से यादा हो तो १०० Ohms के resistor को भी जोड़ |
5. Do not move the dish quickly, move slowly and wait for a few seconds to get the correct indication.
५. डश को ज द म ना घुमाएँ , धीरे से घुमाकर कुछ ण क सह र डंग के आने तक |
٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠
About C band and KU band LNB, LNBFs:
Dear Friends,
As you know LNB is a low noise block-down converter receiving device used to collect signals of a satellite with dish
antenna. It is functionally equivalent to the dipole antenna used for most terrestrial TV reception, although it is actually
waveguide based. Inside the LNB waveguide a metal pin, or probe, protrudes into the waveguide at right angles to the
axis and this acts as an aerial, collecting the signal travelling down the waveguide.It is usually fixed on the satellite
dish framework, at the focus of the reflector, and it derives its power from the connected receiver.
‫اﻻﺑﺮة ﻣﻦ اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ‬
Disassembled C Band LNB
Satellites use microwaves to transmit their TV signals. As microwave satellite signals do not easily pass through walls,
roofs, or even glass windows, satellite antennas are required to be outdoors, and the signal needs to be passed indoors
via cables. When radio signals are sent through coaxial cables, the higher the frequency, the more losses occur in the
cable per unit of length. The signals used for satellite are in the multiple gigahertz that special cable types or
waveguides would be required and any significant length of cable leaves very little signal at the receiving end.
The purpose of the LNB is to use the superheterodyne principle to take a block (or band) of relatively high frequencies
and convert them to similar signals carried at a much lower frequency (called the intermediate frequency or IF). These
lower frequencies travel through cables with much less attenuation, so there is much more signal left at the satellite
receiver end of the cable. It is also much easier and cheaper to design electronic circuits to operate at these lower
frequencies, rather than the very high frequencies of satellite transmission.
The frequency conversion is performed by mixing a fixed frequency produced by a local oscillator inside the LNB with
the incoming signal, to generate two signals equal to the sum of their frequencies and the difference. The frequency
sum signal is filtered out and the frequency difference signal (the IF) is amplified and sent down the cable to the
receiver:
‫ ﺗﺮدد اﻟﻤﺬﺑﺬب واﺧﺮ‬+ ‫اﻟﻤﺬﺑﺬب داﺧﻞ اﻻﺑﺮة ﯾﻨﺘﺞ ﺗﺮرد ﯾﻤﺰج ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮدد اﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻓﯿﻨﺘﺞ ﺗﺮددﯾﻦ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮع ﺗﺮدد اﻟﻘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ اﻟﻄﺮح ﯾﻌﻨﻰ ﺗﺮدد اﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﺗﺮدد اﻟﻤﺬﺑﺬب وﯾﺪﺧﻞ اﻟﺘﺮددﯾﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻠﺘﺮ ﯾﺴﺘﺒﻌﺪ اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮع اى اﻟﺘﺮدد‬
‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ وﯾﻤﺮر اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﺾ او اﻟﻔﺮﻗﻰ‬
‫ ﻣﯿﺠﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺮدد اﻟﻘﻤﺮ‬٢١٥٠ ‫ اﻟﻰ‬٩٥٠ ‫اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﺾ ھﺬا ﯾﺴﻤﻰ اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ او اﻟﺒﯿﻨﻰ اﻟﻠﻰ ھﻮ ﻓﻰ ﺣﺪود‬
IF frequency = received frequency - local oscillator frequency
The local oscillator frequency determines what block of incoming frequencies is downconverted to the frequencies
expected by the receiver. For example, to downconvert the incoming signals from Insat 4B, which transmits in a
frequency block of 10.70GHz-11.70GHz, to within a standard European receiver’s IF tuning range of 950MHz2150MHz, a 9.75GHz local oscillator frequency is used, producing a block of signals in the band 950MHz-2150MHz.
‫ﻣﯿﺠﺎ‬١١٧٠٠ ‫ﻣﯿﺠﺎ اﻟﻰ‬١٠٧٠٠ ‫ وﺗﺮدد اﻟﻘﻤﺮ‬٢١٥٠ ‫ﻣﯿﺠﺎ اﻟﻰ‬٩٥٠ ‫ﻓﻠﻮ اﻟﺘﺮدد اﻟﺒﯿﻨﻰ اﻟﻠﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﺮوض ﯾﺬھﺐ ﻟﻠﺮﯾﺴﯿﻔﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ ﻣﯿﺠﺎ‬٩٧٥٠ = ٩٥٠-١٠٧٠٠ = ‫اذن ﺗﺮدد اﻟﻤﺬﺑﺬب اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻰ ﻟﻼﺑﺮة‬
LNBFs
With the launch of the first DTH broadcast satellite in Europe (Astra 1A) by SES Astra in 1988, antenna design was
simplified for the anticipated mass-market. In particular, the feedhorn (which gathers the signal and directs it to the
LNB) and the polarizer (which selects between differently polarized signals) were combined with the LNB itself into a
single unit, called an LNB-feed or LNB-feedhorn (LNBF), or even an "Astra type" LNB. The prevalence of these
combined units has meant that today the term LNB is commonly used to refer to all antenna units that provide the
block-downconversion function, with or without a feedhorn. LNBs without a feedhorn built-in are usually provided
with a (C120) flange around the input waveguide mouth which is bolted to a matching flange around the output of the
feedhorn or polarizer unit.
