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C
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK • THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT • ALBANY, NY 12234
10 –2
10 –1
103
Factor
milli-
centi-
deci-
kilo-
Prefix
µ
m
c
d
k
Symbol
Table D
Selected Units
ppm
L
y
d
h
min
s
J
mol
K
Pa
g
m
molarity
parts per million
liter
year
day
hour
minute
second
joule
mole
kelvin
pascal
gram
meter
atomic mass
solution
concentration
concentration
volume
time
time
time
time
time
energy, work,
quantity of heat
amount of
substance
temperature
pressure
mass
length
Name
M
atomic mass unit
1
u
Quantity
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/CHEMISTRY
Unit
10 –3
micron
Symbol
2011 Edition
Value
kilopascal
atmosphere
kelvin
degree Celsius
101.3 kPa
1 atm
Table A
Standard Temperature and Pressure
Name
Standard Pressure
Standard Temperature
273 K
0°C
334 J/g
Table B
Physical Constants for Water
Heat of Fusion
2260 J/g
10 –6
nano-
p
4.18 J/g•K
Heat of Vaporization
Specific Heat Capacity of H2O(!)
10 –9
pico-
Table C
Selected Prefixes
10 –12
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition
Ions That Form
Soluble Compounds
Group 1 ions
(Li+, Na+, etc.)
ammonium (NH4+)
nitrate (NO3–)
acetate (C2H3O2– or
CH3COO–)
hydrogen carbonate
(HCO3–)
Table E
Selected Polyatomic Ions
Name
chromate
Formula
CrO42–
Name
hydronium
Formula
H3O+
nitrite
dichromate
NO2–
nitrate
Cr2O72–
NO3–
peroxide
mercury(I)
O22–
hydroxide
Hg22+
cyanide
OH–
phosphate
permanganate
carbonate
PO43–
thiocyanate
MnO4–
CN–
hydrogen
carbonate
SCN–
sulfite
ammonium
CO32–
oxalate
SO32–
sulfate
NH4+
HCO3
hypochlorite
SO42–
hydrogen sulfate
2–
} acetate
ClO–
chlorite
HSO4–
thiosulfate
C2H3O2–
CH3COO–
ClO2–
chlorate
S2O32–
–
ClO3–
perchlorate
C2O4
ClO4–
carbonate (CO32–)
when combined with Group 1
ions, Ca2+, Mg2+, or
ammonium (NH4+)
when combined with Group 1
ions or ammonium (NH4+)
Exceptions
chromate (CrO42–)
when combined with Group 1
ions or ammonium (NH4+)
hydroxide (OH–)
sulfide (S2–)
when combined with Group 1
ions or ammonium (NH4+)
*compounds having very low solubility in H2O
2
when combined with Group 1
ions, Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr 2+, or
ammonium (NH4+)
phosphate
(PO43–)
Ions That Form
Insoluble Compounds*
Table F
Solubility Guidelines for Aqueous Solutions
Exceptions
halides (Cl–, Br–, I–)
when combined with
Ag+, Pb2+, or Hg22+
chlorate (ClO3–)
sulfates (SO42–)
when combined with Ag+,
Ca2+, Sr 2+, Ba2+, or Pb2+
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition
150.
140.
130.
120.
110.
100.
90.
80.
70.
60.
50.
40.
30.
20.
10.
0
0
10.
KI
30.
SO2
HCl
50.
60.
Temperature (°C)
40.
70.
KNO3
80.
KCl
KClO3
NH4Cl
Table G
Solubility Curves at Standard Pressure
20.
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition
Solubility (g solute/100. g H2O)
NaNO3
NaCl
NH3
90.
100.
3
200.
150.
0
101.3 kPa
25
50.
propanone
75
ethanol
Table H
Vapor Pressure of Four Liquids
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition
0
50.
100.
