Picture Periodic Table

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Periods
The Periodic Table of the Elements, in Pictures
Alkali
Metals
Group 1
H
Hydrogen
Atomic
Symbol
1
Symbols
_____ium
Examples
at room
temperature
Z
metallic solid
red liquid
colorless gas
Human Body
top ten elements by weight
Earth's Crust
Name
top eight elements by weight
Magnetic
4
3 Be
Beryllium
Lithium
Li
Gas
ferromagnetic at room temperature
Noble Metals
Widgets
2
Metals
Radioactive
Batteries
Na
Sodium
Emeralds
Nonmetals
Transition Metals
B
Boron
Carbon
Group
14
5C
Carbon
Nitrogen
Group
15
6N
Nitrogen
7O
Oxygen
Group
16
Oxygen
Halogens
17
8F
Fluorine
1
Balloons
9 Ne
Neon
10
2
Rare Earth Metals
all isotopes are radioactive
Actinide Metals
Only Traces Found in Nature
Sports
Equipment
Advertising
Basis of Life's
Air
Protein
Toothpaste
Signs
Molecules
16 Cl
15 S
18
17 Ar
14 P
Al
13 Si
Sulfur
Phosphorus
Argon
Chlorine
Silicon
Aluminum
less than a millionth percent of earth's crust
only made by people
3
Boron
Group
13
2
Helium
Superheavy Elements
Never Found in Nature
12
11 Mg
Magnesium
He
H
corrosion-resistant
How it is (or was) used
or where it occurs in nature
Noble
Gases
18
Color Key
Noble Gases
Halogens
A
Liquid
The color of the symbol is
the color of the element in
its most common pure form.
als ids
et
o
nm
all
r
No Met Poo ls
ta
Me
Sun and
Stars
Alkali
Earth
Metals
2
number of
protons
Solid
Alkali Earth Metals
Alkali Metals
1
Atomic
Number
3
Transition Metals
Swimming
Stone, Sand,
Eggs
Bones
Light Bulbs
Chlorophyll
Airplanes
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Pools
and Soil
30 Ga
29 Zn
28 Cu
27 Ni
25 Fe
26 Co
24 Mn
23 Cr
22 V
21 Ti
20 Sc
19 Ca
34 Br
33 Se
36
35 Kr
31 Ge
32 As
Zinc
Copper
Nickel
Cobalt
Manganese
Iron
Chromium
Vanadium
Titanium
Scandium
Calcium
Potassium
Selenium
Arsenic
Krypton
Bromine
Gallium
Germanium
Salt
K
4
4
Brass
Electric
Stainless
Shells and
Fruits and
Photography
Light-Emitting Semiconductor
Steel
Coins
Magnets
Earthmovers Structures
Springs
Aerospace
Bicycles
Copiers
Poison
Flashlights
Instruments Diodes (LEDs) Electronics
Wires
Steel
Bones
Vegetables
Film
48 In
47 Cd
46 Ag
45 Pd
44 Rh
43 Ru
42 Tc
41 Mo
40 Nb
39 Zr
38 Y
Rb
37 Sr
51 Te
53 Xe
50 Sb
49 Sn
52 I
54
Cadmium
Silver
Palladium
Rhodium
Ruthenium
Molybdenum Technetium
Niobium
Zirconium
Yttrium
Strontium
Rubidium
Antimony
Iodine
Tin
Indium
Tellurium
Xenon
5
5
Global
Navigation
Cs
Cesium
Fireworks
55 Ba
Barium
56
Lasers
57 - 71
Rare
Earth
Metals
6
X-Ray
Diagnosis
88
Fr
87 Ra
Radium
Francium
Atomic
Clocks
89 - 103
6
Nuclear
Mobile
Surgical
Anti-Static Radioactive
Rocket
Fire
Lamp
Low-Temperature
Labware
Jewelry
Spark Plugs
Pen Points
Weights
Thermometers Thermometers
Submarines
Phones
Implants
Medicine
Brushes
Engines
Sprinklers
Filaments
Rf
104 Db
109 Ds
110 Rg
117 Og
118
107 Hs
108 Mt
115 Lv
116 Ts
105 Sg
106 Bh
113 Fl
114 Mc
111 Cn
112 Nh
Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium
Bohrium
Hassium
Dubnium
Seaborgium
Nihonium
Flerovium
Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine
Oganesson
Rutherfordium
Actinide
Metals
7
8
Pollution
Searchlight
Electric
Radioactive
Cutting
Mag Lev
Chemical
Car
Plated
Liquid Crystal
Thermoelectric
High-Intensity
Paint
Jewelry
Disinfectant
Control
Reflectors
Switches
Diagnosis
Tools
Trains
Pipelines
Batteries
Displays (LCDs) Food Cans
Coolers
Lamps
Hf
72 Ta
78 Au
79 Hg
86
77 Pt
85 Rn
76 Ir
84 At
75 Os
83 Po
74 Re
82 Bi
73 W
80 Tl
81 Pb
Hafnium
Platinum
Gold
Radon
Iridium
Astatine
Osmium
Polonium
Rhenium
Bismuth
Tungsten
Lead
Tantalum
Mercury
Thallium
Laser
Atom Traps
119
Luminous
Watches
120
7
Superheavy Elements
radioactive, never found in nature, no uses except atomic research
121...
