ADv chemistry chapter 1

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Welcome to Advanced Chemistry
Review
• CHAPTER 1
• Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties,
the changes that it undergoes and the energy
associated with these changes
• Matter-anything that has mass and volume
• Composition of matter is the type and amounts of
simpler substances making it up
• Substance- matter that has a defined mixed
composition
• We learn about matter by observing prosperities-the
characteristics that give each substance its unique
identity
• Physical properties-the characteristic a substance
shows before interacting with others
melting point, conductivity, density, physical change
occurs when a substance alters its physical
properties
Water (solid)→water (liquid)
• Chemical properties also called chemical reactioncharacteristics a substance shows when it changes
into or interacts with another substance
flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity
Water →(electric current)→hydrogen and
oxygen
• Intensive properties are independent of the amount
of substance
• Extensive properties are dependent on the amount
of substance
• STATE OF MATTER
•
solid fixed shaped not conforming to container
particles close and organized
•
liquid has upper surface and conforms to container
but = to volume of liquid, particles close but
disorganized
•
gas fills and conforms to entire container
particles far apart and disorganized
• State changes with temperature and pressure. In physical
change of state it can be reversed
• We study Chemistry on two levels:
macroscopic scale-properties and behavior we can see
atomic scale-properties and behaviors we cannot see
• Observable changes help us understand unobservable
CAUSES
•
•
•
•
•
Energy is important in the study of matter
Energy is the ability to do work
All work involves motion
Total energy = potential and kinetic energy
Potential energy is the energy of position of
an object relative to other objects Example:
ROLLERCOASTER
• Kinetic energy is the energy due to the motion
of the object
The potential energy of a roller coaster
before it goes down the hill
The conversion of potential energy to kinetic
energy as the roller coaster proceeds down the
hill
HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY
• Alchemy - an occult study of nature with Greeks
proclaiming matter strives for perfection
• Developed technical methods of altering matter
distillation, percolation, extraction, use of
apparatus and conducting experiments
• 13th Century Medicine-using principles of alchemy
and knowledge of healing plants developed
medicines
medicine and chemistry are allies
• Technology
(metallurgy)
purification, metal manipulation, glass,
gunpowder, use of heat and quantitative
measurement
17th Century Phlogiston Fiasco
• Burning was explained as a release of
phlogiston which was undetectable
• Antoine Lavoisier performed experiments to
ID oxygen that relied on quantitative
reproducible measurements
• Metal oxides include the mass of oxygen and
mass of metal
Scientific method flow chart page 12
Chemical Problem Solving
• Consider FIRST
•
Step 1 Do I need? unit conversion
•
in chemistry all numbers have a number and a UNIT
include all units in calculations
• Use conversion factors which are ratios used to express a quantity
in different units
• Conversion factors are made from equivalent units and MUST
include in the numerator (TOP) the unit you want
• Will the new unit have a larger or smaller number
•
• Converting between unit systems
Example: English to Metric
• feet, inches, miles, centimeters, meters, kilometers
• Also called Dimensional Analysis
MEASUREMENT
• SI units are the standard in chemistry which
includes the metric system
• SI includes 7 base/fundamental units and
derived units
speed is derived from 2 base units
meters per second (m/s)
• Take post it and mark pages 17, 18, & 19 in
book. You will refer to these often!
A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO SOLVING
CHEMISTY PROBLEMS
• Problem - understand what problem is asking
•
Step 1 What information from the problem is
useful/ known or unknown?
•
Step 2 What conversion or equations are needed?
• Solution - Shows each calculation step in order
• Check
- Does answer make sense?
Are units correct?
Did change occur in expected direction?
Is it reasonable chemically?
• Comments - used to help others avoid common
mistakes, provide application or an overview
• Follow-Up Problem - a similar problem requiring you to
apply concepts or methods used
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