Anatomy 2A Lab Manual 2016-2017

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THE HUMAN BODY—AN ORIENTATION
LAB 1
Medical Terminology
PAGE NO.
3
MICROSCOPY AND MEASUREMENT
LAB 2
Basic Microscopy
11
LAB 3
Measurement
19
CELLS—THE LIVING UNITS
LAB 4
The Cell
24
LAB 5
DNA and RNA Structure and Function
30
LAB 6
Cell Transport
33
LAB 7
The Cell Cycle
45
LAB 8
DNA Replication
48
LAB 9
Protein Synthesis
49
TISSUE—THE LIVING FABRIC
LAB 10
Epithelial Tissue
52
LAB 11
Connective Tissue Proper
57
LAB 12
Cartilage and Bone Connective Tissue
62
THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
LAB 13
Skin Structure and Function
68
BONES AND SKELETAL TISSUES
LAB 14
Bones and Skeletal Tissues
73
THE SKELETON
LAB 15
The Skeleton
79
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
LAB 16
The Muscular System
107
THE SPECIAL SENSES
LAB 17
The Eye and Vision
141
LAB 18
The Ear—Hearing and Balance
153
LAB MANUAL ANSWERS
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
161
Page 2
OBJECTIVE
To use the appropriate terms/names to describe body regions, planes of section, body regions, cavities,
and abdominal regions.
PART A—BODY REGIONS
Study the diagram of body regions (Figure 1.7) in your text. Learn the appropriate anatomical term for
each body region. After studying the regional names, label the numbered regions on the following
diagrams. *Note that all regions are not numbered on the diagrams below.
2
1
4
6
9
10
11
8
5
3
7
12
13
16
14
17
15
18
20
19
22
21
23
24
25
26
27
28
30
29
31
32
33
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
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34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
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PART B—BODY CAVITIES
Locate each of the following cavities using models and diagrams. List the major organs found in each
cavity in the table below:
CAVITY
MAJOR ORGANS
1. Thoracic
a. Pleural cavities
b. Mediastinum
c. Pericardial cavity
2. Abdominal cavity
3. Pelvic cavity
4. Cranial cavity
5. Vertebral (spinal) cavity
Describe the location and contents of the additional cavities below:
6. Orbital―
7. Nasal cavity―
8. Oral (buccal) cavity―
QUESTIONS
1. Cavities #1, #2 and #3 in the table above belong to what larger cavity?
2. Cavities #2 and #3 in the table above are cavities within what larger cavity?
3. Cavities #4 and #5 belong to what larger cavity?
4. Name the cavity that each of the following would be found in:
a. Brain
e. Urinary bladder
b. Esophagus, trachea
f. Spinal cord
c. Heart
g. Eye
d. Liver
h. Lung
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PART C—LABEL THE CAVITIES NUMBERED ON THE DIAGRAMS BELOW
1
3
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
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PART D—ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS
Locate the following regions on models. List the major organs found in each region using the table.
REGIONS
MAJOR ORGANS
1. Epigastric
2. Umbilical
3. Hypogastric
4. Right hypochondriac
5. Left hypochondriac
6. Right lumbar
7. Left lumbar
8. Right inguinal (iliac)
9. Left inguinal (iliac)
Label the regions on the diagram below. NOTE: These numbers do not correspond with the numbers in
the table above.
4
1
5
2
6
3
7
9
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PART E—BODY PLANES
Label the body planes.
2
1
3
PART F—QUESTIONS
1. A patient experiences pain or injury to the right hypochondriac region. Which organ is most likely to be
affected?
2. Severe upset stomach often presents as pain in the ____________________________ region.
3. The urinary bladder is found in the ____________________________ region.
4. The right kidney is mainly in the ______________________________ region.
5. A deep stab wound in the umbilical region would most likely damage what organs?
6. In order to view the lateral aspect of the heart you would need to make a _____________cut or plane of
section.
7. What would you call the section you named in question 6 above when it is through the midline? If it were
lateral to the midline?