Universal LNB
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new window.
A Universal LNB has a switchable local oscillator frequency of 9.75/10.60GHz to provide two modes of operation –
low band reception (10.70-11.70GHZ) and high band reception (11.70-12.75GHz). The local oscillator frequency is
switched in response to a 22kHz signal superimposed on the supply voltage from the connected receiver. Along with
the supply voltage level used to switch between polarizations, this enables a Universal LNB to receive both
polarizations (Vertical and Horizontal) and the full range of frequencies in the satellite Ku band under the control of the
receiver,
Svolt -Tone-- LOFreq--- Polarity ------ R Freq Band------- IF Range Used
13V 00KHz 09750MHz Vertical Low (10700-11700MHz) 0950-1950MHz
18V 00KHz 09750MHz Horizontal Low (10700-11700MHz) 0950-1950MHz
13V 22KHz 10600MHz Vertical High (11700-12750MHz) 1100-2150MHz
18V 22KHz 10600MHz Horizontal High (11700-12750MHz) 1100-2150MHz
Monoblock LNBs
A Monoblock LNB is a unit consisting of two LNBs and is designed to receive satellites spaced close together,
generally 6°. For example Dish tv India is using monoblock to receive the NSS 6, 95°E and Asiasat 5 100.5°E
satellites, enable reception of both satellites on a single dish without requiring an expensive, slow and noisy motorised
dish.
Multi-Output LNB
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new window.
There are Dual/Twin/Quad/Octo output LNBs. We can connect and receive channels on multi stbs.
‫اﯾﺳﻰ اﻟﺗﯾوﻧر‬
‫‪STV6110A‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺗﺑس‬
‫ﺗﺣوﯾل اﻟﺻوت ﻣن رﻗﻣﻰ اﻟﻰ ﺗﻣﺎﺛﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ اﺧﺗرع اﻟﻘرص اﻟﻣدﻣﺞ واﻟذي ﯾﻌرف ﺑﺎﺳم اﻟﺳﻲ دي ‪ CD‬اﺧﺗﺻﺎرا ً ﻷول ﺣرﻓﯾن‬
‫ﻣن ‪ compact disk‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻧﺗﺻف أواﺧر اﻟﺛﻣﺎﻧﯾﻧﺎت ﻣن اﻟﻘرن اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻛﺎن اﻟﮭدف‬
‫ﻣﻧﮫ ھو ﺗﺧزﯾن أو ﺗﺳﺟﯾل اﻟﻣوﺳﯾﻘﻰ ﺑطرﯾﻘﺔ رﻗﻣﯾﺔ أي ﺑﻧظﺎم اﻟدﯾﺟﯾﺗﺎل ‪ digital.‬وﻟﻛﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺗﻣﻛن ﻣن ﻓﮭم ﻓﻛرة ﻋﻣل اﻟﺳﻲ دي ﻻﺑد أن ﻧﻔﮭم أوﻻ ﻛﯾف ﺗﻘوم ﻓﻛرة ﻋﻣل ﺗﺳﺟﯾل‬
‫اﻟﻣوﺳﯾﻘﻰ اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ وﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﮭﺎ ﺑﺎﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟرﻗﻣﯾﺔ‪ .‬وﻛذﻟك اﻟﻔرق ﺑﯾﻧﮭﺎ وﺑﯾن اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺗﻧﺎظرﯾﺔ‪analog.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻣن ﻛﯾف ﺗﻌﻣل اﻷﺷﯾﺎء ﺳوف ﻧﻘوم ﺑﺎﺳﺗﻌراض ﻓﻛرة اﻟﺗﺳﺟﯾل اﻟرﻗﻣﻲ‬
‫واﻟﺗﻧﺎظري وﻓﮭم اﻟﻔرق ﺑﯾﻧﮭﻣﺎ‪.‬‬
‫أول ﺟﮭﺎز ﺗﺳﺟﯾل ﺻوﺗﻲ اﺧﺗرﻋﮫ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم ﺗوﻣس ادﯾﺳون ‪ Thomas Edison‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎم‬
