C13- Project Completion and Review

advertisement
Slide 16.1
CHAPTER 13:
PROJECT
COMPLETION AND
REVIEW
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.2
Chapter 13
Project completion and review
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Completion and handover
Reviews and learning
Justifying it
Summary
Project management in practice: IT all goes pearshaped at VCS
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.3
Introduction
“We don’t carry out ‘lessons learned reviews’ at the
end of projects now. We carry out ‘lessons
identified reviews’. We know we don’t learn”
• Vital and powerful
– On-going learning
– Continuous improvement
– Reflective learning
• How the last phases of ‘check and act on the results
of the checks’ are managed will determine the views
of the stakeholders on the project outcomes and
future project success
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.4
Introduction (Continued)
• Challenges
– An objective review process objective whilst including
the rich picture
– Relating procedure performance to project performance
– Long-term programmes of improvement versus short
term, usually financial, assessment
– Satisfying all stakeholder groups whilst looking to the
next project
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.5
13.1 Completion and handover
• Work stops for many reasons
– Successful completion
– Sponsors’ needs change or they see poor performance
– Lack of resources
• Reviews should take place at successful completion and
premature termination
– But staff are dispersed without provision
– But staff must be kept busy and so are posted to the next
project
– Results in ‘hedgehog syndrome’ (Chapter 2)
• Mistakes are repeated
• Poor improvement in the organisation
• Frustration for individuals
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.6
13.1 Completion and handover
(Continued)
• At completion
– Completer-finishers (Chapter 11) are in their element
– Other role types anxious to start next project
– Proper completion requires discipline, investment of
time and resource
• Elements that require a project manager’s attention
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Incentives to complete
Documentation of process is complete
Project systems are closed down
Review activities immediately
Appraisal and relocation of staff
Disposal of assets
Stakeholders are satisfied
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.7
13.1 Completion and handover
(Continued)
Completion
• Vital to
– Finish all activities
– Release resources
– Minimise costs
• Trade-offs: time and resources invested versus proper
completion
– If activities are abandoned, the benefits of the review are lost
– If close-down processes are long and drawn out, nothing is ever
finished, overheads remain and escalate
– The approach often depends on the success of the project
• Little incentive to complete if team members are contracted by
time
– A form of bonus is ideal
– Free extensions to the main task must not be allowed
– “While you are here will you...”
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.8
13.1 Completion and handover
(Continued)
Documentation
• The least exciting part of project
Purpose
• Evidence that the project has been completed in a proper
manner
• Guidance to the customer on operation and maintenance
of product
• Allows future work on similar projects to have a good
starting point
In addition
• If documentation is left to the end of the project much may
be lost
– Include this activity as part of planning and the WBS
– It should not be ‘squeezable’ or less important
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.9
13.1 Completion and handover
(Continued)
Documents should include
• Formal items
• Correspondence, contracts, permissions, letters, memoranda
• Communication documents
• Individual notes/logbooks
– Professionally vital in case of negligence enquiry
• Keep for the life of the product or 7 years, whichever is
longer
• Need
– Policy for electronic documents needed
• Hard copy or consigned to data warehouse?
– A guide of where any item is stored
– Planning (vital)
– Check lists (a visual tool and evidence)
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.10
13.1 Completion and handover
(Continued)
Closing down the project systems
• Activity level and spend should slow
• Accounting and quality systems remain live
– Late invoices/overhanging administration activities will need to be
charged
– Ensure that unauthorised spending is curtailed
• A formal note of closure informs staff and support systems
• In contract projects, legal closure happens with customer ‘sign
off’
–
–
–
–
Continuing to provide ‘free’ consultancy is tempting
Cannot afford to cut customer off completely
Cannot afford to provide services not charged
Poor handover or failure of documentation signal further work
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.11
13.1 Completion and handover
(Continued)
Conducting immediate project reviews
• Provide further control or corrective action
• Immediate post-mortem on activities
• Rapid feedback on individual performance
– Individuals know what should be repeated
– Managers can identify training needs
– The organisation can assess for future teams’ work
• Rapid feedback on systems
– Identifies short-term needs: procedural changes, changes in skills
• Provides a case history
• The reviewer needs to know context and challenges
– Could be the sponsor, the line manager, other project managers,
project office staff or an external consultant
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.12
13.1 Completion and handover
(Continued)
• Long-term audit and review
• An audit of the project manager by the team is
beneficial
• Characteristics to assess (usually by questionnaire)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Attitude
Skills
Approachability
Openness
Ability to delegate authority yet share responsibility
Ability to represent the project team to others
Willingness to embrace change
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.13
13.1 Completion and handover
(Continued)
• Demonstrates that the PM is serious about
improving the ‘management product’
• Feedback reinforces good behaviour and provides a
path for change where improvement is needed
• Key to identifying satisfaction and levels of
motivation
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.14
13.1 Completion and handover
(Continued)
Appraisal, relocation of staff and disposal of
surplus assets
• Appraisal
– Vital part of nurturing human capital
– Skill often assumed to be present but managers