8. Through what plane would one make a cut to visualize both lungs, the heart, spinal cord and ribs?
9. To view the anterior surface of both kidneys you would make a cut through what plane?
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PART G—TERMINOLOGY
Study the directional terms in Table 1.1 of your text and answer the questions below (Questions 7-8
pertain to serous membranes).
1. The nose is __________________________ to the mouth.
2. The fingers are _________________________ to the elbow.
3. The ear is ______________________ to the nose.
4. Muscle is ____________________________ to bone.
5. The heart is _____________________________ to the lungs.
6. The viscera are ___________________________ to the skin.
7. The serous membrane covering the surface of the lungs is the __________________________ pleura.
8. The layer of serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity is the __________________________
peritoneum.
PART H—PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES
A large part of anatomy and physiology is vocabulary, therefore it is helpful to learn the meaning of as
many prefixes and suffixes as possible. Most of these can be found in your text.
Look up the meaning of each prefix or suffix below and use it properly in a sentence.
PREFIX/SUFFIX
SENTENCE
1. brachi
2. epi
3. endo
4. peri
5. hypo
6. hyper
7. chondr
8. cephal
9. cardio
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PREFIX/SUFFIX
SENTENCE
10. neuro
11. pleur
12. para
13. a
14. hemi
15. ectomy
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PART A—PARTS OF THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE
OBJECTIVES
Name and identify the major parts of the microscope.
State the function of each microscope part.
Demonstrate proper use of the microscope.
Demonstrate proper care and storage of the microscope.
Determine the size of the field of vision and use it to estimate the size of an object on the microscope.
Prepare a tissue wet mount and view it on the microscope.
The microscope you will be using is a compound microscope which utilizes two lenses or lens systems to
enlarge the object being viewed. The ocular or eyepiece is the lens near your eye while the objective is the
lens located on the revolving nosepiece. Your microscope has two oculars, or binocular vision. The object is
first magnified by the ocular and then once again by the objective. Total magnification of the object is
therefore calculated by multiplying the magnification of the ocular times the objective. Your microscope is
parfocal, which means you should not have to refocus each time you change the objective. Once the object is
in focus, you should not need to use the coarse adjustment again when you change the magnification.
Your instructor will assign you a microscope.
LISTEN carefully as your instructor reviews the parts and use of the microscope.
IDENTIFY each part listed below, STATE and LEARN the function and proper use of each part of the
microscope.
LABEL the name of the part in the proper location on the microscope diagram.
a. Ocular−
b. Revolving nosepiece−
c. Objectives−
d. Microscope Frame−
e. Stage−
f. Mechanical stage clip−
g. Coarse focus adjustment knob−
h. Fine focus adjustment knob−
i.
Condenser−
j.
Iris diaphragm−
k. Base with illuminator−
m. Light intensity switch−
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THE BINOCULAR COMPOUND MICROSCOPE
1
2
9
10
11
3
12
4
5
6
13
14
7
15
8
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PART B—PROPER USE OF THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE
1. Before using your microscope, clean the ocular and objective lenses using the lens paper and lens cleaner
provided.
NEVER use an ordinary tissue or paper towel to clean your
microscope; it may cause permanent damage to the lenses!
2. Place the slide you are viewing under the stage clips and adjust the slide into position. Turn the revolving
nosepiece until the low- power objective clicks into place. Use the coarse adjustment to move the stage as
close as possible to the objective without hitting the slide (do this while you are watching and not while
you are looking through the ocular!).
3. Look through the oculars. One ocular is adjustable, allowing people who wear glasses to adjust the
magnification to suit each eye, eliminating the need to wear glasses while viewing. Adjust the lighting to
give the best image possible by using the diaphragm lever below the stage.
4. While looking through the oculars, use the coarse adjustment knob to slowly move the stage in a
downward direction until the object comes into focus. Complete the focusing with the fine adjustment
knob. Adjust the light again if needed. The thicker the section of material you are viewing, the more
lightly you will need. If the field of vision is dim or dark, adjust the diaphragm for more light. If the field is
bright and the object is washed out, adjust the diaphragm for less light.