Vapor Pressure (kPa)
water
100.
ethanoic
acid
125
4
Table I
Heats of Reaction at 101.3 kPa and 298 K
Table J
Activity Series**
F2
Nonmetals Most
Active
Li
Cl2
Metals
–890.4
Rb
Most
Active
CO2(g) + 2H2O(!)
–2219.2
∆H (kJ)*
CH4(g) + 2O2(g)
3CO2(g) + 4H2O(!)
Reaction
C3H8(g) + 5O2(g)
2C8H18(!) + 25O2(g)
16CO2(g) + 18H2O(!)
–10943
Cs
K
I2
Br2
Ca
–1452
–566.0
Na
2CO2(g) + 4H2O(!)
–393.5
Mg
2CH3OH(!) + 3O2(g)
–3351
Al
Ba
+182.6
Ti
–1367
2NO(g)
+66.4
Mn
2CO2(g) + 3H2O(!)
N2(g) + O2(g)
2NO2(g)
–483.6
Zn
C2H5OH(!) + 3O2(g)
N2(g) + 2O2(g)
2H2O(g)
–571.6
Cr
Sr
2H2(g) + O2(g)
2H2O(!)
–91.8
Fe
–2804
2H2(g) + O2(g)
2NH3(g)
–84.0
Co
6CO2(g) + 6H2O(!)
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
C2H6(g)
+52.4
Ni
K+(aq) + NO3–(aq)
–44.51
+34.89
+53.0
Cu
H2
Pb
Sn
2Al2O3(s)
Na+(aq) + OH–(aq)
+14.78
4Al(s) + 3O2(g)
H2O
NH4+(aq) + Cl–(aq)
5
Least
Active
**Activity Series is based on the hydrogen
standard. H2 is not a metal.
Au
Ag
H2O
H2O
2CO2(g)
2C(s) + 3H2(g)
C2H4(g)
+227.4
2CO(g) + O2(g)
2C(s) + 2H2(g)
C2H2(g)
KNO3(s)
NaOH(s)
NH4Cl(s)
CO2(g)
2C(s) + H2(g)
2HI(g)
C(s) + O2(g)
H2(g) + I2(g)
C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g)
Least
Active
+25.69
+3.88
NH4+(aq) + NO3–(aq)
Na+(aq) + Cl–(aq)
–48.83
H2O
H2O
Li+(aq) + Br–(aq)
–55.8
H2O
NH4NO3(s)
NaCl(s)
LiBr(s)
H+(aq) + OH–(aq)
H2O(!)
*The ∆H values are based on molar quantities represented in the equations.
A minus sign indicates an exothermic reaction.
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition
Table K
Common Acids
H2SO3(aq)
HNO3(aq)
HNO2(aq)
HCl(aq)
sulfuric acid
sulfurous acid
nitric acid
nitrous acid
hydrochloric acid
Name
H2SO4(aq)
phosphoric acid
Formula
H3PO4(aq)
carbonic acid
ethanoic acid
(acetic acid)
H2CO3(aq)
or
CO2(aq)
CH3COOH(aq)
or
HC2H3O2(aq)
Table L
Common Bases
KOH(aq)
NaOH(aq)
calcium hydroxide
potassium hydroxide
sodium hydroxide
Name
Ca(OH)2(aq)
aqueous ammonia
Formula
NH3(aq)
Table M
Common Acid–Base Indicators
Color
Change
red to yellow
Indicator
3.1–4.4
yellow to blue
Approximate
pH Range
for Color
Change
methyl orange
6.0–7.6
red to blue
bromthymol blue
4.5–8.3
yellow to blue
colorless to pink
litmus
3.8–5.4
yellow to blue
8–9
bromcresol green
8.0–9.6
phenolphthalein
thymol blue
Source: The Merck Index, 14th ed., 2006, Merck Publishing Group