Rare
Earth
Metals
58 Pr
La
57 Ce
65 Dy
64 Tb
71
70 Lu
63 Gd
67 Er
69 Yb
59 Nd
60 Pm
61 Sm
62 Eu
66 Ho
68 Tm
Cerium
Lanthanum
Terbium
Gadolinium
Lutetium
Ytterbium
Europium
Holmium
Thulium
Samarium
Dysprosium
Erbium
Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium
6
Lighter
Telescope
Fluorescent Smart Material
MRI
Scientific Photodynamic
Color
Laser
Laser
Torchworkers' Electric Motor Luminous Electric Motor
Optical Fiber
Flints
Lenses
Lamps
Diagnosis
Medicine
Fiber Lasers
Dials
Televisions
Surgery
Surgery
Eyeglasses
Magnets
Magnets
Actuators
Communications
97 Cf
Ac
89 Th
96 Bk
95 Cm
102 Lr
103
93 Pu
94 Am
98 Es
99 Fm
91 U
92 Np
100 Md
101 No
90 Pa
Berkelium
Actinium
Curium
Americium
Nobelium
Lawrencium
Neptunium
Plutonium
Californium Einsteinium
Protactinium
Uranium
Fermium
Mendelevium
Thorium
Actinide
Metals
7
Radioactive
Medicine
Gas Lamp
Mantles
Radioactive
Waste
Nuclear
Power
Radioactive
Waste
Nuclear
Weapons
Smoke
Detectors
Mineral
Analyzers
Radioactive
Waste
Mineral
Analyzers
radioactive, never found in nature, no uses except atomic research
© 2005–2016 Keith Enevoldsen elements.wlonk.com Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
The Periodic Table of the Elements, in Words
Periods
Hydrogen belongs to no definite group. It forms
compounds by either donating an electron like an alkali
metal or accepting an electron like a halogen.
1
Alkali Metals are very reactive
and readily form compounds but are
not found free in nature. They form
salts and alkali (acid-neutralizing)
compounds such as baking soda. In
pure form, they are very soft metals
which catch fire on contact with
water.
Group 1
H
Hydrogen 1
explosive gas,
lightest element;
90% of atoms in
the universe,
sun and stars,
water (H20),
life's organic
molecules
2
Li
2
Lithium
3 Be Beryllium 4
lightest metal, lightweight metal;
soft, reactive;
non-sparking
lightweight
copper alloy tools,
aluminum alloys,
aerospace,
batteries,
X-ray windows,
impact-resistant
beryl gems:
ceramic cookware, emeralds and
mood stabilizer
aquamarines
Na
3
Alkali Earth
Metals are reactive
and readily form
compounds but are
not found free in
nature. Their oxides
are called alkali
earths. In pure
form, they are soft
and somewhat brittle
metals.
Atoms
Atoms form molecules by bonding together. Atoms give, take, or
share electrons to achieve full outer electron shells.
Particles
+1
Proton
0
Neutron
-1
Electron
Electron
shells
+
Salt
Protons have positive electric charge, neutrons are neutral,
and electrons are negative. Normally, an atom has equal
numbers of protons and electrons. An ion is a charged atom
with more or fewer electrons than protons.
An element is a substance made from one or more atoms of
the same atomic number. A compound is a substance made
from two or more elements chemically bonded.
