ElementsAndPrinciples

advertisement
6/1/2017
& Principles of Design
the Language of Art
Artist’s Garden
at Vétheuil
by Claude Monet
1880
The Elements of Art
A symbol is something that stands for, or represents,
something else. In a spoken language words are symbols that
represent the real object. In the language of art we use visual
symbols to communicate ideas. The basic visual symbols in the
language of art are known as the elements of art. Just as there
are basic kinds of words – such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.
– there are basic kinds of art elements. These are
line,
shape or form, space, color, value, and texture.
1
6/1/2017
Line
In geometry, line is defined as an endless
series of dots. In drawing, a line is a mark
drawn with a pointed, moving tool. Artists
use lines to control your eye movement.
Tale à la Hoffmann
by Paul Klee 1921 Watercolor on paper
mounted on cardboard
Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY
There are many ways to describe a line: vertical, horizontal, short, long,
zig-zag, diagonal, thin, wide, curved. These are just a few descriptive ways.
Curved Lines
Diagonal Lines
Music – Pink & Blue
II by Georgia
O’Keeffe 1919
The Sea of Ice by
Caspar David
Friedrich 1823-25
Horizontal &
Vertical Lines
Place de la Concorde by
Piet Mondrian 1938-43
2
6/1/2017
Shape or Form
could be defined as a 2-dimensional area
that is defined in some way – shape has
height and width and form has depth.
Shapes are either geometric (sphere,
circle, cube, square, cone, triangle, etc.)
or free-form.
Turning Road at Montgeroult
by Paul Cezanne 1899
Compare and Contrast:
The basic shapes of Paul Cezanne.
Turning Road at Montgeroult by Paul
The broken space and basic shapes of
Picasso (was inspired by Cezanne).
Cezanne, 1899
House in a Garden by Picasso, 1908
3
6/1/2017
Space
The emptiness or area
between, around,
above, below, or within
objects. Shapes & forms
are defined by space
around and within
them.
Christina’s World by Andrew Wyeth 1948
2 Very Important Types of Space
Negative & Positive Space
This is a lithograph titled Cups 4 Picasso by Jasper Johns. The question is, “Which picture is
the cup and which one is the 2 portraits of Picasso?”
Positive Space is the actual shape or form of an object. Negative Space is the
space that surrounds an object.
4
6/1/2017
Color
Something derived
from reflected light.
Our eyes see the light
color that is reflected
off of an object. Color
has 3 properties: hue,
value, and intensity.
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte by Georges Seurat 1886
Blue
3 Primary Colors:
Red
Yellow
Orange
3 Secondary Colors:
Green
Purple (or Violet)
6 Tertiary Colors:
Red-Violet
Blue-Green
Yellow-Orange
Red-Orange
Yellow-Green
Blue-Violet
5
6/1/2017
More Terms to Know:
Complementary Colors:
Colors opposite of each other on the color
wheel. For example: red and green,
purple and yellow, orange and blue.
Equal amounts of complementary colors
mixed together produce a grayish brown
color. Placed next to each other, they
cause your eye to “jump” and will make
each other brighter or more intense. A
pure color that is placed next to a mixture
of that color and its complement will look
like it comes forward and the mixed color
will look like it is in the background.
The
Color Wheel
invented by Sir Isaac Newton
Left to right:
*green
*
yellow green
yellow
yellow orange
orange
red orange
red
red violet
violet (purple)
blue violet
blue
blue green
6
6/1/2017
Analogous Colors:
Colors that are next to each other on the color wheel and have a
common hue. These colors make great color schemes.
A Tint of a color is made
by adding white.
A Shade of a color is
made by adding black.
Red
7
6/1/2017
Value
The darkness or lightness of
an object. Value depends on
how much light a surface
reflects.
The Misses Montagu
by Jean-AugusteDominique Ingres
Texture
Refers to how things feel, or
look as if they might feel if
touched. Texture is perceived
by touch and sight. Objects can
have: rough or smooth
textures, matte or shiny
surfaces.
The Kiss by Gustav Klimt 1907-08
Oil & Gold on Canvas
8
6/1/2017
The Principles of Design
Visual images are also organized according to rules. The rules
that govern how artists organize the elements of art are called
the principles of design. These are:
contrast & variety, balance, unity, movement &
rhythm, proportion, emphasis, repetition
Just remember the acronym:
C(ar) B U M P E R
Contrast &
Variety
Technique for creating a focal
point or an “attention getter” by
using differences in elements. It
could be a color change or a
change in the thickness of a line
that grabs our attention and
keeps the artwork from being
monotonous or boring.
Homage to the Square: Apparition
By Josef Albers 1959 Oil on Masonite
Guggenheim Collection, New York
9
6/1/2017
Contrast & Variety examples:
This contrast is provided by Color. The
red vest stands out and draws our focus
to the central figure.