‫‪ ،١٨٧٧‬ﺣﯾث ﺗوﺻل ﻻﻛﺗﺷﺎف طرﯾﻘﺔ ﺳﮭﻠﺔ ﻟﺗﺳﺟﯾل اﻷﻣواج اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ ﺑطرﯾﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻣﯾﻛﺎﻧﯾﻛﯾﺔ‪ .‬أطﻠق ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﮭﺎز اﻟﺗﺳﺟﯾل ھذا اﺳم اﻟﻔوﻧوﺟراف ‪ phonograph‬واﻟذي‬
‫ﯾﺣﺗوي ﻋﻠﻰ إﺑرة ﺗﻘوم ﺑﺗﺣوﯾل اﻹﺷﺎرة اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻧﺎظرﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺧدش ﻣﯾﻛﺎﻧﯾﻛﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳطﺢ اﺳطواﻧﻲ رﻗﯾق ﻣن اﻟﻣﻌدن‪.‬‬
‫أول ﺟﮭﺎز ﻓوﻧوﺟراف‬
‫ﻓﺈذا ﺗﺣدﺛت أﻣﺎم ﺟﮭﺎز اﻟﻔوﻧوﺟراف ﻻدﯾﺳون ﻓﺎن اﻟﺟﮭﺎز ﺳوف ﯾﻘوم ﺑﺗﺳﺟﯾل ﺻوﺗك‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺳطواﻧﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﯾث ﯾﺗذﺑذب ﺣﺎﻣل اﻹﺑرة ﺗﺣت ﺗﺄﺛﯾر اﻟذﺑذﺑﺎت اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ وﺣرﻛﺔ‬
‫اﻹﺑرة ھذه ﺗﺳﺟل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺳطواﻧﺔ اﻟﻣﻌدﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺻورة ﺧدوش ذات أﻋﻣﺎق ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﺣﺳب‬
‫ﺷدة اﻟﺻوت وﺗردده‪ ،‬ﻣﻣﺎ ﺗﺷﻛل ﻣﺳﺎرات داﺋرﯾﺔ ﺣول ﺳطﺢ اﻻﺳطواﻧﺔ‪ .‬وﻋﻧد ﺗﺷﻐﯾل‬
‫اﻟﻔوﻧوﺟراف ﻓﺎﻧﮫ ﯾﺗم وﺿﻊ إﺑرة اﻟﻔوﻧوﺟراف ﻧﻔﺳﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ أول اﻟﻣﺳﺎرات ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫اﻻﺳطواﻧﺔ وﻣن ﺛم ﯾﺗم ﺗﺷﻐﯾل اﻟﺟﮭﺎز ﻟﺗدور اﻻﺳطواﻧﺔ ﺑﻧﻔس ﺳرﻋﺔ اﻟﺗﺳﺟﯾل وﺗﮭﺗز‬
‫اﻹﺑرة ﺗﺣت ﺗﺄﺛﯾر اﻟﺧدوش ﻓﺗرﺳل ھذه اﻻھﺗزازات إﻟﻰ اﻟﺟﮭﺎز ﻟﺗﺣوﯾﻠﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ ﺻوت‬
‫ﻣﺳﻣوع‪.‬‬
‫ﺗم ﺗطوﯾر ھذا اﻟﺟﮭﺎز ﺑواﺳطﺔ اﻣﯾل ﺑرﻟﯾﻧر ‪ Emil Berliner‬ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔس اﻟﻌﺎم وأﻋطﻰ ﻟﮫ‬
‫اﺳم ﺟدﯾد ھو اﻟﺟراﻣوﻓون ‪ ،gramophone‬ﺣﯾث اﺳﺗﺧدم ﺳطﺢ ﻣﺳﺗوي ﻓﻲ ﺷﻛل‬
‫ﻗرص داﺋري ﺑدﻻ ﻣن اﻟﺳطﺢ اﻻﺳطواﻧﻲ ﻣﻣﺎ ﺟﻌل ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﺳﺟﯾل واﻟﻧﺳﺦ وإﻋﺎدة‬
‫اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾل ﻟﮭذه اﻷﻗراص أﺳﮭل وأﻓﺿل‪ .‬واﻟﻔوﻧوﺟراف اﻟﺣدﯾث ﯾﻌﻣل ﺑﻧﻔس اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ ﻓﯾﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻋدا أن اﻹﺷﺎرة اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻘرأ ﺑواﺳطﺔ اﻹﺑرة ﺗﻌﺎﻟﺞ اﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺎ ﺑدﻻ ﻣن إرﺳﺎل‬
‫ذﺑذﺑﺎﺗﮭﺎ اﻟﻣﯾﻛﺎﻧﯾﻛﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺳﻣﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﺑﺎﺷرة‪.‬‬
‫اﻷﻣواج اﻟﺗﻧﺎظرﯾﺔ ‪Analog wave‬‬
‫ﻟو ﺗﺳﺄﻟت ﻋزﯾزي اﻟﻘﺎرئ ﻋن ھذه اﻟﺧدوش اﻟﺗﻲ ﻗﺎﻣت إﺑرة اﻟﻔوﻧوﺟراف ﺑﺧدﺷﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫اﻻﺳطواﻧﺔ اﻟﻣﻌدﻧﯾﺔ أو ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘرص اﻟداﺋري اﻟﻣﺳطﺢ؟ ﻓﺎن اﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ھذا ھو أﻣواج‬