4
5
Vanadium 23
hard metal;
hard strong
resilient steel,
structures,
vehicles, springs,
driveshafts, tools,
aerospace,
violet sapphires
V
6
7
Cr Chromium 24 Mn Manganese 25
hard shiny metal;
hard metal;
stainless steel hard tough steel,
(Fe-Cr-Ni),
earthmovers,
kitchenware,
rock crushers,
nichrome heaters, rails, plows, axes,
car trim, paints,
batteries,
recording tape,
fertilizer,
emeralds & rubies
amethysts
8
5
Zr Zirconium 40
non-corroding
neutron-resistant
metal;
chemical pipelines,
nuclear reactors,
furnace bricks,
abrasives,
zircon gems
6
Cs Cesium 55
soft metal, melts
on a hot day,
reactive, largest
stable atoms;
atomic clocks,
global navigation
(GPS), vacuum
tube scavenger
Hf Hafnium 72 Ta Tantalum 73 W Tungsten 74 Re Rhenium 75 Os Osmium 76
non-corroding high-melting-point highest-melting- high-melting-point non-corroding
dense metal;
high-melting-point
metal,
non-corroding point metal, dense;
filaments in
rocket engines,
hard metal,
absorbs neutrons;
metal;
lamps and TVs,
heater coils,
densest element
nuclear reactor
labware,
cutting tools,
lab filaments,
(same as iridium);
control rods in
surgical tools,
abrasives,
electric contacts, electric contacts,
submarines,
artificial joints,
thermocouples
thermocouples, pen tips, needles,
plasma torch
capacitors,
catalyst
fingerprint powder
electrodes
mobile phones
7
Fr Francium 87 Ra Radium 88
radioactive,
radioactive,
short-lived
long-lived;
atoms larger
luminous watches
than cesium;
(now banned),
small traces
medical radon
in nature,
production,
studied in
radiography,
laser atom traps
radwaste
119
Ba
57 - 71
Rare
Earth
Metals
89 - 103
Tc Technetium 43 Ru Ruthenium 44 Rh Rhodium 45
radioactive,
non-corroding
non-corroding
long-lived;
hard metal;
hard shiny metal;
first human-made electric contacts,
labware,
element, only
leaf switches,
reflectors,
traces on Earth
pen tips,
electric contacts,
but found in stars,
catalyst,
thermocouples,
medical
hydrogen
catalyst,
diagnostic tracer
production
pollution control
Metallic bond
Shared outer
electrons flow,
conducting heat
and electricity.
10
Pd Palladium 46
non-corroding
hard metal,
absorbs hydrogen;
labware,
electric contacts,
dentistry,
catalyst,
pollution control
11
Cu Copper 29
colored metal,
conducts heat and
electricity well;
wires, cookware,
brass (Cu-Zn),
bronze (Cu-Sn),
coins, pipes,
blue crab blood
Metalloids are
partly like metals and
partly like nonmetals.
For example, they are
semiconductors, which
means they conduct
electricity in some
conditions.
13
Nonmetals, in
their solid state,
are usually brittle
(they break rather
than bend) and
they are insulators
of both heat and
electricity.
14
15
16
17
Fluorine 9 Ne Neon
10
yellowish
inert gas;
poison gas,
orange-red
most reactive
neon tubes for
element;
advertising signs,
glowing fluorite,
lasers,
toothpaste,
supercold
nonstick cookware,
refrigerant
CFC refrigerants
2
Al Aluminum 13
lightweight noncorroding metal;
kitchenware, cans,
foil, machinery,
cars, planes, bikes,
feldspar, granite,
clay, ceramics,
corundum, gems
Sulfur 16 Cl Chlorine 17 Ar Argon 18
Si Silicon 14 P Phosphorus 15 S
hard metalloid; glowing white waxy brittle yellow solid; greenish poison gas;
inert gas;
quartz, granite,
solid (also red
skin, hair,
salt (NaCl), bleach,
1% of air,
sand, soil, clay, and black forms);
eggs, onions,
