Nitika Diwaker & Tauffiqu Ahamad December 2014 : Unorganized
sectors, the sectors of household manufacturing activities, i.e. of small
scale or tiny industries which hardly has any sustainability of profit or
margin. The unorganized sectors and the workers of unorganized sectors
both can be termed as intangible or invisible because there recognition is
very limited which is almost nil in comparison with the organized
sectors problems faced by unorganized workers are like no social
security , sexual harassment at the place of work , low skill , higher
illiteracy rate , low incomes , etc. To overcome these issues National
Commission for Enterprise in Unorganized Sectors was set up by the
Government of India. Government of India has also made certain rules
and acts, schemes for the welfare and development of workers of
unorganized sectors. Although the schemes are being made by the
government but due to lack of awareness and low literacy rate the
workers of unorganized sectors are not able to prevail the benefits of the
government schemes made for them
Ravi Srivastava , Rajib Sutradhar : Their study based on migrant
construction workers.If migration is a response to the expectation of
improvement in earning opportunities, it should lead to an improvement
in the income of migrants. Other beneficial changes should follow,
unless these are counteracted by the growing congestion and worsening
condition of public goods delivery in urban areas, which are usually the
principal kind of destination areas. However, the income of migrants
may not improve if migration is an involuntary response to distress and
loss of income and livelihoods, or if migrants become involved in
exploitative labourmarkets
Neerja Jaiswal : The study based of health of construction workers.The
construction companies are concerned with the health of labourers.
Almost all companies do not provide mediclaim is to the workers.
Although some companies along with the site labourers mutually over
the medical expenditure incurred for the medical treatment. There are no
maternity leaves provided to the women workers. Mostly the companies
do not pay off the employee’s partial or full injuries and are also not
covered by life insurance. Safety materials and equipments like helmets,
hand Gloves and shoes, safety belts, protection eye wear are also rarely
provided to the construction workers8.9.The construction workers are
not provided leave facilities. Some companies provide inefficient
medical leaves and maternity leaves to their workers. The construction
site is recommended by no holiday policy. The working hours of the
construction workers vary, majority of them make provisions for 8-11
hours a day of work.Musculoskeletal disorders are the commonest
physical ailments among these workers .
Prabhakar S. Chavan : The study is based on PROBLEMS OF
socio-economic profile of construction workers, understand problems of
construction workers are the main objectives of this study.The
contribution of this study in the area of construction workers’
involvement in economic growth activities is immense; they remain
largely invisible. These construction workers are predominantly young
people who migrate due to poverty, face poor living and working
conditions and lack of education and skills, they lack proper identity and
1. A majority 48 % of construction workers are 20-40 age groups, while
28% age groups of 40-60 are of construction workers. 2. Majority 74%
construction workers are male and 26% construction workers are female.
3. Educational Status of construction workers are 66% school level,
32 % of construction workers are no formal education and 2% are
graduate 4. A majority percentage education of construction workers
children’s are illiterate (76%),while 13% children’s are literate and 11%
children’s are neo –literate.5. Majority of 82 % construction workers got
married and 18 % construction workers are unmarried .6. Wages of
construction workers 44% are in the range Rs 3000-4000, 28 % are in
the range are Rs 3000 and 8% are more than Rs 5000
T. Prema, K.G.Meenakshi, Smith premchander : The aim of the study is
to understand the livelihood status of unorganised migrant construction
workers employed in Bangalore. Objectives of this study is Understand
the reasons of migration at source states- whether migration is distress
migration or to increase economic levels. ● Examine their sociodemographic profile: gender distribution, marital and family status,
educational and skill levels etc.● Examine the livelihood status and
earning capacity, living and working conditions and status of the health
services available to them.
The studies show that though the contribution of migrant
construction workers to economic growth is immense, they remain
largely invisible. These rural migrants are predominantly young people
who migrate due to poverty, face poor living and working conditions
and lack of education and skills. At the destination, in this case
Bangalore, they lack proper identity and representation; thus they remain
excluded from public services, protection and opportunities for
advancement in a growing economy. Conditions are even more
challenging for the inter-state migrant construction workers who, in
search of livelihood, leave their home states, and lose their official
identity and political protection.