‫ﺗﻧﺎظرﯾﺔ ‪ analog wave‬ﺗﻣﺛل اﻻھﺗزازات اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺻدرت ﻋن اﻟﻣﺗﺣدث‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﯾل اﻟﻣﺛﺎل ﻓﻲ ھذا اﻟﻣﺧطط ﻧﻼﺣظ ﻣوﺟﺔ ﺻوﺗﯾﺔ ﺗﻣﺛل ﻧطﻘك ﻟﻛﻠﻣﺔ ‪.hello‬‬
‫اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ ﻟﻛﻠﻣﺔ ‪hello‬‬
‫ھذه اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ اﻟﻣوﺿﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﻛل أﻋﻼه ﺗﻣﺛل اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ ﺑطرﯾﻘﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ وﻟﻛن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔوﻧوﺟراف ﻓﺈﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﻛون ﻧﻔس اﻟﺷﻛل وﻟﻛن ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻛل ﺧدوش ﻣﺗﻐﯾرة‬
‫اﻟﻌﻣق ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎدة اﻻﺳطواﻧﺔ أو اﻟﻘرص اﻟداﺋري‪ .‬واﻟذي ﯾﻣﺛﻠﮫ اﻟﺷﻛل أﻋﻼه ھو ﻣوﺿﻊ‬
‫ﻣﯾﻛروﻓون اﻟﻔوﻧوﺟراف ﻋﻠﻰ واﻟﻣﻣﺛل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺣور ‪ Y‬ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﻟزﻣن واﻟﻣﻣﺛل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺣور‬
‫‪ .X‬ﻧﻼﺣظ إن اﻻھﺗزازات ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ ﺗﺗﻐﯾر ﺑﺳرﻋﺔ ﻛﺑﯾرة ﺣﯾث ﯾﺻل ﻣﻌدل ھذه‬
‫اﻻھﺗزازات إﻟﻰ ‪ ١٠٠٠‬اھﺗزازة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ‪ .‬وﻛﻣﺎ ذﻛرﻧﺎ ھذه اﻻھﺗزازات ﻧﻔﺳﮭﺎ اﻟﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺟﻠت ﻋﻠﻰ اﺳطواﻧﺔ اﻟﻔوﻧوﺟراف وﻧﻼﺣظ أﯾﺿﺎ ﻛم ﻣﻌﻘدة ھذه اﻻھﺗزازات ﻟﻛﻠﻣﺔ‬
‫‪ hello‬وﻟو ﻧظرﻧﺎ إﻟﻰ ﻧﻐﻣﺔ ﻣوﺳﯾﻘﯾﺔ ذات ﺗردد واﺣد ﻣﺛﻼ ﻟﻛﺎﻧت ﺷﻛل اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﺑﺳط ﻣن‬
‫ذﻟك ﺑﻛﺛﯾر ﻛﻣﺎ ھو ﻣوﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﻛل أدﻧﺎه ﺣﯾث ﺗﻣﺛل ﻣوﺟﺔ ﺻوﺗﯾﺔ ﺑﻧﻐﻣﺔ ‪ ٥٠٠‬ھﯾرﺗز‬
‫أي ‪ ٥٠٠‬اھﺗزازة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣوﺟﺔ ﺻوﺗﯾﺔ ﺑﻧﻐﻣﺔ ذات ﺗردد ‪ ٥٠٠‬ھﯾرﺗز‬
‫اﻵن ﺗﺳﺗطﯾﻊ ﻋزﯾزي اﻟﻘﺎرئ أن ﺗرى ﻛﯾف ﺗﺳﺟل اﻟﻧﻐﻣﺔ اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ وﻛﯾف ﺗﺷﻐﻠﮭﺎ ﻣرة‬
‫أﺧرى ﺑواﺳطﺔ اﻷﻣواج اﻟﺗﻧﺎظرﯾﺔ ﻣن ﺧﻼل طرﯾﻘﺔ ﺳﮭﻠﺔ وھﻲ ﻧﻘل اھﺗزازات اﻟﻧﻐﻣﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ إﺑرة ﺗﻘوم ﺑﺈﺣداث ﺧدوش ﻣﺗواﺻﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳطﺢ رﻗﯾق أي ﺗﺣول اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻣوﺟﺔ ﻣﯾﻛﺎﻧﯾﻛﯾﺔ ﺗﺗﻣﺛل ﻓﻲ ﺣرﻛﺔ إﺑرة اﻟﻔوﻧوﺟراف‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺳﻧﺎ اﻵن اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ ﺗﺗﻣﺛل ﻓﻲ إﻧﻧﺎ ﻻ ﻧﺳﺗطﯾﻊ أن ﻧﻔﻌل ﺷﻲء ﺑﻌد ﺗﺳﺟﯾل اﻟﺻوت ﺑﮭذه‬
‫اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟﺳﮭﻠﺔ اﻟﻣﯾﻛﺎﻧﯾﻛﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻧﺎظرﯾﺔ ﻓﺎﻟﺗﺧﻠص ﻣن اﻟﺿﺟﯾﺞ أو اﻟﺗﺷوﯾش اﻟﻣﺻﺎﺣب‬
‫ﻟﻠﺻوت أﺛﻧﺎء اﻟﺗﺳﺟﯾل أﻣرا ﻣﺳﺗﺣﯾﻼ ﻻن ھذه اﻟﺗﺷوﯾﺷﺎت أﺻﺑﺣت ﺟزء ﻣن اﻟﺧدوش‬
‫اﻟﺗﻲ أﺣدﺛﺗﮭﺎ اﻹﺑرة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺳطواﻧﺔ ﻛذﻟك إﻋﺎدة اﻻﺳﺗﻣﺎع وﺗﺷﻐﯾل اﻟﻔوﻧوﺟراف ﺳوف‬