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition
Table N
Selected Radioisotopes
99Tc
90Sr
222Rn
226Ra
239Pu
32P
19Ne
16N
85Kr
42K
37K
131I
3H
220Fr
53Fe
137Cs
60Co
37Ca
14C
198Au
1.40 × 1010 y
2.13 × 105 y
29.1 y
3.823 d
1599 y
2.410 × 104 y
14.28 d
17.22 s
7.13 s
10.73 y
12.36 h
1.23 s
8.021 d
12.31 y
27.4 s
8.51 min
30.2 y
5.271 y
182 ms
5715 y
2.695 d
α
α
β–
β–
α
α
α
β–
β+
β–
β–
β–
β+
β–
β–
α
β+
β–
β–
β+
β–
β–
uranium-235
uranium-233
thorium-232
technetium-99
strontium-90
radon-222
radium-226
plutonium-239
phosphorus-32
neon-19
nitrogen-16
krypton-85
potassium-42
potassium-37
iodine-131
hydrogen-3
francium-220
iron-53
cesium-137
cobalt-60
calcium-37
carbon-14
gold-198
Nuclide
Name
232Th
1.592 × 105 y
α
uranium-238
Decay
Mode
233U
7.04 × 108 y
α
Half-Life
235U
4.47 × 109 y
Nuclide
238U
Source: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 91st ed., 2010–2011,
CRC Press
6
Table O
Symbols Used in Nuclear Chemistry
Symbol
α
Notation
or 42α
Name
4 He
2
γ
alpha particle
0γ
0
n
β–
1
0n
p
or –10 β
gamma radiation
or 11p
β+
0
–1 e
neutron
1H
1
or +10 β
beta particle
proton
0
+1e
CnH2n–2
CnH2n
CnH2n+2
General
Formula
non-
oct-
hept-
hex-
pent-
but-
prop-
eth-
meth-
Prefix
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Number of
Carbon Atoms
ethyne
ethene
ethane
Name
H H
H
H
H
C H
C C
H C
H
H C C H
H H
Structural Formula
Examples
Table Q
Homologous Series of Hydrocarbons
dec-
Table P
Organic Prefixes
positron
Name
alkanes
alkenes
alkynes
Note: n = number of carbon atoms
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition
7
Class of
Compound
F (fluoro-)
Cl (chloro-)
Br (bromo-)
I (iodo-)
Functional
Group
R
OH
R X
(X represents
any halogen)
General
Formula
CH3OCH2CH3
methyl ethyl ether
CH3CH2CH2OH
1-propanol
Table R
Organic Functional Groups
halide
(halocarbon)
OH
O R′
CH3CH2C NH2
propanamide
O
CH3CH2CH2NH2
1-propanamine
CH3CH2COCH3
methyl propanoate
O
CH3CH2C OH
propanoic acid
O
CH3CCH2CH2CH3
2-pentanone
O
CH3CH2C H
propanal
O
CH3CHClCH3
2-chloropropane
Example
alcohol
R
O
O
O
O
R C H
O
R C R′
C H
C
O
C OH
O
R C O
R
O
C OH
O
C O
R N R′′
R′
N
O R′
C NH
O
R
R′
ether
aldehyde
ketone
organic acid
ester
amine
amide
C NH
Note: R represents a bonded atom or group of atoms.