Gourab Biswas , Arkajith Battacharya 2016 :the study is based on
occupational health status of construction workers. They are exposed to
different physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, and psychosocial
hazards during their daily working scheduled. Due to prolonged
maintain of poor working postures, bent position, manual handling of
heavy weights with repetitive work and lack of rest, and musculoskeletal
disorders are common among them.The prevalence of lower back pain,
shoulder pain with other body parts discomfort is seen after the daylong
hard work. These workers are experience fatal injuries and accidents in
the workplaces due to poor body actions, negligence, improper use of
PPEs, overexertion, and poor working practice. It is interesting to note
that the most vital occupational hazard among the young construction
workers is musculoskeletal symptoms at the starting of their working
life.To improve job-specific preventive actions for construction workers,
workers health surveillance program is developed by Boschman et al.[85]
“Best practices” for reducing musculoskeletal disorders are to be
conducted for monitoring the occupational health.[86-88] The integrated
knowledge may initiate further research on occupational health of
construction workers.
Thayyil Jayakrishnan, Bina Thomas : Their study is based on
Occupational health problems of construction workers in India. The aim
of this study is to understand the occupational health problems of
construction workers — building and civil. Occupational safety hazards
in construction work occur due poorly designed ladders, unsuitable or
poorly maintained lifting appliances, improper material handling,
improper walking surfaces high platforms, improperly shored trenches,
badly maintained tools and inadequate illuminations. Construction work
accidents contribute to 16.4% of fatal global occupational accidents.
one-fourth of the workers were illiterate a lack of awareness about
healthy choices and prevalence of addictions were expected to be high.
Among the workers 60.2% were current users of tobacco, which was
slightly higher than early reported study of 50.48% and national
prevalence of 57% though not much different in two groups. Most of
them were using smokeless tobacco products. The construction workers
are exposed to multiple risks at working and living places, they are
exposed to physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic hazards and
environmental and psycho social risks.In most places the workers were
residing in make shift camps inside the project sites that expose them to
health risks even after working hours. Due to poor environmental
conditions at work sites chances of diseases from poor sanitation and
unsafe drinking water were high.
Surapati Pramanik, Sourendranath Chackrabart . November 2013 : Their
study based on A Study on Problems of Construction Workers in West
Bengal. Construction sector falls under unorganized sector of an
economy. Unorganized laborers refer to those workers who have not
been able to organize themselves in pursuit of their common interest
owing to certain constraints like casual and uncertain nature of
employment, ignorance and illiteracy, small and scattered size of
establishment etc. Various studies found that most of the construction
workers are illiterate or literate and ignorant about market conditions
and labor market variations. Skilled and unskilled construction workers
work with low wages. They are working under unsecured environment
or work culture. They are migrating from different regions and states
leaving their native villages in search of daily job. They have maximum
mobility because of the nature of their work. These laborers are engaged
in huge industrial constructions, residential flat constructions, city
beautification works.
or other construction work” : means the construction,
repairs, maintenance or demolition, of or, in relation to,
streets, roads, railways, tramways, airfields, irrigation,
embankment and navigation works, flood control works
(including storm water drainage works), generation, transmission and
distribution of power, water works (including channels for distribution
of water), oil and gas installations, electric lines, wireless, radio,
television, telephone, telegraph and overseas communications, dams,
canals, reservoirs, watercourses, tunnels, bridges, viaducts, aqueducts,
pipelines, towers, cooling towers, transmission towers and such other
works as may be specified in this behalf by the appropriate Government.
“Building worker” : means a person who is employed to do any skilled,
semi-skilled or unskilled, manual, supervisory, technical or clerical work
for hire or reward, whether the terms of employment be expressed or
implied, in connection with any building or other construction work but
does not include any such person—
(i) who is employed mainly in a managerial or administrative capacity;
(ii) who, being employed in a supervisory capacity, draws wages
exceeding one thousand six hundred rupees per mensem or exercises,
either by the nature of the duties attached to the office or by reason of
the powers vested in him, functions mainly of a managerial nature;
BCOW Act 1996 : Government of India enacted the Building and Other
Constructions Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of
Service) Act, 1996 (hereinafter referred to as the "BOCW Act"). The
BOCW Act is a social welfare legislation that aims to benefit workers
engaged in building and construction activities across the country. The
preamble of the BOCW Act explicates the said purpose:
"An act to regulate the employment and conditions of service of building
and other construction workers and to provide for their safety, health and
welfare measures and for other matters connected therewith or incidental
Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana (AABY) : Social Security Scheme was
initiated and excellently administered by the Government of India in the
form of the Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana for the citizens settled under 48
identified vocational/ occupational groups /rural areas with landless
households. This group insurance scheme was introduced on 2nd
October, 2007. It is also administered under the Life Insurance
Corporation of India (LIC). The Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana offers
insurance coverage to one earning member of the family or the family
head. Person aged between 18 to 59 years can avail this insurance
facility. Available only to the head of the family.