5. If the high-power objective is needed, you may carefully swing the objective into position once the
microscope has been focused on low-power. You may need to move the slide to center the object being
viewed and readjust the light (more light may be needed on a higher magnification). Use only the fine
adjustment to focus the object. The coarse adjustment should not need to be used when changing
objectives.
6. After using the microscope, remove the slide, rotate the revolving nosepiece until the lowest power
objective is in position, and crank the coarse adjustment knob to lower the stage away from the
objectives. Clean the stage, cover the microscope and return it to the cabinet.
QUESTIONS
1. How do you determine total magnification when using the 4X, 10X and 40X objectives with a 10X
ocular? Give the total magnification for each.
2. Why don’t you have to use coarse adjustment when focusing on high power?
3. If you are viewing an object and the object appears faint and washed out and the background is bright,
what should you do to make the object more visible?
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4. Define resolution−
5. Which objective requires the most illumination?
6. Why should you always move the stage downward, away from the objective while focusing?
PART C—PRACTICE USING THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE
1. Begin by using the prepared slide of the Letter ‘e’.
Place the letter on the stage so the bottom is towards you just as it would be if you were reading it.
Focus it in on the 4X objective. Note the position of the letter in the field of vision.
QUESTIONS
a. What direction is the letter facing when viewed through the microscope?
b. What do the microscope lenses do to images as they magnify them?
2. Now, try a prepared slide with a smaller object such as the sperm slide (obtain this slide from the tray your
instructor has put out. This slide is NOT in your slide box).
Focus it first on low-power, then move it to high. Be sure to use the diaphragm and adjust the light.
Too much light will make the sperm invisible.
a. Draw what you see on high power.
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PART D—MAKING A WET MOUNT OF ANIMAL CELLS: CHEEK CELLS
You will be preparing a wet mount (using stain) of both plant and animal cells. You will not be able to see most
of the structures within the cells using your microscope, however, you will be able to distinguish differences
between the plant and animal cell and view a few of the larger organelles. Detailed aspects of the cell will be
studied in the next section.
1. Place a small drop of Methylene blue on a clean slide.
2. Rinse your mouth thoroughly before scraping to remove excess food and bacterial deposits. Lightly scrape
the inner surface of your cheek using the flat side of a toothpick. Swirl the end of the toothpick with the
scrapings in the methylene blue on the slide.
3. Carefully place a coverslip on the slide by sliding the coverslip along the slide at a 45-degree angle until it
hits the stain and the stain forms a line on the edge of the coverslip. Lower the coverslip being careful not
to form any bubbles.
4. Wait several minutes then place a drop of distilled water along one edge of the coverslip. Place a KimWipe
at the other edge of the coverslip and slowly draw the stain out and the water in. Make sure the slide
doesn’t get too dry. When you are finished, the background should be clear and yet the cells will remain
blue from the stain.
Methylene blue
KimWipe
5. Focus your slide on low power. Look for cells that aren’t too clumped. Find a cell that is not folded or
bunched with others and center it in the field of vision.
6. Now, move the high-power objective into place. Use only the fine adjustment if needed. Remember to
adjust the light.
QUESTIONS
a. What structures are visible on the cell on high-power?
7. Remove the slide when finished and put the slide the GLASS DISPOSAL BOX in your lab.
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PART E—MAKING A WET MOUNT OF PLANT CELLS: ONION CELLS
1. Carefully strip a thin layer of cells from a piece of onion. Lay the onion tissue out flat on a clean slide. Add
a drop of iodine and put the coverslip in place.
a. Cut an onion into quarters.
b. Remove one of the fleshly
“scale” leaves.
c. Snapping the leaf backward
usually produces a ragged
piece of epidermis.
d. Remove a small piece of epidermis
and spread it evenly in a drop of
iodine on a slide.
e. Gently lower a coverslip to prevent
trapping air bubbles.
2. Observe the onion cells first on low and then high power.
QUESTIONS
a. What differences can you see between the onion (plant) cell and the cheek (animal) cell?
b. What cell structures can you see in the onion slide?