stomach acid,
most abundant
ceramics, glass,
bones, DNA,
garlic, skunks,
disinfectant,
inert gas,
algae, diatoms,
energy-storing
hot springs,
drinking water,
light bulbs,
semiconductors, phosphates (ATP), volcanos, gypsum, swimming pools,
"neon" tubes,
computer chips, fertilizer, acids,
rubber, acids,
PVC plastic
lasers,
silicone rubber detergent, matches papermaking
pipes and bottles
welding gas
3
Zinc
Zn
30 Ga Gallium 31
non-corroding
soft metal, melts
metal;
on a hot day;
galvanized steel, semiconductors,
brass (Cu-Zn),
light-emitting
batteries, white
diodes (LEDs)
paint, phosphors
(GaAs),
in TVs and lamps,
signal lights,
fertilizer
tiny lasers
Ge Germanium 32 As Arsenic 33 Se Selenium 34 Br Bromine 35 Kr Krypton 36
inert gas;
brittle metalloid; brittle metalloid; brittle gray solid; dark red liquid;
poisons,
disinfectant,
high-intensity
semiconductors,
photocopiers,
pools and spas, lamps, headlights,
transistors,
semiconductors,
laser printers,
photo film,
flashlights,
rectifiers, diodes, light-emitting
photocells,
flame retardant,
lanterns,
photocells,
diodes (LEDs)
red glass,
"neon" tubes,
lenses,
(GaAs),
dandruff shampoo, leaded gasoline,
sedatives
lasers
infrared windows
signal lights,
rubber
tiny lasers
4
In
Iridium 77 Pt Platinum 78 Au
Gold
79 Hg Mercury 80
non-corroding
non-corroding
most malleable
liquid metal,
hard metal,
dense metal;
element, dense
toxic;
densest element
labware,
non-tarnishing
thermometers,
(same as osmium);
spark plugs,
colored metal;
barometers,
labware,
catalyst,
jewelry, coins,
thermostats,
spark plugs,
pollution control,
ultra-thin
street lamps,
pen tips, needles petroleum cracking,
gold leaf,
fluorescent lamps,
processing fats electric contacts
dentistry
Tl
Ir
Indium 49 Sn
Tin
50
soft metal;
non-corroding
solders,
soft metal;
glass seals,
solders,
glass coatings, plated food cans,
liquid crystal
bronze (Cu-Sn),
displays (LCDs),
pewter cups,
semiconductors,
glassmaking,
diodes, photocells fire sprinklers
Thallium 81
soft metal,
toxic;
low-melting-point
mercury alloys,
low-temperature
thermometers,
undersea lamps,
photocells
N
Sb Antimony 51
brittle metalloid;
solders,
lead hardener,
batteries, bullets,
semiconductors,
photocells,
matches,
flame retardant
Oxygen
8
colorless gas;
21% of air, H2O,
65% of the body,
organic molecules,
blood, breathing,
fire, half of
Earth's crust,
minerals, oxides
1
C
Ag Silver 47 Cd Cadmium 48
soft shiny metal,
non-corroding
conducts
soft metal, toxic;
electricity best
electroplated
of all elements;
steel,
jewelry,
nicad batteries,
silverware, coins,
red and yellow
dentistry,
paints,
photo film
fire sprinklers
Nitrogen 7
colorless gas;
78% of air,
organic molecules,
protein, muscles,
DNA, ammonia,
fertilizer,
explosives (TNT),
refrigerants
18
He Helium
2
inert gas, second
lightest element;
nuclear fusion
in sun and stars,
balloons,
lasers,
supercold
refrigerant
Boron
B
5
hard black solid;
borax soap,
fertilizer,
stiff fibers,
sports equipment,
heat-resistant
borosilicate glass,
semiconductors
12
Carbon
6
hard diamond,
soft graphite;
basis of life's
organic molecules,
animals, plants,
CO2, wood, paper,
cloth, plastic,
coal, oil, gasoline
Halogens are reactive
nonmetals and readily
form compounds but are
not found free in nature.
They combine with alkali
metals to form salts
(halogen means
salt-former).
