USH CH 19.3

CHAPTER 19.3 GUIDED READING 1

Name: ________________________ Hour: ____ Date: _____________________

Chapter 19 From War to Peace Section 3: The Harding and Coolidge Presidencies, pp. 634-639 Main Idea

The nation’s desire for normalcy and its support for American business were reflected in two successive presidents it chose—Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge.

Learning Targets

1. What political events and ideas marked the Warren G. Harding presidency? 2. What political events and ideas marked the Calvin Coolidge presidency? 3. What were the lingering effects of World War I on politics in the 1920s?

Key Terms and Names

1. Warren G. Harding- _______________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Teapot Dome- _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Calvin Coolidge- _________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. reparation- ______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. arms race- _______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Charles Evans Hughes- ____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 7. Billy Mitchell- __________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 8. Kellogg-Briand Pact- _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

The Harding Presidency, p. 635-636

______________________ 9. What two historic matters did then Senator ______________________ Warren G. Harding miss voting on? ______________________10. How did Warren G. Harding regard (feel about) his job as president? ______________________11. Term that means clear and logical. ______________________12. What campaign slogan did Harding invent in one of his campaign speeches in Boston? ______________________13. Who nominated Harding as their candidate? ______________________14. Who nominated James Cox as their candidate? ______________________15. What part of Harding’s message did voters overwhelmingly prefer? 16. What slogan of Harding summed up his answer to the nation’s post war economic troubles? ______________________________________________ ______________________ 17. What two things did Harding want to do to ______________________ help achieve his pro-business goals? ______________________ 18. Who did Harding and his advisers believe started and expanded businesses? 19. Why did Harding support taxing the wealthiest Americans less than others? _____________________________________________________________ 20. What was Harding’s motive for signing the Fordney-McCumber Tariff? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 21. How did the Fordney-McCumber Tariff hurt Europeans? _____________ _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________ 22. What type of people did Harding appoint to his cabinet (group of advisers)? ______________________ 23. Who was Harding’s gifted and respected Secretary of the Treasury?

CHAPTER 19.3 GUIDED READING 3

______________________ 24. What did Mellon do to the American tax system? ______________________ 25. Who was Harding’s

Secretary of State

? ______________________ 26. Who was Harding’s

Commerce Secretary

? 27. Who were member’s of Harding’s “Ohio Gang”? _____________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________ 27. What were some members of the Ohio Gang later convicted of? ______________________ 28. Who was Harding’s

Secretary of the Interior

? 29. Describe the in 1924?

Teapot Dome Scandal

hotel room in San Francisco? : _______________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________ 30. What happened to Warren G. Harding in a ______________________ 31. Who became the 30 national fame in 1918? the Arts and Sciences? role of government. th president of the United States after the sudden death of Warren G. Harding? ______________________ 32. What two interest would stick with Calvin ______________________ Coolidge throughout his life? ______________________ 33. How did then Governor Coolidge achieve ______________________ 34. Who did Coolidge defeat for the presidency 35. What was Coolidge’s presidency characterized by? ________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________ 36. What did Coolidge believe would provide the energy and resources to fuel America’s growth? ______________________ 37. According to Coolidge, who would promote ______________________ 38. In one word sum up Coolidge’s view of the

______________________ 39. What did Coolidge do to taxes? ______________________ 40. What did Coolidge do to the federal budget? ______________________ 41. How many budget increases were there between 1923 and 1929? ______________________ 42. What type of bill did Coolidge veto that would have aided World War I veterans? ______________________ 43. What did Coolidge work to weaken? ______________________ 44. What was Coolidge’s nickname given to him due to his serious and straightforward attitude? ______________________ 45. What two things made Coolidge popular ______________________ during his time in office? ______________________ 46. What did Coolidge choose not to do in 1928?

The Lingering Effects of World War I, pp. 638-639

______________________ 47. What two things consumed the final years ______________________ of Woodrow Wilson’s presidency? ______________________ 48. How much money had European nations borrowed from the United States during World War I? ______________________ 49. What made paying back European war debt to the United States very difficult for European countries? 50. Why couldn’t European nations not earn the dollars they needed to pay off their debts? ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________ 51. Payments designed to make up for the damage of the war. ______________________ 52. Who did European nations expect to pay extremely high reparations? 53. Why were the Allies unable to pay their debt to the United States? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 54. Why was there public pressure to reduce the size of U.S. armed forces? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER 19.3 GUIDED READING 5

______________________ 55. What two countries did Americans believed ______________________ were on the verge of a naval arms race? ______________________ 56. Term used to describe competing nations building more and more weapons in an effort to avoid one nation gaining clear advantage. ______________________ 57. What did the U.S. organize in order to head off an arms race in 1921? ______________________ 58. Who was invited to the Washington Naval Conference in 1921? 59. What did the parties at the Washington Naval Conference agree to do with their ships? ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________ 60. What country did the world’s military powers agree not to compete over? ______________________ 61. Who declared the Washington Naval Conference a success? ______________________ 62. Who argued that the United States should invest more in building up its air power. ______________________ 63. What did Billy Mitchell command during World War I? ______________________ 64. This treaty between 60 countries basically make war illegal but had no system of reinforcement.

Reading Summary (Write a 3-5 sentence summary for each question)

65. What political events and ideas marked the Warren G. Harding presidency? _________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 66. What political events and ideas marked the Calvin Coolidge presidency? _________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 67. What were the lingering effects of world War I on politics in the 1920s? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

19.3 Cartoon Analysis

CHAPTER 19.3 GUIDED READING 7

__________________________ 68. What is represented by the letter “A”? __________________________ 69. What is represented by the letter “B”? __________________________ 70. Who is represented by the letter “C”

71. Explain what is meant by “Having an insurance policy doesn’t mean you can do without fire prevention” ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________