IPA

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What is Phonetics?
Decoding the speech stream
Principles of phonetic
transcription
IPA
Readings: 3.1-3.2
Phonetics
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The scientific study of human speech
sounds
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How they are produced (articulatory)
How they are perceived (auditory)
Their physical properties (acoustic)
X-ray movie
“Why did Ken set the soggy net
…on top of his deck?”
http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/course/chapter1.1/chapter1.1.htm
Decoding the speech stream
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The speech signal is a continuous stream
of sound
No ‘spaces’ between words in speech
Decoding the speech stream
How many sounds in the following words?
‘leaf’ ‘feel’
Decoding the speech stream
‘leaf’ [lif] vs. ‘feel’ [fil] forwards
‘feel’ [fil] vs. ‘leaf’ [lif] backwards
‘lull’ vs. ‘llul’ backwards
Decoding the speech stream
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Sounds in a string are continuous, yet we
perceive them as discrete, separate
sounds
Goals for Phonetics section:
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Be able to identify human speech sounds
Learn symbols used for transcribing
speech sounds
Describe and classify sounds according
to articulatory properties
Phonetic transcription
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The most widely used tool in phonetics is
transcription
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA)
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A standardized set of symbols for
transcribing all possible human speech
sounds
One-to-one correspondence between
symbol and sound
We will use “symbol” = IPA
“letter” = spelling (orthography)
Interactive IPA chart can be found at:
http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/course/c
hapter1/chapter1.html
Why use the IPA?
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Some languages have no writing system
There is no one-to-one correspondence
between letters and sounds:
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Same letter — different sounds
dad, father, about, many
Same sound — different letters
believe, people, amoeba, tree
Several letters used for one sound
shoot, nation, chord, chip
Why use the IPA?
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One letter used for several sounds
box, use
[baks] [juz]
Some letters have no sound
gnaw, sword, debt, damn, bomb
[nç]...[bam]
IPA preview
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Some symbols will look and sound familiar:
[b n w]
Some will look familiar, but sound strange:
[x q]
Some will sound familiar, but look strange:
[S T N]
Some will look and sound unfamiliar:
[/ µ ß]
IPA consonants
[p]
spit, tip, appear
_x0008_Hints:
[b] ball, globe, amble
-Pay attention to how you
SAY it; not how it’s spelled.
[t]
stack, pat, stuffed, pterodactyl
-check your pronunciation
[d]
dip, card, drop, loved
against a native speaker’s.
[k]
skit, joker, attic, exceed
[g]
guard, bag, longer
[/]
uh-oh (the “catch” in your throat preceding both syllables), mitten
[f]
foot, laugh, philosophy, coffee
[v]
vest, dove, gravel
[T]
through, bath, thistle, ether, teeth
[D]
the, their, mother, either, teethe
[s]
soap, psychology, nice
[z]
zip, roads, kisses, xerox, design
[S]
shy, mission, nation, glacial, sure
[Z]
measure, vision, azure, casualty
[h]
who, hat, reheat
[tS] choke, match, church
[dZ] judge, george, jelly, region, residual
[m] moose, lamb, smack
[n]
nap, snow, can, know
[N]
lung, thing, think, finger, singer, ankle
[l]
leaf, feel, mild, sleep
[r]*reef, fear, prune, carry
[R] writer, rider, latter, ladder, pretty
[w]with, swim, mowing, queen, twin
[j]
you, beautiful, feud, use, yell
* In the IPA, [r] is actually a trill like in Spanish
“perro”. The IPA symbol for American ‘r’ is [®],
but you can use either symbol since the text
uses [r] for American ‘r’.
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