O
Te Tellurium 52
brittle metalloid;
alloys,
semiconductors,
photocopiers,
computer disks,
thermo-electric
coolers and
generators
F
Iodine 53 Xe Xenon 54
I
violet-black solid;
inert gas;
disinfectant for
high-intensity
wounds and
lamps, headlights,
drinking water,
stadium lamps,
added to salt
projectors,
to prevent
strobes, lasers,
thyroid disease,
spacecraft
photo film
ion engines
5
Lead
82 Bi Bismuth 83 Po Polonium 84 At Astatine 85 Rn Radon 86
low-melting-point
radioactive,
radioactive,
radioactive gas,
dense, soft,
brittle metal;
long-lived;
short-lived;
short-lived;
non-corroding
solders, fuses,
first radioactive
small traces
environmental
metal, toxic;
fire sprinklers
element found,
in nature,
hazard,
weights, solders,
(plugs melt
small traces
cancer medicine surgical implants
batteries, bullets,
when hot),
in nature,
for cancer
crystal glass,
cosmetics pigment anti-static brushes,
treatment
old plumbing,
radiation shield
tobacco
6
Pb
Rf
104 Db
105 Sg
106 Bh
107 Hs
108 Mt
109 Ds
110 Rg
111 Cn
112 Nh
113 Fl
114 Mc
115 Lv
116 Ts
117 Og
118
Copernicium
Nihonium
Flerovium
Moscovium
Livermorium
Tennessine
Oganesson
Rutherfordium
Dubnium
Seaborgium
Bohrium
Hassium
Meitnerium
Darmstadtium
Roentgenium
Actinide
Metals
120
9
Iron
26 Co Cobalt 27 Ni Nickel 28
medium-hard
hard metal,
medium-hard
metal, magnetic;
magnetic;
metal, magnetic;
steel alloys
hard strong steel, stainless steel
are mostly iron,
cutting tools,
(Fe-Cr-Ni),
structures,
turbines,
kitchenware,
vehicles, magnets, magnets (Al-Ni-Co), nichrome heaters,
Earth's core, blue glass, ceramics, nicad batteries,
red rocks, blood
vitamin B-12
coins, Earth's core
Fe
Yttrium 39
Rb Rubidium 37 Sr Strontium 38 Y
soft metal,
soft metal;
soft metal;
reactive;
red fireworks,
phosphors in
atomic clocks,
flares,
color TVs,
global navigation
phosphors,
lasers (YAG, YLF),
(GPS),
nuclear batteries, furnace bricks,
vacuum tube
medical
high-temperature
scavenger
diagnostic tracer, superconductors
nuclear fallout
Nb Niobium 41 MoMolybdenum 42
high-melting-point high-melting-point
metal;
non-corroding
hard steel,
metal;
chemical pipelines, cutting tools,
drill bits,
superconductors,
armor plate,
magnetic
gun barrels,
levitation trains,
fertilizer
MRI magnets
Ag
soft and have low melting
temperatures.
malleable (they can be hammered into shape), flexible (in thin
sheets or wires), and they conduct both heat and electricity.
3
Ag
Ag
Poor Metals are usually
Transition Metals are typical metals: they are strong, shiny,
Ca
Silver
Ag
Group number
1
2 3-12 13
14
15
16
17
18
Outer electrons*
1
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Valence number* +1
+2
+2
+3 +4,-4 -3
-2
-1
0
* typical
The valence number is the number of electrons
given (+) or taken (-) when bonding.
4
8
O
Water
Ag
Ag
Elements in the same group, or column, are similar because they
typically have the same number of outer electrons. This table
shows some easy-to-remember common numbers for each group.
Potassium 19
soft metal,
reactive;
salts, nerves,
nutrients in fruits
and vegetables,
soap, fertilizer,
potash, matches,
gunpowder
Barium 56
soft metal,
absorbs X-rays;
stomach X-ray
contrast enhancer,
green fireworks,
whitener and filler
for paper, plastic,
and rubber
Cl
Ag
H
Groups
The atomic weight of an element is the average number of
protons plus neutrons. You can easily estimate the atomic
weight: it is usually 2 to 2.5 times the atomic number.
Calcium 20 Sc Scandium 21 Ti Titanium 22
soft metal;
soft lightweight
strongest
bones, teeth, milk,
metal;
lightweight metal,
leaves, vegetables, aluminum alloys,
heat-resistant;
shells, coral,
racing bikes,
aerospace,
limestone, chalk,
stadium lamps,
racing bikes,
gypsum, plaster,
furnace bricks,
artificial joints,
mortar, cement,
aquamarines
white paint,
marble, antacids
blue sapphires
Na
H
-
H
O
Ionic bond
Covalent bond
One atom takes an
Atoms share their
electron from another
outer electrons.
atom and the oppositely
charged ions attract.
The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom.
This determines the chemical properties of the atom.
K
H
Cl
Na
An atom has a nucleus, made of protons and neutrons,
surrounded by electrons orbiting in cloud-like shells.
Smaller shells are surrounded by larger shells.
Mg Magnesium 12
lightweight metal;
chlorophyll in
green plants,
talc, basalt,
aluminum alloys,
cars, planes, bikes,
flares, sparklers,
antacids
are inactive, or inert. Each atom
has exactly the number of electrons it needs to have
a full outer shell, so these atoms almost never bond
with other atoms. That is why these are all gases.
Chemical Bonding
Nucleus of
protons and
neutrons
Sodium 11
soft metal,
reactive;
salt (NaCl), nerves,
baking soda,
antacids, lye, soap,
soda ash, glass,
papermaking,
street lamps
Noble Gases
7
Superheavy Elements
radioactive, short-lived; never found in nature, no uses except atomic research
121...