need training
• Staff relocation
– Project managers may have little direct influence
– Supporting the team will enhance personal
professional networks
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.15
13.1 Completion and handover
(Continued)
• Disposal of assets
– Surplus stock and hardware not absorbed
represents waste
– Culture problems:
• Elimination from the accounts/site/view the sooner the
better
• Paper work will cost more to raise than the sale of the
property
– If valuable materials skipped, left to deteriorate,
‘appropriated’ revenue lost to project and
organisation
– There are beneficial means of disposal
(outsourcing)
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.16
13.1 Completion and handover
(Continued)
Ensuring that all stakeholders are satisfied
• Marketing influences consumer behaviour
– Enhance the customers’ image of the project organisation by selling
success
– Data from project reviews
– Utilise the concept of ‘product surround’
• or ‘an ounce of image is worth a pound of performance’
– Good publicity can have internal benefits
• good performance will be recognised
• Marketing professionals should be involved to maximise returns
– The media may pick up on success from a press release
• Getting stakeholder satisfaction in the project’s success may be
a challenge
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.17
13.2 Reviews and learning
Structuring improvement activities
• A PM with a clear improvement strategy will improve
the performance of future projects (Figure 16.2)
• Learning before doing
– Ensure that necessary knowledge and skills are
available in advance
– Identify sources of ideas for change – this can take
time
– Using consultants and/or benchmarking (Chapter 17)
are an aid
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.18
13.2 Reviews and learning (Continued)
• Learning by doing
– Elements can be learned from previous activities
– Reviewing information from previous projects is a good
starting point
– Done consistently over a long period results in a highly
developed process
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.19
13.2 Reviews and learning (Continued)
Figure 16.1
Process improvement
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.20
13.2 Reviews and learning (Continued)
Learning before doing – the role of external knowledge
• Training and education
– Are there benefits from going on a project management
training course?
•
•
•
•
•
Good time
Quality manual…. that gathers dust
But no one else in the organisation does it this way
Beneficial if an immediate application
Beneficial if there is a group of people who will work in the new
method
– Change requires a critical mass – over 80% of people working
in a process must be capable and willing to change
– Support can be provided by project office (Chapter 4)
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.21
13.2 Reviews and learning (Continued)
• Consultants provide specific services
– Integrator: overall service as single point of customer
contact
– Honesty-broker: an external independent view more
acceptable than that of colleagues
– Change agent: the focus for change activities
– Knowledge provider: expert in knowledge or techniques
– Resource provider: where others do not have
time/capability to do
– Checker: checking the process
– Trainer: imparts knowledge across the organisation
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.22
13.2 Reviews and learning (Continued)
– Employing consultants
• Decide on what must be achieved and how
• Evaluate suitable firms
– Membership of appropriate organisations/ talk to previous
clients/evaluate capabilities
• Evaluate costs/benefits
– Financial cost but benefit long-term
– Someone impartial stating the obvious
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.23
13.2 Reviews and learning (Continued)
Learning by doing – the role of audit and review
• After completion when results become evident
• ‘Praise for the unworthy followed by punishment for the
innocent’?
• Process that requires a reason to exist, time, information,
resources, credibility
• Goal is to ensure continuous improvement is followed through
• The audit process
– Establish actual procedures (financial, quality, environment)
– Check documents to see if procedures were followed
– Report suggesting deficiencies and irregularities
• The review process
– Study overall performance relative to constraints
– Identify failed or inadequate procedures
– Report suggesting improvements
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.24
13.2 Reviews and learning (Continued)
Table 16.1
Review and audit criteria
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.25
13.2 Reviews and learning (Continued)
Long-term review
• On-going measurement of project outcomes
• Poor quality of product may become apparent
• Checks needed on assumptions of ‘whole-life costs’
• Individual reflections on experiences
Carrying out reviews
• Reviews may become finger-pointing exercises allocating
blame
• For constructive reviews
–
–
–
–
–
Focus on processes not individual
Use factual data
Allow rehearsal of alternatives
Avoid jumping to conclusions by using problem-solving techniques
Discourage glib classification
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.26
13.3 Justifying it
• Calculate financial implication of failure to provide business
case for improvement
• Break down quality costs (Table 16.2) into
– Prevention
– Appraisal
– Failure
• Internal (before customer receives product/service)
• External (after customer receives it)
• Costs usually higher than prevention and appraisal
• Increasing prevention and appraisal generally makes for midterm savings
– although short-term costs will increase
• BS 6143: Identification of quality costs, prevention, appraisal
and failure models; pro forma for quality costs reports
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.27
13.3 Justifying it (Continued)
Table 16.2
Elements of quality cost
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Slide 16.28
Summary
• How will the project end?
– Positive statement of closure
– Capture knowledge gained through review and audit processes
• Close out
– Shut-down project systems
– Ensure all activities completed
– Prepare for reviews
• Learning process
– Learn before doing (identify appropriate knowledge)
– Learn by doing (review and integrate knowledge)
• Costs of failure
– Start with quality costing exercise
– Results may be surprising
Maylor, Project Management, 4th Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards