Today What is Phonetics? Decoding the speech stream Principles of phonetic transcription IPA Readings: 3.1-3.2 Phonetics The scientific study of human speech sounds How they are produced (articulatory) How they are perceived (auditory) Their physical properties (acoustic) X-ray movie “Why did Ken set the soggy net …on top of his deck?” http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/course/chapter1.1/chapter1.1.htm Decoding the speech stream The speech signal is a continuous stream of sound No ‘spaces’ between words in speech Decoding the speech stream How many sounds in the following words? ‘leaf’ ‘feel’ Decoding the speech stream ‘leaf’ [lif] vs. ‘feel’ [fil] forwards ‘feel’ [fil] vs. ‘leaf’ [lif] backwards ‘lull’ vs. ‘llul’ backwards Decoding the speech stream Sounds in a string are continuous, yet we perceive them as discrete, separate sounds Goals for Phonetics section: Be able to identify human speech sounds Learn symbols used for transcribing speech sounds Describe and classify sounds according to articulatory properties Phonetic transcription The most widely used tool in phonetics is transcription International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) A standardized set of symbols for transcribing all possible human speech sounds One-to-one correspondence between symbol and sound We will use “symbol” = IPA “letter” = spelling (orthography) Interactive IPA chart can be found at: http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/course/c hapter1/chapter1.html Why use the IPA? Some languages have no writing system There is no one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds: Same letter — different sounds dad, father, about, many Same sound — different letters believe, people, amoeba, tree Several letters used for one sound shoot, nation, chord, chip Why use the IPA? One letter used for several sounds box, use [baks] [juz] Some letters have no sound gnaw, sword, debt, damn, bomb [nç]...[bam] IPA preview Some symbols will look and sound familiar: [b n w] Some will look familiar, but sound strange: [x q] Some will sound familiar, but look strange: [S T N] Some will look and sound unfamiliar: [/ µ ß] IPA consonants [p] spit, tip, appear _x0008_Hints: [b] ball, globe, amble -Pay attention to how you SAY it; not how it’s spelled. [t] stack, pat, stuffed, pterodactyl -check your pronunciation [d] dip, card, drop, loved against a native speaker’s. [k] skit, joker, attic, exceed [g] guard, bag, longer [/] uh-oh (the “catch” in your throat preceding both syllables), mitten [f] foot, laugh, philosophy, coffee [v] vest, dove, gravel [T] through, bath, thistle, ether, teeth [D] the, their, mother, either, teethe [s] soap, psychology, nice [z] zip, roads, kisses, xerox, design [S] shy, mission, nation, glacial, sure [Z] measure, vision, azure, casualty [h] who, hat, reheat [tS] choke, match, church [dZ] judge, george, jelly, region, residual [m] moose, lamb, smack [n] nap, snow, can, know [N] lung, thing, think, finger, singer, ankle [l] leaf, feel, mild, sleep [r]*reef, fear, prune, carry [R] writer, rider, latter, ladder, pretty [w]with, swim, mowing, queen, twin [j] you, beautiful, feud, use, yell * In the IPA, [r] is actually a trill like in Spanish “perro”. The IPA symbol for American ‘r’ is [®], but you can use either symbol since the text uses [r] for American ‘r’.