This contrast is provided by Value. The
extremely dark shadows in the chrome and
under the cars draw our focus to the central
subject.
Boy in a Red Vest by Paul Cezanne 1888-90
Untitled (4 VW’s) by Don Eddy 1971
Balance
Concerned with equalizing visual
forces, or elements, in a work of art. If
a work of art has balance, the viewer
feels that the elements have been
arranged in a satisfying way. The two
types of balance are formal and
informal.
The Voice of the City of New York
Interpreted: The Bridge By Joseph Stella
1920-22
10
6/1/2017
Compare and Contrast: using artwork by Georgia O’Keeffe
Formal or symmetrical balance: equal or very
similar elements are placed on opposite sides of
a central axis
Red, White, and Blue 1931
Informal or asymmetrical balance: way of
organizing parts of a design so that unlike
objects have equal eye attraction
Two Calla Lilies on Pink 1928
Unit
y
The quality of wholeness
or oneness that is
achieved through the use
of the elements of art.
Unity is created by
simplicity, repetition,
proximity, and
continuation.
The Basket of Apples
1895
by Paul Cezanne
The Art Institute of Chicago
11
6/1/2017
Unity examples:
This unity is provided by the repetition
and balance of Line & Value.
This unity is provided by balance of Space
& Color, and the proximity or closeness of
the viewer to the subject.
The Peacock Skirt by Aubrey Beardsley
The Bedroom at Arles by Vincent van Gogh
1894
1889
Movement & Rhythm
It indicates movement by the
repetition of elements. Visual
rhythm is perceived through
the eyes and is created by
repeating positive spaces
separated by negative
spaces.
The Starry Night by Vincent van Gogh 1889
Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), NY
12
6/1/2017
Movement & Rhythm examples:
This movement & rhythm is provided by
repetition of Color and Shapes that “dance”
around the artwork.
Broadway Boogie-Woogie by Piet Mondrian
1942-43
This movement & rhythm is provided by
Line applied with quick brushstrokes, the
illusion of Space, and the intensity of the
subject matter.
The Gulf Stream by Winslow Homer 1899
Proportion
Concerned with the size
relationship of one part to
another. Is the head too small
for the body, the flower too
large for the vase, etc?
The Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da
Vinci 1492 Gallerie dell'Accademia,
Venice, Italy
13
6/1/2017
Proportion examples:
This proportion is abnormal and done to
make a point or an emphasis. The comb is
too large for the bed, etc.
This proportion is
provided by
Shape.
Michelangelo has
carved this piece
in the perfect
human proportion.
David by
Michelangelo 1504
Personal Values by Rene Magritte 1951-52
Using the human head as
the basic measurement, a
human being is 8 heads
tall.
14
6/1/2017
Emphasis
Makes one part of a work
dominant over the other parts.
The element noticed first is
called dominant, the elements
noticed later are called
subordinate.
The Conversion on the Way to
Damascus by Caravaggio 1600
Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo,
Rome
Emphasis examples:
This emphasis is provided by using Value
contrast to emphasize a focal point.
This emphasis is provided by warm Colors
drawing attention to the main focal point.
The Holy Family with Angels by Rembrandt
The Visitation after the Sermon by Paul
1645
Gauguin 1888
15
6/1/2017
Repetition
A technique for creating rhythm and unity in which a motif or single
element appears again and again – it is a means of emphasizing.
Spam by Andy
Warhol c1960
Repetition example:
This repetition is provided by the Shapes of the birds in this print. Escher uses
geometric shapes to repeat a design.
Day and Night by MC Escher 1938
16
6/1/2017
Composition is not one of the elements or principles, but it is an
important part of art: Compare the compositional structure of Rembrandt’s
classical piece and Cezanne’s modern piece. Rembrandt uses the strong triangular
structure, while Cezanne lets the positive & negative spaces balance or offset each
other.
Identify the major element and principle used in this artwork. Use the
statement, “The art element(s) ______ is/are used in this artwork to create ______.”
Circle Limit IV
(Heaven and Hell)
by MC Escher 1960
17
6/1/2017
Line, Space, and Value are
used in this artwork to
create Balance, Repetition,
and Emphasis.
Identify the major element and principle used in this artwork. Use the
statement, “The art element(s) ______ is/are used in this artwork to create ______.”
Irises
by
Vincent van
Gogh 1889
18
6/1/2017
Line and Color are used in
this artwork to create
Movement and Rhythm.
Identify the major element and
principle used in this artwork.
Use the statement, “The art
element(s) ______ is/are used in this
artwork to create ______.”