‫ﯾﻘﻠل ﻣن ﺟودة اﻟﻣﺎدة اﻟﻣﺳﺟﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛل ﻣرة ﻣﻣﺎ ﯾﺟﻌل ﻋﻣره اﻻﻓﺗراﺿﻲ ﺻﻐﯾرا ً‬
‫وﻟﻛﻧﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ذﻟك اﻟوﻗت ﻛﺎﻧت اﺧﺗراﻋﺎ وﻛﺎﻧت ﻣﻔﯾدة ﺟدا ً ﻟﻌدم ﺗوﻓر ﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺎ ﺑدﯾﻠﺔ‬
‫وھذه اﻟﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺎ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺳﻧﺗﺣدث ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ اﻵن‬
‫اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻟرﻗﻣﯾﺔ ‪Digital Data‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ أﻗراص اﻟﺳﻲ دي أو ﻓﻲ اﻟوﺳﺎﺋط اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﻣل ﺑﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺎ رﻗﻣﯾﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎن اﻟﮭدف ھو‬
‫ﺗﺳﺟﯾل اﻟﺻوت ﺑدرﺟﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﯾﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻧﻘﺎوة واﻟوﺿوح ﺑﺣﯾث ﻻ ﺗﺳﺗطﯾﻊ ﺗﻔرﯾﻘﮫ ﻋن‬
‫اﻟﺻوت اﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪ .‬ھذا ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺣﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔس درﺟﺔ اﻟوﺿوح ﺑﻐض اﻟﻧظر ﻋن‬
‫ﻋدد ﻣرات اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾل أو إﻋﺎدة ﻧﺳﺦ اﻟﺗﺳﺟﯾل وطﺑﺎﻋﺗﮭﺎ أﻛﺛر ﻣن ﻣرة ﻋﻠﻰ وﺳﺎﺋط ﺗﺧزﯾن‬
‫ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫وﻻﻧﺟﺎز ھذه اﻷھداف ﻓﺎن ﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺎ ﺗﺣوﯾل اﻷﻣواج اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺗﻧﺎظرﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ‬
‫اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟرﻗﻣﯾﺔ ﺣﯾث ﺗﺻﺑﺢ اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ ﻣن اﻷرﻗﺎم اﻟﻣﻛوﻧﺔ ﻣن ‪ ٠‬و ‪ ١‬وﺑدﻻ‬
‫ﻣن ﺗﺧزﯾن اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ ﯾﺗم ﺗﺧزﯾن ھذه اﻷرﻗﺎم‪ .‬وﺗﺣوﯾل اﻷﻣواج اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺗﻧﺎظرﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ رﻗﻣﯾﺔ ﯾﺗم اﺳﺗﺧدام أداة اﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ ﺗﻌرف ﺑﺎﺳم ‪analog-to-digital‬‬
‫‪ converter‬أو اﺧﺗﺻﺎرا ً ‪ ADC‬واﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﻧﻲ اﻟﻣﺣول ﻣن اﻟﺗﻧﺎظري إﻟﻰ اﻟرﻗﻣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫وﻋﻧد ﺗﺷﻐﯾل اﻟﺻوت ﻣرة أﺧرى ﻟﻼﺳﺗﻣﺎع ﻟﮫ ﻓﺎن ھذا ﯾﺗطﻠب ﺗرﺟﻣﺔ ھذه اﻷرﻗﺎم إﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻣوﺟﺔ ﺻوﺗﯾﺔ ﻣرة أﺧرى وﯾﺗم ھذا ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام أداة اﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ ﺗﻌرف ﺑﺎﺳم ‪digital-to-‬‬
‫‪ analog converter‬واﺧﺗﺻﺎرا ‪ DAC‬أي اﻟﻣﺣول ﻣن اﻟرﻗﻣﻲ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺗﻧﺎظري‪ .‬ﯾﺗم‬
