rainData

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Description of other precipitation datasets:
We obtained 3-hourly precipitation from Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation
(MSWEP), which is a global product available at 0.25° spatial resolution for the period of
1979-2015. This dataset uses station (CPC Unified and GPCC) and satellite (CMORPH,
GSMaP-MVK and TMPA 3B42RT) based observations as well as the atmospheric reanalysis
products (ERA-Interim and JRA-55) to provide precipitation estimates at the global scale
[downloaded from http://www.gloh2o.org; Beck et al., 2017]. Beck et al [2017] evaluated the
quality of MSWEP and other gauge adjusted precipitation products like Global Precipitation
Climatology Project 1-Degree Daily (GPCP-1DD), TRMM (TMPA 3B42), and Climate
Prediction Center (CPC) Unified against estimates from 125 FLUXNET towers located
across the globe and found the highest correlation coefficient for the MSWEP data.
The other 3-hourly precipitation dataset at 0.25º spatial resolution was obtained from the
TRMM 3B42v7 [Huffman et al., 2002] for the period of 1998-2015. The TRMM 3B42v7
dataset is available from 1998 onwards, which is prepared by adjusting bias from station
based observations and the Passive Microwave and Passive Microwave calibrated Infra-Red
[Huffman et al., 2002; Prakash et al., 2016]. Prakash et al. [2016] showed that TRMM can be
used with relatively higher confidence over the Indian region as compared to Global Satellite
Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP).
We obtained daily observed precipitation data at 0.25 degree resolution which was developed
by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) [Pai et al., 2014] for the period of 1979-2015.
This dataset was developed using 6955 rain gauge stations across India and was comparable
to available precipitation datasets from IMD at 0.5°×0.5° and 1°×1° resolution [Pai et al.,
2014]. More information on this dataset can be obtained from Pai et al. [2014]. Additionally,
we obtained Global Summary of the Day (GSOD) daily station based observations for
precipitation and dew point temperature, which are available from the Integrated Surface
Hourly (ISH) dataset (DSI-3505) and can be accessed from the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) website (ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov /pub/data/gsod/). The
GSOD observations were carefully checked for quality and consistency for the 23 urban
locations as described in Ali and Mishra [2017].
1
Supplemental Fig. S1(a-e) Mean intensity of extreme precipitation (mm) per city based on 95th
percentile of precipitation, using precipitation data obtained from IMD (green; 1979-2015), MSWEP
(red; 1979-2015), GSOD (cyan; 1979-2015), TRMM (black, 1998-2015) and CMORPH (blue; 19982015) for 30 minutes to daily scale respectively. The p-value and h-value estimated using Mann
Kendall test are shown in Supplemental Table S9 for all the used precipitation datasets at different
time scales. This figure and subsequent figures were developed using the Generic Mapping Tools
(GMT, https://www.soest.hawaii.edu/gmt/).
2
Supplemental Table S1. Details of selected urban areas.
Station id
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Name
Longitude Latitude Size (km2)
Ahmedabad
72.58
23.03
464
Bhopal
77.42
23.25
286
Bhubaneshwar
85.84
20.27
135
Bikaner
73.31
28.02
155
Mumbai
72.83
18.98
603
Chennai
80.27
13.08
426
Coimbatore
76.97
11.02
247
Indore
75.9
22.7
390
Nagpur
79.09
21.15
218
Gadag
75.75
15.4
120
Guwahati
91.73
26.18
215
Hissar
75.7
29.2
510
Jaipur
75.8
26.9
112
Lucknow
80.9
26.8
620
Kolkata
88.37
22.57
185
Patna
85.1
25.6
100
Anantapur
77.6
14.68
80
Pune
73.86
18.52
244
Rajkot
70.78
22.3
170
Ratnagiri
73.5
17
540
New Delhi
77.21
28.61
50
Surat
72.83
21.17
327
Tiruchirappalli
78.69
10.81
167
3
Supplemental Table S2: Details of all datasets used in the study.
S.No
Dataset
1
2
3
4
CMORPH
TRMM
MSWEP
IMD
5
GSOD
6
ERAInterim
Climate Variable
Dataset Resolution
Precipitation
Precipitation
Precipitation
Precipitation
Precipitation & Dewpoint
temp.
Daily mean temp. & vertical
wind velocity at different
pressure levels and daily mean
surface temperature
4
Time Period
Spatial
8 km × 8km
25 km ×25km
25 km × 25km
25 km × 25km
Temporal
30 minutes
3-hourly
3-hourly
Daily
1998-2015
1998-2015
1979-2015
1979-2015
Point Data
Daily
1979-2015
25 km × 25km
Daily
1979-2015
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