Flower Festival
by Diego Rivera
1925
19
6/1/2017
Shape and Color are used
in this artwork to create
Unity and Balance.
Credits:
http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/monet/monet2.htm
http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/klee/index.html
http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/okeeffe/index.html
http://www.artchive.com/artchive/ftptoc/friedrich_ext.html
http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/mondrian/index.html
http://www.artchive.com/artchive/ftptoc/cezanne_ext.html
http://www.artchive.com/artchive/W/wyeth/christinas_world.jpg.html
20
6/1/2017
Credits:
http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/seurat/index.html
http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/ingres/index.html
http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_works_87_0.html
http://www.artchive.com/artchive/ftptoc/cezanne_ext.html
http://www.abcgallery.com/R/rembrandt/rembrandt.html
Credits:
http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/TEACH/floral/color.htm
http://www.artregisterpress.com/DonEddy/Files/Chapter2.html
http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_works_1_0.html
Albers
http://www.newarkmuseum.org/americanart/html/tour/galleries/machi
ne_age.htm
Stella
http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/okeeffe/index.html &
http://www.metmuseum.org/collections/view1.asp?dep=21&full=0&item=52
%2E203
21
6/1/2017
Credits:
http://www.artic.edu/artaccess/AA_Impressionist/pages/IMP_10.shtml#
Cezanne
http://www.artic.edu/artaccess/AA_Impressionist/pages/IMP_8.shtml
van Gogh
http://www.artrenewal.org/asp/database/art.asp?aid=1248
Beardsley
http://moma.org/collection/depts/paint_sculpt/blowups/paint_sculpt_0
03.html
van Gogh
http://moma.org/collection/depts/paint_sculpt/blowups/paint_sculpt_
018.html
Mondrian
Credits:
http://www.artchive.com/artchive/ftptoc/homer_ext.html
http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/magritte/magritte2.htm
http://www.artrenewal.org/asp/database/art.asp?aid=123
Michelangelo
http://www.mauigateway.com/~donjusko/human.htm
http://www.artrenewal.org/asp/database/art.asp?aid=589&page=4
Caravaggio
22
6/1/2017
Credits:
http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/gauguin/index.html
http://tigtail.org/L_View/TVM/B/NAmerican/b.%20post%20WW%20II/namerican-b2.html#Warhol
http://www.artchive.com/artchive/E/escher/escher_day_night.jpg.html
http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/escher/index.html
http://www.artchive.com/artchive/V/van_gogh/irises.jpg.html &
http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/rivera/index.html
23
Name ____________________________ Period ______ Date ____________
Elements of Art
DIRECTIONS: In the “thumbnail sketch” blanks provided on this worksheet, draw a piece of
artwork that you find in your textbook that illustrates the element or principle asked for. Remember,
the element or principle asked for must be the main element or principle the artwork emphasizes.
Remember, you must use the sentence pattern provided to describe the piece of artwork you chose,
placing the main element in the first blank and then the main principle in the second blank.
1.
Line
In geometry, line is defined as an endless series
Place thumbnail sketch here:
of dots. In drawing, a line is a mark drawn with a pointed, moving
tool. Artists use lines to control your eye
movement.
______________________________ is used in this
(element)
artwork to create ____________________________.
(principle)
The name of this artwork _______________________________________________________
The name of the artist _______________________ Textbook page number __________
2.
Shape or Form
Could be defined as
a 2-dimensional area that is defined in some way – shape has
height and width and form has depth. Shapes are either geometric
(sphere, circle, cube, square, cone, triangle, etc.) or free-form.
Place thumbnail sketch here:
______________________________ is used in this
(element)
artwork to create ____________________________.
(principle)
The name of this artwork _____________________________________
The name of the artist _______________________ Textbook page number __________
3.
Space
The emptiness or area between, around, above,
below, or within objects. Shapes & forms are defined by space
around and within them.
Place thumbnail sketch here:
______________________________ is used in this
(element)
artwork to create ____________________________.
(principle)
The name of this artwork _____________________________________
The name of the artist _______________________ Textbook page number __________
4.
Color
Something derived from reflected light. Our eyes
see the light color that is reflected off of an object. Color has 3
properties: hue, value, and intensity.
Place thumbnail sketch here:
______________________________ is used in this
(element)
artwork to create ____________________________.
(principle)
The name of this artwork
_______________________________________________________
The name of the artist _______________________ Textbook page number __________
5.
Value
The darkness or lightness of an object.
Value depends on how much light a surface reflects.
Place thumbnail sketch here:
______________________________ is used in this
(element)
artwork to create ____________________________.
(principle)
The name of this artwork
____________________________________________________
The name of the artist _______________________ Textbook page number __________
6.