 In case of natural death of the insured, the policy offers an amount
of Rs.30,000 death benefit to the surviving beneficiaries or the
family members of the policyholder.
 In case the insured suffers an accidental death or suffers a
permanent total disability due to an accident leading to loss of both
the eyes or both the limbs, Loss of one eye & one limb, in an
accident the policy offers an amount of Rs.75,000 to the surviving
beneficiaries or the family members of the policyholder.
 In case the insured suffers a partial permanent disability due to an
accident leading to loss of one eye or one limb, the policy offers an
amount of Rs.37,500 to the surviving beneficiaries or the family
members of the policyholder.
 The Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana offers Scholarship benefits as a
Free Add-on benefit too. This benefit is made available for a
maximum of 2 children studying between 9th to 12th standard of
the policy holder’s nominee or beneficiaries. A fee of Rs.100 per
child per month is offered.
Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) : This is a government-run
health insurance programme for the Indian poor. The scheme aims to
provide health insurance coverage to the unrecognised sector workers
belonging to the BPL category and their family members shall be
beneficiaries under this scheme. It provides for cashless insurance for
hospitalisation in public as well as private hospitals. The scheme started
enrolling on April 1, 2008 and has been implemented in 25 states of
India. A total of 36 million families have been enrolled as of February
2014. Initially, RSBY was a project under the Ministry of Labour and
Employment. Now it has been transferred to Ministry of Health and
Family Welfare from April 1, 2015. Construction workers are including
in this program. This insurance policy comes with a number of added
benefits. A few of them have been mentioned as under: In the event of
natural death, the nominee will be paid Rs 30,000 as death benefit.On
total permanent disability or death caused due to accident, the
beneficiary of the life assured will receive Rs 75,000 as compensation.If
the life assured suffers partial permanent disability due to an accident,
then Rs 37,500 will be paid as compensation.
P. Maneesh, P.T. Jasna August 2017 : Their study is based on Socioeconomic condition of women construction workers in Kannur.examine
the socio – economic profile of the women workers in Kannur district.
Known About working condition and occupational health hazards of the
women workers and problems faced by the women workers in the family
and society are the main objective of the has relied upon
both primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected randomly
from 50 women workers in Kannur municipality.
The study was based on empirical information generated through a
primary survey in Kannur district. It should be recognized that the
workers need to have a good working condition, receive a minimum
wage and access to a minimum amount of social security. The main
problems faced by them are the lack of security, there is no security for
their life in the working site. Some other problems faced by them are the
health and financial problems. There is a working of a welfare board for
the construction workers while many are not aware of this scheme and
also the members in this board are unaware of the benefits.
K.Ponnaian , Dr. T. Iyappan November 2016 : Problems Of Building
Construction Workers In Kanyakumari District Of Tamil Nadu . This
paper aims to analyse the problems of workers in construction
industrystudy observes various problems faced by the workers in
construction sector. The problems such as casual nature of employment,
absence of social security, lack of labour welfare activities, uncertain
working hours, unsafe working conditions, occupational diseases,
injuries, wage exploitation and differentiation, noise, working at high
places, non-availability of raw materials, mobility of labour, lack of cooperation and satisfaction and bad habits affect the workers and reduce
their labour efficiency in construction sector. Hence, efforts should be
taken to reduce or eliminate such problems with a view to maintain the
health and wealth of the construction workers. In fact, every individual
has the right to earn and enjoy life. Hence, it is the responsibility of the
government to provide those facilities which protect the construction
workers and improve their life in all respects.
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