What is Phonetics?
Decoding the speech stream Principles of phonetic transcription IPA Readings: 3.1-3.2
The scientific study of human speech sounds How they are produced (articulatory) How they are perceived (auditory) Their physical properties (acoustic)
“Why did Ken set the soggy net … on top of his deck ?” http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/course/chapter1.1/chapter1.1.htm
The speech signal is a continuous stream of sound No ‘spaces’ between words in speech
How many sounds in the following words?
‘leaf’ [lif] vs. ‘feel’ [fil] forwards ‘feel’ [fil] vs. ‘leaf’ [lif] backwards ‘lull’ vs. ‘llul’ backwards
Sounds in a string are continuous, yet we perceive them as discrete, separate sounds
Be able to
human speech sounds Learn symbols used for
and classify sounds according to articulatory properties
The most widely used tool in phonetics is
A standardized set of symbols for transcribing all possible human speech sounds One-to-one correspondence between symbol and sound We will use “symbol” = IPA “letter” = spelling (orthography)
Interactive IPA chart can be found at: http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/course/c hapter1/chapter1.html
Some languages have no writing system There is no one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds: Same letter — different sounds dad, father, about, many Same sound — different letters believe, people, amoeba, tree Several letters used for one sound shoot, nation, chord, chip
One letter used for several sounds box, use Some letters have no sound gnaw, sword, debt, damn, bomb [ba ks ] [ ju z] [ nç ]...[ba m ]
Some symbols will look and sound familiar: [b n w] Some will
strange: [x q] Some will sound familiar, but look strange: [S T N] Some will look and sound unfamiliar: [ / µ ß]
[p] spit, tip, appear [b] ball, globe, amble [t] stack, pat, stuffed, pterodactyl [d] [k] [g] [/] [f] dip, card, drop, loved skit, joker, attic, exceed guard, bag, longer foot, laugh, philosophy, coffee _x0008_ Hints: -Pay attention to how you SAY it; not how it’s spelled.
-check your pronunciation against a native speaker’s.
uh-oh (the “catch” in your throat preceding both syllables), mitten [v] [T] [D] vest, dove, gravel through, bath, thistle, ether, teeth the, their, mother, either, teethe
[s] [z] [S] [Z] [h] [tS] who, hat, reheat choke, match, church [dZ] judge, george, jelly, region, residual [m] moose, lamb, smack [n] [N] soap, psychology, nice zip, roads, kisses, xerox, design shy, mission, nation, glacial, sure measure, vision, azure, casualty nap, snow, can, know lung, thing, think, finger, singer, ankle
[l] [j] leaf, feel, mild, sleep [r]*reef, fear, prune, carry [R] writer, rider, latter, ladder, pretty [w]with, swim, mowing, queen, twin you, beautiful, feud, use, yell * In the IPA, [r] is actually a trill like in Spanish “perro”. The IPA symbol for American ‘r’ is [ ®] , but you can use either symbol since the text uses [r] for American ‘r’.