Texture
Refers to how things feel,
Place thumbnail sketch here:
or look as if they might feel if touched. Texture is perceived by
touch and sight. Objects can have: rough or smooth textures, matte
or shiny surfaces.
______________________________ is used in this
(element)
artwork to create ____________________________.
(principle)
The name of this artwork _______________________________________________________
The name of the artist _______________________ Textbook page number __________
Name ____________________________ Period ______ Date ____________
Principles of Design
DIRECTIONS: In the “thumbnail sketch” blank provided, draw a piece of artwork that you find in
the Reclaimed Exhibit that illustrates the element or principle asked for. Remember, the element or
principle asked for must be the main element or principle the artwork emphasizes. Remember, you
must use the sentence pattern provided to describe the piece of artwork you chose, placing the main
element in the first blank and then the main principle in the second blank.
1.
Contrast & Variety
Technique for
Place thumbnail sketch here:
creating a focal point or an “attention getter” by using differences
in elements. It could be a color change or a change in the thickness
of a line that grabs our attention and keeps the artwork from being
monotonous or boring.
______________________________ is used in this
(element)
artwork to create ____________________________.
(principle)
The name of this artwork _______________________________________________________
The name of the artist _______________________ Textbook page number __________
2.
Balance
Concerned with equalizing visual forces, or
elements, in a work of art. If a work of art has balance, the viewer
feels that the elements have been arranged in a satisfying way. The
two types of balance are formal and informal.
Place thumbnail sketch here:
______________________________ is used in this
(element)
artwork to create ____________________________.
(principle)
The name of this artwork ______________________________________
The name of the artist _______________________ Textbook page number __________
3.
Unity
The quality of wholeness or oneness that is
achieved through the use of the elements of art. Unity is created by
simplicity, repetition, proximity, and continuation.
Place thumbnail sketch here:
______________________________ is used in this
(element)
artwork to create ____________________________.
(principle)
The name of this artwork ______________________________________
The name of the artist _______________________ Textbook page number __________
4.
Movement & Rhythm
Place thumbnail sketch here:
It indicates movement by
the repetition of elements. Visual rhythm is perceived through the
eyes and is created by repeating positive spaces separated by
negative spaces.
______________________________ is used in this
(element)
artwork to create ____________________________.
(principle)
The name of this artwork _______________________________________________________
The name of the artist _______________________ Textbook page number __________
5.
Proportion
Concerned with the size relationship of
one part to another. Is the head too small for the body, the flower too
large for the vase, etc?
Place thumbnail sketch here:
______________________________ is used in this
(element)
artwork to create ____________________________.
(principle)
The name of this artwork ______________________________________
The name of the artist _______________________ Textbook page number __________
6.
Emphasis
Makes one part of a work dominant over the
other parts. The element noticed first is called dominant, the
elements noticed later are called subordinate.
Place thumbnail sketch here:
______________________________ is used in this
(element)
artwork to create ____________________________.
(principle)
The name of this artwork ______________________________________
The name of the artist _______________________ Textbook page number __________
7. Repetition
A technique for creating rhythm and
unity in which a motif or single element appears again and again – it
is a means of emphasizing.
Place thumbnail sketch here:
______________________________ is used in this
(element)
artwork to create ____________________________.
(principle)
The name of this artwork ______________________________________
The name of the artist _______________________ Textbook page number __________
Name__________________________ Period______ Date___________
TEST: Elements of Art, Principles of Design
Fill-in-the-Blank
(10 points each)
DIRECTIONS: In your best handwriting, complete the sentences describing the artwork
shown in the front of the room using the Elements of Art on the first blank, and the
Principles of Design on the second blank. One or more than one element or principle
may be used on the blanks (SUGGESTION – use 3 for each…3 elements, 3 principles).
1. _________________________________________ are used in this artwork
(element)
artwork to create _____________________________________________.
(principle)
2. _________________________________________ are used in this artwork
(element)
artwork to create _____________________________________________.
(principle)
3. _________________________________________ are used in this artwork
(element)
artwork to create _____________________________________________.
(principle)
4. _________________________________________ are used in this artwork
(element)
artwork to create _____________________________________________.
(principle)
5. _________________________________________ are used in this artwork
(element)
artwork to create _____________________________________________.
(principle)
6. _________________________________________ are used in this artwork
(element)
artwork to create _____________________________________________.
(principle)
7. _________________________________________ are used in this artwork
(element)
artwork to create _____________________________________________.
(principle)
8. _________________________________________ are used in this artwork
(element)
artwork to create _____________________________________________.
(principle)
9. _________________________________________ are used in this artwork
(element)
artwork to create _____________________________________________.
(principle)
10. _________________________________________ are used in this artwork
(element)
artwork to create _____________________________________________.
(principle)
Download
Related flashcards
Create flashcards