PART F—PLANT CELLS VS. ANIMAL CELLS
QUESTIONS
a. What are the small, round, green structures that are visible in plant cells and what is their function?
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
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b. Why don’t human cells or onion cells have the green structures mentioned above?
c. Name the structures that differ between plant and animal cells and describe the differences.
PART G—PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES
Look up the following prefixes or suffixes in your text.
Use each one properly in a sentence.
PREFIX/SUFFIX
SENTENCE
1. cyt, cyto
2. viscos
3. elle
4. stasis
5. inter
6. intra
7. macro
8. mega
9. micro
10. mito
11. mono
12. hetero
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PREFIX/SUFFIX
SENTENCE
13. pseudo
14. sub
15. supra
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OBJECTIVE
To become familiar with basic measurements and units used in the sciences.
In science, the metric system is utilized to make measurements. One advantage of the metric system is that it
is based on units of ten, making conversions from unit to unit easier. This section of the lab will provide you with a
brief overview of some measurements often used in science and the health professions.
Kilo (k)  Base  Centi (c)  Milli (m)  Micro (µ) Nano (n)  Angstrom (Å)
A. LENGTH
B. VOLUME
C. MASS
The metric base unit for length is
the meter. Learn the relationships
of the following related units and
make the conversions indicated.
(See Metric System Table).
The metric base unit for volume is
the liter (L), which is slightly more
than a quart.
Mass is the amount of matter in an
object and it is constant. The unit of
mass is the gram. Doses of medicine
are usually milligrams or micrograms,
while body weight is measured in
kilograms.
Meter (m)
Centimeter (cm)
Millimeter (mm)
Micrometer/micron (µm)
Nanometer (nm)
Angstrom (Å)
Approximate Comparisons
(1) 12 oz Soda = 360 mL
(1) fluid ounce = 30 mL (cc)
(1) teaspoon = 5 mL (cc)
(1) gallon = 3.785 L
Convert the following:
Convert the following:
1L=
mL
345 cm =
mm
5 oz =
mL
160 km =
m
5 sodas =
2500 µm =
mm
1 L of medicine will make how many
5 mL injections?
11 cm =
nm
1 mm =
m
200 nm =
1Å=
mL
Convert the following:
A 70 kg man =
lbs
300 g =
mg
4000 µg =
mg
Mr. Grundy weighs 195 lbs. He
receives a dose of medicine at 2
mg/kg body weight. How much
medicine does he receive?
injections
520 g =
mm
nm
4250 µg =
mg
g
QUESTIONS SIMILAR TO THESE WILL
APPEAR ON YOUR EXAMS
NOTE
When converting to a smaller unit, the number increases so move the decimal point will to the right.
When converting to a larger unit, the number will decrease so move the decimal point to the left.
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PART D—QUESTIONS
1. How many inches equal 1 millimeter? __________________
2. The prefix kilo means __________________
3. What instrument would you use to measure about ⅓ cup of fluids in the metric system? ____________
4. What units would be used to measure if a large amount of fluid (to fill a swimming pool)?
____________
5. What units would the measurement be in if you were measuring a small amount of fluids (a full
eyedropper)? __________________
PART E—USING MEASUREMENTS
You can use metric measurements to estimate the size of an object under the microscope. You must begin by
measuring the field of vision on the microscope with a metric ruler.
EXAMPLE: A metric ruler was placed in the field of vision with the 10X objective in place. The ruler under the
field of vision is shown below:
1. Assume the marks on the diagram above designate mm. What would the size of the field of vision be on
the diagram above?
2. Place a metric ruler under each objective lens on your own microscope and measure the fields of view.
The space between each visible line is equal to one millimeter. Record the measurement below:
4X =
10X =
40X =
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3. Now that you have the size of your fields of vision, remove the ruler. You should NOT have to measure
again as long as you use the same microscope. You can now use this information to estimate the size of an
object in the field of vision.