‫ﺗﻛﺑﯾر اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﺗﻧﺎظرﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺎﺗﺟﺔ ﻣن ‪ DAC‬ﻗﺑل ﺗوﺟﯾﮭﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺳﻣﺎﻋﺎت ﻹﺻدار‬
‫اﻟﺻوت‪.‬‬
‫وﻣن ھﻧﺎ ﯾﻛون ﻟﻠﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻧﺎظرﯾﺔ ﻧﻔس اﻟﺟودة ﺑﻐض اﻟﻧظر ﻋن ﻋدد ﻣرات‬
‫ﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﮭﺎ طﺎﻟﻣﺎ ﻟم ﺗﺗﻐﯾر اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟرﻗﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺧزﻧﺔ‪ .‬أﻣﺎ ﺣول ﻣوﺿوع إﻋﺎدة إﻧﺗﺎج ﻧﻔس‬
‫اﻟﻧﻐﻣﺔ اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ اﻷﺻﻠﯾﺔ ﻓﮭذا ﯾﻌﺗﻣد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺗﻘﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺳﺗﺧدﻣﮭﺎ أداة اﻟﺗﺣوﯾل ‪ ADC‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺣوﯾل اﻟﺻوت اﻷﺻﻠﻲ إﻟﻰ ﺻوت رﻗﻣﻲ‪ .‬وھﻧﺎ ﺗﻛﻣن أھﻣﯾﺔ‬
‫ﻛﯾف ﺗﻌﻣل أداة اﻟﺗﺣوﯾل اﻟﺗﻧﺎظري إﻟﻰ رﻗﻣﻲ ‪ADC‬‬
‫إذا ﻛﺎن ﻟدﯾﻧﺎ ﻣوﺟﺔ ﺻوﺗﯾﺔ وأردﻧﺎ أن ﻧﺣوﻟﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ إﺷﺎرة رﻗﻣﯾﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻧﺎ ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم أداة اﻟﺗﺣوﯾل‬
‫اﻻﻟﻛﺗروﻧﯾﺔ ‪ ADC‬واﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻘوم ﺑﻌﻣﻠﮭﺎ ﻋن طرﯾق اﺧذ ﻋﯾﻧﺔ ﺻﻐﯾرة ﻣن اﻹﺷﺎرة اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ‬
‫وﺗﺣوﯾﻠﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ ﻗﯾﻣﺔ رﻗﻣﯾﺔ وھذه ﺗﺳﻣﻰ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ أو ‪ sampling‬وﻟﺗوﺿﯾﺢ ذﻟك‬
‫أﻛﺛر دﻋﻧﺎ ﻧﺄﺧذ اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ اﻟﻣوﺿﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﻛل اﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣوﺟﺔ ﺻوﺗﯾﺔ ﺗﻧﺎظرﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻓﺗرض أن ﻛل ﺳم ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣﺣور اﻷﻓﻘﻲ ﯾﻣﺛل ﺟزء ﻣن اﻷﻟف ﻣن اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﯾن‬
‫اﻟﻣﺣور اﻟرأﺳﻲ ﯾﻣﺛل ﺷدة اﻟﺻوت‬
‫ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﺗﺑدأ أداة ‪ ADC‬ﺑﻌﻣﻠﮭﺎ ﻓﺈﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﻘوم ﺑﻧﻣذﺟﺔ اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ وﺗﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺗﻐﯾرﯾن اﺛﻧﯾن ھﻣﺎ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﻣﻌد اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ ‪ sampling rate‬واﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣدد ﻋدد اﻟﻧﻣﺎذج أو اﻟﻌﯾﻧﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺳﺗﻘوم‬
‫ﺑﺄﺧذھﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬دﻗﺔ اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ ‪ sampling precision‬واﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ ﻣﺳﺗوﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻐﯾر ﻓﻲ‬