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition
8
P eriod
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition
Periodic Table of the Elements
1
+1
–1
1.00794
1
H
1
KEY
Group
6.941
2
Li
3
4
Na 12Mg
11
39.0983
19
K
85.4678
Rb
132.905
Sr
+2 44.9559
39
Y
2-8-18-18-8-1
(223)
Fr
2-8-18-18-8-2
+1 (226)
-18-32-18-8-1
-18-32-18-8-2
Ti
2-8-10-2
+3 91.224
40
Zr
2-8-18-10-2
6
5
+2 50.9415
+3
+4
23
V
2-8-11-2
+4 92.9064
+2 51.996
+3
+4
+5
7
+2 54.9380
+3
+6
2-8-13-1
+3 95.94
+5
2-8-13-2
2-8-18-12-1
2-8-18-13-1
2-8-18-13-2
+6 186.207
72
73
74
75
Ta
-18-32-11-2
+3 (261)
+4 (262)
104
105
-18-32-18-9-2
Rf
11
+2 58.9332
+3
+2 58.693
+3
+2 63.546
+3
27
28
29
Co
2-8-15-2
+3 102.906
Ni
2-8-16-2
+3 106.42
12
+1 65.409
+2
W
2-8-18-15-1
+4 190.23
+6
+7
Re 76Os
-18-32-12-2
(266)
Ce
58
232.038
2-8-18-1
+2 107.868
+4
2-8-18-18-1
+3 192.217
+4
+3 195.08
+4
+2 196.967
+4
77
78
79
Ir
Pt
C
6
2-4
Al
2-8-3
+2 69.723
Group
14
Si
2-8-4
+3 72.64
2-8-18-2
+1 112.41
2-8-18-18-2
+1 200.59
+3
Au 80Hg
2-8-18-3
2-8-18-4
–4 30.97376
+2
+4
–2 35.453
+4
+6
15
16
17
–1 39.948
+1
+5
+7
P
2-8-5
+2 74.9216
+4
2-8-18-5
+3 118.71
+2 121.760
+4
49
50
51
2-8-18-18-3
+1 204.383
+2
81
Tl
Sn
2-8-18-18-4
+1 207.2
+3
Pb
82
18
2-8
+2 114.818
In
17
2-7
N
7
2-5
+3 28.0855
16
–3 15.9994
–2
–1
+1
+2
+3
+4 8
+5 2-6
–3 32.065
+3
+5
–4 14.0067
+2
+4
O
S
2-8-6
–3 78.96
+3
+5
2-8-18-6
–3 127.60
+3
+5
Sb 52Te
2-8-18-18-5
+2 208.980
+4
83
Bi
2-8-18-18-6
+3 (209)
+5
Po
84
–2 18.9984
F
9
Cl
2-8-7
–1 20.180
Ne
18
Ar
–1 83.798
+1
+5
35
36
Br
2-8-18-7
–2 126.904
+4
+6
l
2-8-18-18-7
+2 (210)
+4
85
Kr
Xe
54
(222)
At 86Rn
-18-32-17-1
-18-32-18-1
-18-32-18-2
-18-32-18-3
-18-32-18-4
-18-32-18-5
-18-32-18-6
-18-32-18-7
-18-32-18-8
(276)
(281)
(280)
(285)
(284)
(289)
(288)
(292)
(?)
(294)
60
+4 238.029
+5
91
92
U
+3 (237)
+4
+5
+6
Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113
Uut
Uup 116
Uuq 115
Uuh 117
Uus 118
Uuo
114
**
+3 150.36
+2 151.964
+3
+2 157.25
+3
+3 158.925
+3 (244)
+4
+5
+6
+3 (243)
+4
+5
+6
+3 (247)
+4
+5
+6
+3 (247)
+3 162.500
*denotes the presence of (2-8-) for elements 72 and above
**The systematic names and symbols for elements of atomic numbers 113 and above
will be used until the approval of trivial names by IUPAC.
9
Source: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 91st ed., 2010–2011, CRC Press
+3 164.930
Dy 67Ho
66
+3 (251)
+4
Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf
93
0
109
Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb
+4 231.036
0
+2
+4
+6
2-8-18-18-8
-18-32-15-2
59
0
+2
2-8-18-8
–1 131.29
+1
+5
+7
(277)
+3 (145)
0
2-8-8
–2 79.904
+4
+6
53
0
10
-18-32-14-2
+3 144.24
Th Pa
90
2-8-18-18
+3 12.011
15
(272)
+3 140.908
+4
Pr
He
-18-32-13-2
Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs
140.116
2-8-18-16-1
13
14
Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se
Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd
41
+5 183.84
*18-32-10-2
2-8-14-2
+4 101.07
+6
+7
+6 (98)
+4 180.948
Hf
+2 55.845
+3
+4
+7
10
9
8
Cr 25Mn 26Fe
24
+3 178.49
2-8-18-18-9-2
+2 (227)
Ra 89Ac
88
22
2-8-18-9-2
+2 138.9055
Cs 56Ba 57La
55
+3 47.867
2-8-9-2
+2 88.9059
2-8-18-8-2
+1 137.33
4
3
2-8-8-2
+1 87.62
38
B
5
26.98154
Ca 21Sc
37
87
10.81
Group
20
2-8-18-8-1
7
13
+2
2-8-2
+1 40.08
2-8-8-1
6
Relative atomic masses are based
on 12 C = 12 (exact)
Note: Numbers in parentheses
are mass numbers of the most
stable or common isotope.