EXAMPLE: TRY THIS PRACTICE PROBLEM FIRST:
3 mm
a. To find the length of one cell in the field of vision above, you would first visualize and estimate how
many cells would fit across the length of the field of vision. In this case, approximately 6 cells fit across
the length of the field. The length of one cell can be calculated using the following formula:
diameter of field
= size of cell
# cells visible
b. If you plug in the proper numbers, you will find the answer by calculating:
3 mm
6 cells
The answer is:_________________mm
c. Now calculate the height of one cell using the same method (show your work):
The answer is:________________mm
4. Find the slide of 3-colored strings in your slide box and focus it in on low-power (10X) on your microscope.
a. Use the method you have just learned to estimate the width of one string (pick one of the colored
strings and estimate how many times it will fit across the field of vision).
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b. Do the calculations and show your work below:
The width of the __________ color string is ___________ mm
PART F—QUESTIONS
1. How many millimeters equal an inch? ___________________
2. 10 cells are visible across the width of the microscope field using the 4X objective lens, and 4 cells are
visible along its length. Calculate the dimensions of the cell in both millimeters and microns.
(mm)
(µ)
LENGTH OF THE CELL
WIDTH OF CELL
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THE METRIC SYSTEM
MEASUREMENT
LENGTH
AREA
MASS
VOLUME (SOLIDS)
VOLUME
(LIQUIDS & GASES)
TIME
TEMPERATURE
UNIT AND ABBREVIATION
METRIC EQUIVALENT
1 kilometer (km)
= 1000 (103) m
1 meter (m)
= 100 (10 ) cm
= 1000 mm
1 centimeter (cm)
METRIC TO ENGLISH
CONVERSION FACTOR
ENGLISH TO METRIC
CONVERSION FACTOR
1 km = 0.62 mile
1 mile = 1.61 km
2
1 m = 1.09 yards (yd)
1 m = 39.37 inches (in)
1 yard = 0.914 m
1 foot = 0.305 m
= 0.01 (10 ) m
-2
1 cm = 0.394 in
1 foot = 30.5 cm
1 inch = 2.54 cm
1 millimeter (mm)
= 0.001 (10-3) m
1 mm = 0.039 in
1 micrometer (µm)
= 0.000001 (10-6) m
1 nanometer (nm)
= 0.000000001 (10-9) m
1 angstrom (Å)
= 0.0000000001 (10-10) m
1 square meter (m2)
= 10,000 cm2
1 m = 1.1960 sq. yards
1 m2 = 10.764sq. feet
1 sq. yard = 0.8361 m
1 sq. foot = 0.0929 m2
1 square centimeter (cm2)
= 100 mm2
1 cm2 = 0.155 sq. inch
1 sq. inch = 6.4516 cm2
1 metric ton (t)
= 1000 kg
1 t = 1.103 ton
1 ton = 0.907 t
1 kilogram (kg)
= 1000 g
1 kg. = 2.205 pounds (lb)
1 pound = 0.4536 kg
1 gram (g)
= 1000 mg
1 g = 0.0353 ounce (oz)
1 g = 15.432 grains
1 ounce = 28.35 g
1 milligram (mg)
= 0.001 g
1 mg = 0.015 grain
1 microgram (µg)
= 0.000001 g
1 cubic meter (m3)
= 1,000,000 cm3
1 m3 = 1.3080 cubic yds.
1 m3 = 35.315 cubic ft.
1 cubic yd. = 0.7646 m3
1 cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc)
= 0.000001 m3
= 1 mL
1 cm3 = 0.0610 cubic in.
1 cubic in. = 16.387 cm3
1 cubic millimeter (mm3)
= 0.000000001 m3
1 kiloliter (kL)
= 1000 L
1 kL = 264.17 gallons (gal)
1 gal. = 3.785 L
1 liter (L)
= 1000 mL
1 L = 0.264 gal
1 L = 1.057 quarts (qt)
1 qt. = 0.946 L
1 milliliter (mL)
= 0.001 L
= 1 cm3
1 mL = 0.034 fluid oz.
1 mL = ¼ teaspoon (tsp)
1 mL = 15-16 drops (gtt.)