‫اﻹﺷﺎرة‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﻛل اﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ ﻗﺎﻣت أداة اﻟﺗﺣوﯾل ‪ ADC‬ﺑﻌﻣﻠﮭﺎ ﻣن ﺑﻧﻣذﺟﺔ ﺑﻣﻌدل ‪ ١٠٠٠‬ﻋﯾﻧﺔ ﻟﻛل‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ وﻛﺎﻧت دﻗﺔ اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ ‪.١٠‬‬
‫اﻟﻣﺳﺗطﯾﻼت اﻟﺧﺿراء ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﻛل ﺗﻣﺛل اﻟﻌﯾﻧﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﻗﺳﻣت إﻟﯾﮭﺎ اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﯾث ﺗم اﺧذ ﻋﯾﻧﺔ ﻛل ﺟزء ﻣن اﻷﻟف ﻣن اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ وﻛل ﻣﺳﺗطﯾل ﻟﮫ ارﺗﻔﺎع ﯾﻣﺛل ﺷدة‬
‫اﻟﺻوت ﻋﻧد ﺗﻠك اﻟﻠﺣظﺔ ھذا اﻻرﺗﻔﺎع ﯾﺗم اﻟﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋﻧﮫ ﺑﻘﯾﻣﺔ ﻋددﯾﺔ ﺑﯾن ‪ ٠‬و ‪ ٩‬ﺣﯾث‬
‫ﺗﻣﺛل ھذه اﻷﻋداد اﻟﺗﻣﺛﯾل اﻟرﻗﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ‪ .‬وﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﻛل اﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ ﯾوﺿﺢ ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ واﻟﺗﺣوﯾل ﻣن اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﺗﻧﺎظرﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻣوﺟﺔ رﻗﻣﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻧﺣﻧﻰ اﻟظﺎھر ﺑﺎﻟﻠون‬
‫اﻷزرق‪.‬‬
‫وﻛﻣﺎ ھو واﺿﺢ ﻣن اﻟﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯾن اﻟﻣﻧﺣﻧﯾﯾن اﻷﺧﺿر اﻟذي ﯾﻣﺛل اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﺗﻧﺎظرﯾﺔ‬
‫واﻟﻣﻧﺣﻧﻰ اﻷزرق اﻟذي ﯾﻣﺛل اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟرﻗﻣﯾﺔ إن ھﻧﺎك ﻓﻘد ﻓﻲ اﻹﺷﺎرة ﺣدث ﻋﻧد إﺗﻣﺎم‬
‫ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ واﻟﺗﺣوﯾل‪ .‬وھذا ﯾﻌﻧﻲ أن اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟﻧﺎﺗﺟﺔ ﻟن ﺗﻛون ﺑﻧﻔس درﺟﺔ اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ‬
‫اﻷﺻﻠﯾﺔ ﻗﺑل اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ‪ .‬وھذا ﯾﺷﺎر إﻟﯾﮫ ﺑﺧطﺄ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ ‪sampling error‬‬
‫وﻟﻠﺗﺧﻠص ﻣن ھذا اﻟﺧطﺄ ﯾﺗم زﯾﺎدة ﻣﻌدل اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ واﻟدﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔس اﻟوﻗت‪ .‬ﺗﺄﺛﯾر زﯾﺎدة‬
‫ﻣﻌدل اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ ﯾﺗﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﻛل اﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ ﺣﯾث ﺗم زﯾﺎدة ﻣﻌدل اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ واﻟدﻗﺔ ﺑﻣﻘدار‬
‫اﻟﺿﻌف أي أﺻﺑﺣت اﻟدﻗﺔ ‪ ٢٠‬وأﺻﺑﺢ ﻣﻌدل اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ ‪ ٢٠٠٠‬ﻋﯾﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ‪.‬‬
‫أﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺷﻛل اﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﺎن ﻣﻌدن اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ ﺗﺿﺎﻋف ﻣرة أﺧرى ﺑﺣﯾث أﺻﺑﺣت اﻟدﻗﺔ ‪٤٠‬‬