2-4
Electron Configuration
2
0
2
2-3
+1 24.305
2-8-1
5
Be
6
Atomic Number
+2
Selected Oxidation States
2-2
22.98977
4
2
–4
+2
+4
C
Symbol
+1 9.01218
2-1
3
12.011
Atomic Mass
1
1
18
4.00260
+3 (252)
+3 167.259
68
+3 168.934
+3 173.04
+2 174.9668
+3
+3
+3 (258)
+2 (259)
+3
+2 (262)
+3
+3
Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
+3 (257)
Es 100Fm 101Md 102No
99
Lr
103
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition
Table S
Properties of Selected Elements
Atomic Symbol
Number
Name
First
Ionization
Energy
(kJ/mol)
Electronegativity
Melting
Point
(K)
Boiling*
Point
(K)
Density**
(g/cm3)
Atomic
Radius
(pm)
10
1
2
3
4
5
H
He
Li
Be
B
hydrogen
helium
lithium
beryllium
boron
1312
2372
520.
900.
801
2.2
—
1.0
1.6
2.0
14
—
454
1560.
2348
20.
4
1615
2744
4273
0.000082
0.000164
0.534
1.85
2.34
32
37
130.
99
84
6
7
8
9
10
C
N
O
F
Ne
carbon
nitrogen
oxygen
fluorine
neon
1086
1402
1314
1681
2081
2.6
3.0
3.4
4.0
—
—
63
54
53
24
—
77
90.
85
27
—
0.001145
0.001308
0.001553
0.000825
75
71
64
60.
62
11
12
13
14
15
Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
sodium
496
magnesium
738
aluminum
578
silicon
787
phosphorus (white) 1012
0.9
1.3
1.6
1.9
2.2
371
923
933
1687
317
1156
1363
2792
3538
554
0.97
1.74
2.70
2.3296
1.823
160.
140.
124
114
109
16
17
18
19
20
S
Cl
Ar
K
Ca
sulfur (monoclinic) 1000.
chlorine
1251
argon
1521
potassium
419
calcium
590.
2.6
3.2
—
0.8
1.0
388
172
84
337
1115
718
239
87
1032
1757
2.00
0.002898
0.001633
0.89
1.54
104
100.
101
200.
174
21
22
23
24
25
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
scandium
titanium
vanadium
chromium
manganese
633
659
651
653
717
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.6
1814
1941
2183
2180.
1519
3109
3560.
3680.
2944
2334
2.99
4.506
6.0
7.15
7.3
159
148
144
130.
129
26
27
28
29
30
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
iron
cobalt
nickel
copper
zinc
762
760.
737
745
906
1.8
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.7
1811
1768
1728
1358
693
3134
3200.
3186
2835
1180.
7.87
8.86
8.90
8.96
7.134
124
118
117
122
120.
31
32
33
34
35
Ga
Ge
As
Se
Br
gallium
germanium
arsenic (gray)
selenium (gray)
bromine
579
762
944
941
1140.
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.6
3.0
303
1211
1090.
494
266
2477
3106
—
958
332
5.91
5.3234
5.75
4.809
3.1028
123
120.
120.
118
117
36
37
38
39
40
Kr
Rb
Sr
Y
Zr
krypton
rubidium
strontium
yttrium
zirconium
1351
403
549
600.
640.
—
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.3
116
312
1050.
1795
2128
120.