1 qt. = 946 mL
1 pint = 473 mL
1 fluid oz. = 29.27 mL
1 tsp. = 5 mL
1 microliter (µL)
= 0.000001 L
1 second (s)
=
1 millisecond (ms)
= 0.001 s
Degrees Celsius (°C)
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
2
2
1
minute (min)
60
°F =
9
5
°C + 32
°C =
5
(°F - 32)
9
Page 23
PART A—THE STRUCTURE OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
OBJECTIVES
Describe the structure of the plasma membrane and relate it to membrane functions.
Label the diagram of the cell membrane below.
Extracellular Fluid
4
1
3
5
2
3
4
Cytoplasm
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QUESTIONS
1. Describe 2 functions of structure #1 in the diagram on page 24.
2. Will glucose be able to diffuse freely past structure #2 in the diagram on page 24? Explain why or why not.
3. Give two possible functions for proteins such as protein #3 in the diagram on page 24.
4. What are some possible functions of structure #4 in the diagram on page 24?
PART B—THE CELL: ORGANELLES AND THEIR FUNCTION
OBJECTIVES
Name and identify the organelles found in a cell.
List the major differences between a typical plant and animal cell.
Study the models and charts of the cell in your lab. Use the diagram in your text to identify the various
organelles and structures.
Label the diagram of the cell on the following page.
Read and use the descriptions in your text to fill in the major function of each structure listed in the chart
on pages 27-29.
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ANIMAL CELL
1
15
2
14
13
3
12
11
4
10
9
5
8
7
6
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CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Cells differ in structure to accommodate their various functions
ORGANELLE
FUNCTION
The cellular material:
Contains:
CYTOPLASM
Cytosol―
Site of:
MITOCHONDRIA
System of:
Externally covered with:
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM
ER without:
SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM
Dense particles composed of:
RIBOSOMES
Flattened, stacked membranous sacs.
Modifies and packages:
GOLGI APPARATUS
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ORGANELLE
FUNCTION
VACUOLES
Membranous sacs containing:
LYSOSOMES
Membranous sacs of:
PEROXISOMES
A network of:
CYTOSKELETON
Hollow, cylindrical protein:
MICROTUBULES
MICROFILAMENTS
Site for assembly of:
CENTROSOME
Contains paired:
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ORGANELLE
FUNCTION
Cellular extensions used to:
CILIA
FLAGELLA
Controls:
NUCLEUS
Double membrane whose outer membrane is:
NUCLEAR ENVELOPE
Dark, spherical bodies within:
NUCLEOLUS
Produces:
DNA +
CHROMATIN
A selectively:
PLASMA MEMBRANE
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OBJECTIVE
To learn the composition, structure and location of DNA and RNA and to describe the basic function of
each
PART A—DNA STRUCTURE
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a double-stranded molecule composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. It
is constructed from structural units called nucleotides, which consist of a nitrogen-containing base, a pentose sugar
(deoxyribose) and a phosphate group.
Read about the structure of DNA in the chemistry chapter of your book.
Label the structures on the DNA molecule below and answer the following questions.
1
2
3
5
(entire structure in box)
4
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QUESTIONS
1. ______________________ and ____________________are large two-ring bases called purines. The
smaller,
single-ring
bases
known
as
pyrimidines
are
____________________
and
_____________________ ,as well as another base found in RNA called _______________________.
2. The two sides of the DNA molecule is composed of alternating _____________________and
_______________________ molecules.
3. The rungs of the DNA ladder is composed of _____________________ pairs that are bonded together
by a ______________________________.
4. The entire DNA molecule is coiled into a spiral called a _______________________.
5. Bonding of the nitrogenous bases is specific, each bonding only to a complementary partner. Thymine
will always bond to ____________________ while guanine bonds to ______________________. In
RNA, adenine bonds to ____________________ instead of thymine.
6. Typically, DNA is found in the ________________________ of the cell. It is additionally found in
organelles called_____________________.
7. What are the main functions of DNA? (Give at least 2)
8. The genetic code of an organism is determined by the nitrogenous base sequence of a DNA molecule.
A segment of DNA that carries the code or instructions for the construction of polypeptide is called a
______________________.
9. Prior to cell division, the DNA in the nucleus must _______________________ to ensure the cell being
produced has an identical copy of DNA.
