Essay Draft Human Biology

advertisement
Wissam Kobeissi
122482
FC502
Module Code: FC501
Module Title: Skills for Study 1
Assessment Title: Essay
Assignment Title: Human Biology - Health issues in developing countries
Tutor Name: Iwona Jagodzinska
Student ID number: 122482
Date of Submission: 28th January, 2019
Word Count: 734
Healthcare and combatting infections have become progressively stronger as we advanced as
a civilization. Our species has been able to control and reduce morbidity of numerous diseases
that have plagued us; smallpox, malaria, and polio to name a few. This has been proven by the
average life expectancy climbing to 72 years in 2016 (World Health Organization, 2019).
Nevertheless, developing countries still suffer from wide-ranging diseases and infections since
they cannot be accommodated the same healthcare and service as more developed countries.
Moreover, aspects such as regional variation, sex differential, and age discrepancy heavily
influence the health issue that burdens a certain society. This essay will investigate a few of
the developing countries and their largest health issues and ultimately propose solutions that
could be taken to improve their quality of life.
Although many resources have been used to improve the overall health in Africa, it remains
one of regions with the highest risk of death with newborns. It is estimated that 38% of all
neonatal deaths take place in Sub-Saharan Africa (UNICEF, 2016). The Sub-Saharan Africa
does not suffer from one deadly disease, it suffers from poor sanitation, lack of medicine, and
unawareness leading to communicable diseases running rampant. Malaria, bowel infections,
HIV, and pneumonia are a few of the diseases that can be found in this region (Fatusi and
Hindin, 2010). An entire reform is required to raise the health levels of the Sub-Saharan Africa;
1
Wissam Kobeissi
122482
FC502
however, the World Health Organization predicts that 20% of under-five deaths could be
prevented with the application of vaccinations across the region (Wardlaw, 2014). It is a
plausible solution; however, it is not as readily available in this developing region as other
developed countries. If an elegant infrastructure was made, and enough funds were accessible,
these prevalent diseases would cease to exist within years due to the use of vaccines.
On the other hand, heart diseases such as Coronary Heart Disease, high blood pressure, were
the #1 leading cause for men and women in 2013, with over 50% of deaths in males being due
to heart disease. Low-middle income households tend to suffer from heart issues more often as
they do not have access to health programs, healthcare, and unhealthy foods being more
accessible and affordable than healthy alternatives. Smoking tobacco, alcohol, unhealthy
consumption, diet, and lack of exercise are some of the factors that contribute to heart disease.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) approximates that 47% of Americans are at
risk of cardiovascular diseases unknowingly. Morbidity rate of heart diseases has slowly
decreased thanks to awareness campaigns. Solutions that have aided in the lessening of this
disease have been dieting, exercising, and cutting tobacco and alcohol.
Lastly, Denmark has attained the highest rate of cancer globally, with 325 people out of every
100,000 people developing cancer in their lifetime in Denmark. This may be due to the strong
medical field and being able to diagnose quicker than other countries, but nevertheless
Denmark has high rates of smoking and alcohol which are large cancer risk factors. Cancer is
a disease that is both genetic and environmental, meaning it can be induced through a person’s
surroundings. Carcinogens are chemicals or a substance that have the capability of causing
cancer. Carcinogens can range from tobacco to pollution to UV rays. In the 20 years that cancer
has spread, death rates slowed down in 2016 by 21% (Simon, 2016). Regardless, it remains a
2
Wissam Kobeissi
122482
FC502
leading cause of death in some countries and in 21 states in the U.S. Cancer is challenging to
overcome as it is also genetic, meaning it has been coded in certain DNA to have a passive
cancer that can later emerge during one’s lifetime. Certain precautions can be taken to reduce
the chances of cancer incidences such as sunscreen for UV rays, abolishing tobacco and
alcohol, reducing pollution and engine exhaust, and exercising.
In conclusion, certain regions suffer from different diseases. Developing, poorer areas such as
the Sub-Saharan Africa have widespread communicable diseases as hygiene is poor and
medicine is limited, while richer, more developed countries such as the U.S suffer from
diseases such as heart disease and cancer that have indulgences such as tobacco, alcohol, and
fat food as the main cause. Although these issues must be approached in distinctive ways,
exercising, eating healthy, and abstaining from drinking alcohol and smoking can greatly
increase the chances of a person living a robust healthy life.
3
Wissam Kobeissi
122482
FC502
Reference List:

Cdc.gov. (2017). Heart Disease Facts & Statistics. [online] Available at:
https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm [Accessed 27 Jan. 2019].

Fatusi, A. and Hindin, M. (2010). Adolescents and youth in developing countries:
Health and development issues in context. Journal of Adolescence, 33(4), pp.499-508.

Simon, S. (2016). Cancer Statistics Report: Death Rate Down 23% in 21 Years. [online]
Cancer.org. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/latest-news/cancer-statistics-reportdeath-rate-down-23-percent-in-21-years.html [Accessed 27 Jan. 2019].

UNICEF.
(2016).
Maternal
and
newborn
health.
[online]
Available
at:
https://www.unicef.org/health/index_maternalhealth.html [Accessed 27 Jan. 2019].


Wardlaw, T., You, D., Hug, L., Amouzou, A. and Newby, H., (2014). UNICEF Report:
enormous progress in child survival but greater focus on newborns urgently needed.
Reproductive health, 11(1), p.82.World Health Organization. (2019). Life expectancy.
[online]
Available
at:
https://www.who.int/gho/mortality_burden_disease/life_tables/situation_trends_text/e
n/ [Accessed 27 Jan. 2019].
World Health Organization. (2019). Life expectancy. [online] Available at:
https://www.who.int/gho/mortality_burden_disease/life_tables/situation_trends_text/e
n/ [Accessed 27 Jan. 2019].
4
Download
Related flashcards
Create flashcards