Rare Earth Metals are all soft metals.
They are chemically similar to scandium and
yttrium and are difficult to separate from
each other.
Actinide Metals are all radioactive
heavy metals. They are used mainly for
their radioactive properties.
Radioactivity. Atoms with the same number of protons
but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.
Some isotopes are stable; others are radioactive —
their nuclei eventually disintegrate. The radioactive
half-life is the time for half the nuclei to disintegrate.
On this chart, an element is called long-lived if the
half-life of any of its isotopes is more than one year;
otherwise it is called short-lived.
Lu Lutetium 71
soft metal,
densest and
hardest
rare earth metal;
cancer-fighting
photodynamic
(light-activated)
medicine
6
99 Fm
100 Md
101 No
102 Lr
103
Uranium 92 Np Neptunium 93 Pu Plutonium 94 Am Americium 95 Cm Curium 96 Bk Berkelium 97 Cf Californium 98 Es
Einsteinium
Fermium
Mendelevium
Nobelium
Lawrencium
radioactive,
radioactive,
radioactive,
radioactive,
radioactive,
radioactive,
radioactive,
long-lived, dense;
long-lived;
long-lived;
long-lived;
long-lived;
long-lived;
long-lived;
nuclear
small traces
small traces
never found
never found
never found
never found
reactor fuel,
in nature,
in nature,
in nature,
in nature,
in nature,
in nature,
nuclear weapons, neutron detectors,
nuclear
smoke detectors,
scientific
no uses,
scientific
counterweights,
dosimeters,
reactor fuel,
sheet thickness
instruments,
radwaste
instruments,
armor piercing
nuclear weapons, spacecraft power,
gauges,
mineral analyzers,
mineral analyzers,
radioactive, short-lived; never found in nature, no uses except atomic research
bullets
radwaste
nuclear weapons
radwaste
radwaste
radwaste
7
La Lanthanum 57 Ce Cerium 58 Pr Praseodymium 59 Nd Neodymium 60 Pm Promethium 61
soft metal;
soft metal;
soft metal;
soft metal;
radioactive,
optical glass,
most abundant
torchworkers'
strong magnets
long-lived;
telescope
rare earth metal, didymium eye(Nd-Fe-B),
human-made,
eyepieces,
lighter flints,
glasses (Pr-Nd), electric motors,
small traces
camera lenses, gas lamp mantles,
lighter flints,
speakers and
in nature,
lighter flints,
self-cleaning
arc lamps,
headphones,
luminous dials,
arc lamps
ovens,
magnets,
lasers,
sheet thickness
glass polishing
yellow glass
lighter flints
gauges
Ac Actinium 89 Th Thorium 90 Pa Protactinium 91
radioactive,
radioactive,
radioactive,
long-lived;
long-lived;
long-lived;
most abundant
small traces
small traces
in nature,
radioactive element,
in nature,
cancer medicine,
nuclear
no uses,
neutron source,
reactor fuel,
radwaste
radwaste
gas lamp mantles,
tungsten filaments
Sm Samarium 62 Eu Europium 63 Gd Gadolinium 64 Tb Terbium 65 Dy Dysprosium 66
soft metal;
soft metal;
soft metal, best
soft metal;
soft metal;
magnets (Sm-Co),
phosphors in
neutron absorber,
phosphors in
nuclear
electric motors,
color TVs and
magnetic;
color TVs and
control rods,
speakers and trichromatic lamps, magnetic resonance trichromatic lamps, MRI phosphors,
headphones,
luminous paint,
imaging (MRI)
computer disks,
computer disks,
infrared sensors,
lasers
contrast enhancer, magnetostrictive magnetostrictive
infrared-absorbing
phosphors, neutron smart materials smart materials
glass
radiography
(Terfenol-D®)
(Terfenol-D®)
Ho Holmium 67 Er Erbium 68 Tm Thulium 69 Yb Ytterbium 70
soft metal;
soft metal;
soft metal;
soft metal;
infrared lasers,
fiber optic
rarest stable
fiber optic
laser surgery,
signal amplifiers, rare earth metal, signal amplifiers,
eye-safe laser
infrared lasers,
infrared lasers,
infrared
rangefinders,
laser surgery,
laser surgery,
fiber lasers,
computer disks,
pink glass,
phosphors
stainless steel
yellow glass filters
sunglasses,
alloys
vanadium alloys
U
© 2005–2016 Keith Enevoldsen elements.wlonk.com Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
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