‫وﻣﻌدل اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ ‪ ٤٠٠٠‬ﻋﯾﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻﺷك واﻧك ﺗﻼﺣظ ﻋزﯾزي اﻟﻘﺎرئ ﻛﻠﻣﺎ زادت ﻣﻌدل اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ واﻟدﻗﺔ ﻛﻠﻣﺎ أﺻﺑﺣت‬
‫اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻟرﻗﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺎﺗﺟﺔ اﻗرب إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻷﺻﻠﯾﺔ‪ .‬وھذا ﺑﺎﻟﺗﺄﻛﯾد ﺳوف ﯾﺣﺳن ﺟودة‬
‫اﻟﺻوت اﻟرﻗﻣﻲ‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺻوت اﻟﻣﺧزن ﻋﻠﻰ أﻗراص اﻟﺳﻲ دي ﻓﺎن ﻣﻌدل اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ‬
‫ﯾﻛون ‪ 44,100‬ﻋﯾﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ واﻟدﻗﺔ ‪ ،65,536‬وﻋﻧد ھذا اﻟﻣﺳﺗوى ﻓﺎن اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ اﻟرﻗﻣﯾﺔ ﺗﻛون اﻗرب ﻣﺎ ﯾﻛون إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣوﺟﺔ اﻷﺻﻠﯾﺔ وﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺔ ﺟدا ﻟﻣﺳﺗوى‬
‫اﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ اﻷذن اﻟﺑﺷرﯾﺔ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﺳﻌﺔ اﻟﺗﺧزﯾﻧﯾﺔ ﻟﻘرص اﻟﺳﻲ دي‬
‫ﻟﺣﺳﺎب ﻗدرة ﻗرص اﻟﺳﻲ دي ﻟﺗﺧزﯾن اﻟﺻوت ﻓﺈن ھذا ﯾﺗم ﻣن ﺧﻼل ﻓﮭﻣﻧﺎ ﻟﻣﺎ ﺳﺑق‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻟرﻗﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﺎﺗﺟﺔ ﻋن ‪ ADC‬ﺗﺣﺳب ﺑوﺣدة اﻟﺑﺎﯾت ‪ byte‬ﻓﻛل ﻋﯾﻧﺔ ﺗﺳﺗﺧدم‬
‫ﻣﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﻗدرھﺎ ‪ ٢‬ﺑﺎﯾت‪ ،‬وﯾﺗم ﺗﺧزﯾن ﻛل ﻋﯾﻧﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺎرﯾن ﻓﻲ ﻧظﺎم ﺗﺳﺟﯾل اﻟﺳﺗﯾرﯾو‬
‫ﺣﯾث ﯾﻛون ﻟﻛل ﺳﻣﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﺳﺎر‪.‬‬
‫وﺣﯾث ان ﻗرص اﻟﺳﻲ دي ﯾﺧزن ‪ ٧٤‬دﻗﯾﻘﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻣوﺳﯾﻘﻰ أو اﻟﻧﻐﻣﺎت اﻟﺻوﺗﯾﺔ ﻓﺎن ﻛﻣﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت اﻟرﻗﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻣﻛن ﻟﻘرص اﻟﺳﻲ دي أن ﯾﺧزﻧﮭﺎ ھﻲ‬
‫‪44,100 samples/(channel*second) * 2 bytes/sample * 2‬‬
‫= ‪channels * 74 minutes * 60 seconds/minute‬‬
‫‪783,216,000 bytes‬‬
‫وھذه ﻣﺳﺎﺣﺔ ﻛﺑﯾرة ﺟدا ﻣن اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت ﯾﻣﻛن ﺗﺧزﯾﻧﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ وﺳط ﺑﻼﺳﺗﯾﻛﻲ ﺑﺣﺟم ﻗرص‬
‫اﻟﺳﻲ دي‪ .‬وﻣن اﻟﺟدﯾر ذﻛره ھﻧﺎ إن ﯾﻣﻛن اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌدل اﻟﻧﻣذﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﺣﺻول ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺟودة ﺻوت اﻗل وﻟﻛن ﺑﺳﻌﺔ ﺗﺧزﯾﻧﯾﺔ اﻗل ﻟﻠﺣﺻول ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻠﻔﺎت ﺻوﺗﯾﺔ ﺻﻐﯾرة ﯾﻣﻛن‬
‫اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻌﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﻧﺗرﻧت أو ﺗﺷﻐﯾﻠﮭﺎ ﺑواﺳطﺔ أﺟﮭزة ‪ MP3‬واﻟﺗﻲ ﻗد ﻗﻣﻧﺎ ﺑﺷرﺣﮭﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻻت ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
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