case study H

Case study H
Question number 1
Answer 1
The defrence between cost-benefits and cost-effectiveness, and cost utiity analysis
For this we can enabe to two or more treatment aternative to be compred using the suumary
metric of net monetary benefits of each treatment less the cost of each
CBA is not commony used in health technoogy assessment due to difficulty of associating
monetary values with health outcomes such as survival
Most commony CBA have been used to assess arge capita development projects
Cost effectivness
The gains are typically measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), representing a
weighted combination of mortality and morbidity effects of an intervention.
There are problems with the standardization of the tools and methods of CEA. Effectiveness data
is not always derived from systematic reviews
Cost-effectiveness Analysis quantifies the gains, or setbacks, in population health as a result of a
particular policy or intervention. The gains are typically measured in disability-adjusted life
years (DALYs), representing a weighted combination of mortality and morbidity effects of an
Case study H
Cost-utiity anaysis
Cost-utility analysis is used to determine cost in terms of utilities, especially quantity and quality
of life. This type of analysis is controversial because it is difficult to put a value on health status
or on an improvement in health status as perceived by different individuals or societies
This allows for easy comparison across different types of health outcome, but still requires value
judgements to be made about increases in the quality of life (utility) associated with different
health outcomes.
It therefore provides a broader context in which to make judgements about the value for money
of using a particular drug.
Case study H
Question number 2
Answer 2
the relationship between cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis. Provided that a
cost-effectiveness analysis includes all the relevant societal costs
it is shown that a cost-effectiveness analysis can be interpreted as a cost-benefit analysis where
the willingness to pay per effectiveness unit is assumed to be constant and the same for everyone
It is argued that cost-effectiveness analysis is best viewed as a subset of cost-benefit analysis,
where the aim of the analysis is to estimate the cost function of producing health effects.
It is also concluded that to interpret and use cost-effectiveness analysis as a tool to maximize the
health effects for one specified real-world budget, will be inconsistent with a societal perspective
and is likely to lead to major problems of suboptimization.
No its means more effectiveness then no more money
Case study H
Question 3
Answer 3
The cost effectiveness and one
time oppor-tunistic screening
The cost effectiveness of three
intervantion of hypothetical
cohort of 10000 newly
The cost effectiveness of two
screeing strategies
A hypothetical popu-lation
without diabets assigned to
either opportunistic screening
or current cinical practice
A hypothetical cohort of
10000 newly dianosed
diagnosed diabetics who are
followed for the for the
deveopment of major
compication under the two
screening aternatives
Intensive glycemic comtrol
Intensive hypertension control
Reduction in serum choestrol
Diabetes screening targeted at
those individuals with
Universal diabetes screening
That means the varius disease states associates with compication and ultimatey death
The cost ignored ike that hospital charges,patient charges etc.
Case study H
Answer 4
Thees cost incuded in a CEA
Outcomes/endpoints selected
Efficacy vs. effectiveness
Data capture method
Direct costs
Indirect costs
Actual costs vs. charges/prices
Marginal costs vs. average costs
Time horizon of analysis
Correction for inflation
Modeling use
Sensitivity analysis
Reporting results
Funding source
For that categary of cost and fall is intervesting costs
Case study H
Question 5
Answer 5
There is a growing realization that that streaming revenue is not growing quickly enough to
offset the impact of declining download sales. It is an eerily familiar echo of the recurring
narrative of the noughties that download sales were not growing quickly enough to offset the
impact of declining CD sales. The situation is very different now in that the industry licenses the
disruptive force. Back in the noughties the combined impact of changing consumer behavior
patterns, growing piracy adoption and the loss of content scarcity were factors the industry had
little control over. Yet this present shift is more fundamental and will have much bigger long
term impact.
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