961
1655
3618
4682
0.003425
1.53
2.64
4.47
6.52
116
215
190.
176
164
.
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition
Atomic Symbol
Number
First
Ionization
Energy
(kJ/mol)
Name
Electronegativity
Melting
Point
(K)
Boiling*
Point
(K)
Density**
(g/cm3)
Atomic
Radius
(pm)
41
42
43
44
45
Nb
Mo
Tc
Ru
Rh
niobium
molybdenum
technetium
ruthenium
rhodium
652
684
702
710.
720.
1.6
2.2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2750.
2896
2430.
2606
2237
5017
4912
4538
4423
3968
8.57
10.2
11
12.1
12.4
156
146
138
136
134
46
47
48
49
50
Pd
Ag
Cd
In
Sn
palladium
silver
cadmium
indium
tin (white)
804
731
868
558
709
2.2
1.9
1.7
1.8
2.0
1828
1235
594
430.
505
3236
2435
1040.
2345
2875
12.0
10.5
8.69
7.31
7.287
130.
136
140.
142
140.
51
52
53
54
55
Sb
Te
I
Xe
Cs
antimony (gray)
tellurium
iodine
xenon
cesium
831
869
1008
1170.
376
2.1
2.1
2.7
2.6
0.8
904
723
387
161
302
1860.
1261
457
165
944
6.68
6.232
4.933
0.005366
1.873
140.
137
136
136
238
56
57
Ba
La
barium
lanthanum
503
538
0.9
1.1
1000.
1193
2170.
3737
3.62
6.15
206
194
Elements 58–71 have been omitted.
72
73
74
75
Hf
Ta
W
Re
hafnium
tantalum
tungsten
rhenium
659
728
759
756
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9
2506
3290.
3695
3458
4876
5731
5828
5869
13.3
16.4
19.3
20.8
164
158
150.
141
76
77
78
79
80
Os
Ir
Pt
Au
Hg
osmium
iridium
platinum
gold
mercury
814
865
864
890.
1007
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.4
1.9
3306
2719
2041
1337
234
5285
4701
4098
3129
630.
22.587
22.562
21.5
19.3
13.5336
136
132
130.
130.
132
81
82
83
84
85
Tl
Pb
Bi
Po
At
thallium
lead
bismuth
polonium
astatine
589
716
703
812
—
1.8
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.2
577
600.
544
527
575
1746
2022
1837
1235
—
11.8
11.3
9.79
9.20
—
144
145
150.
142
148
86
87
88
89
Rn
Fr
Ra
Ac
radon
francium
radium
actinium
1037
393
509
499
—
0.7
0.9
1.1
202
300.
969
1323
211
—
—
3471
0.009074
—
5
10.
146
242
211
201
Elements 90 and above have been omitted.
11
*boiling point at standard pressure
**density of solids and liquids at room temperature and density of gases at 298 K and 101.3 kPa
— no data available
Source: CRC Handbook for Chemistry and Physics, 91st ed., 2010–2011, CRC Press
Table T
Important Formulas and Equations
Mole Calculations
Density
% error =
number of moles =
m
d=
V
d = density
m = mass
V = volume
Percent Error
% composition by mass =
parts per million =
mass of solute
× 1 000 000
mass of solution
mass of part
× 100
mass of whole
measured value – accepted value
× 100
accepted value
given mass
gram-formula mass
Percent Composition
Concentration
MA = molarity of H+
VB = volume of base
MB = molarity of OH–
K = kelvin
°C = degree Celsius
12
DET 609 ADU
q = heat
Hf = heat of fusion
m = mass
Hv = heat of vaporization
C = specific heat capacity
∆T = change in temperature
VA = volume of acid
P = pressure
V = volume
T = temperature
moles of solute
liter of solution
T2
P2V2
molarity =
P1V1
=
MAVA = MBVB
T1
Titration
Combined Gas Law
Heat
K = °C + 273
mHv
q = mC∆T
q = mHf
q=
Temperature
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/ Chemistry – 2011 Edition
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