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PART B—RNA STRUCTURE
Ribonucleic acid is composed of the same elements as DNA. It is also constructed from nucleotides.
Read about RNA in the chemistry chapter of your text and answer the following questions:
QUESTIONS
1. Name three structural differences between DNA and RNA.
2. Where can RNA typically be found in the cell?
3. What is the function of RNA?
4. Give the full names of each of the following types of RNA. Briefly describe the function of each:
a. rRNA−
b. mRNA−
c. tRNA−
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OBJECTIVE
To identify, demonstrate and explain the various processes utilized for transport of substances in the cell.
To understand and explain the factors influencing movement of substances into and out of the cell.
To understand and explain various tonicities and their effect on the cell.
To demonstrate and explain the factors that affect the rate of diffusion.
DIFFUSION
Diffusion is defined as movement of solute from high to low concentration. The rate at which diffusion takes
place is dependent upon 3 main factors.
Conduct the following exercises to determine the factors that affect the rate of diffusion.
PART A—EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RATE OF DIFFUSION
1. Obtain two 150 mL glass beakers. Using tape, label one beaker “cold” and the other “hot.”
2. Fill the cold beaker with ice water (do not put ice in the beaker) and put hot water in the hot beaker.
3. Allow the water to become still.
4. Before starting, measure the temperature of each beaker and record the readings in the table below.
5. Start the timer as soon as you add 1 drop of food coloring to the center of each beaker.
6. Observe the distance the dye has moved in each beaker and record those observations at each time
interval on the table below.
7. Observe how the dye spreads every 15 seconds for the first 30 seconds, then 1 minute thereafter for 3
minutes. Record these observations in the second table.
TABLE A―DIFFUSION RESULTS FOR FOOD COLORING IN WATER
TIME
TEMPERATURE (°C)
COLD WATER OBSERVATIONS
TEMPERATURE (°C)
HOT WATER OBSERVATIONS
15 sec
30 sec
1 min
2 min
3 min
8. When you are DONE with this experiment:
WASH the beakers with soap and water and then DRY with paper towel
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QUESTIONS
1. How did the diffusion rate in each of the beakers compare? Which one diffused the fastest?
2. How long did it take for the dye to completely diffuse in the hot water? In the cold water?
3. What effect does temperature have on the rate of diffusion?
PART B—EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON THE RATE OF DIFFUSION
1. Obtain an agar plate with 1 cm wells scooped out of the middle.
2. Using a marker, label the lid of the agar plate well #1, well #2, well #3 and well #4.
Well #1
Well #2
3. Fill the wells as follows:
Well #1 with 0.02 M Alizarin Yellow (MW = 287.23 g/mol)
Well #3
Well #4
Well #2 with 0.02 M Janus Green (MW = 511.19 g/mol)
Well #3 with 0.02 M Congo Red (MW = 696.67 g/mol)
Well #4 with 0.02 M Aniline Blue (MW = 737.74 g/mol)
4. Replace the lid and place the agar plate on a sheet of white paper.
5. Measure with a ruler the distance mm that each dye has diffused in 10 minute intervals for the next 50
minutes. Record the results in the table below.
TABLE B―DIFFUSION RESULTS FOR 0.02 M DYES IN AGAR
TIME (MIN)
WELL 1
(0.02 M Alizarin Yellow)
Diffusion Distance (mm)
WELL 2
(0.02 M Janus Green)
Diffusion Distance (mm)
WELL 3
(0.02 M Congo Red)
Diffusion Distance (mm)
WELL 4
(0.02 M Aniline Blue
Diffusion Distance (mm)
10 min
20 min
30 min
40 min
50 min
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6. When you are DONE with this experiment:
Discard the agar plate in the BIOHAZARD WASTE bag.
QUESTIONS
1. All 4 wells contained dyes with a concentration of 0.02 M. Which one had the fastest rate of
diffusion? Why? Explain the results.
2. What factor caused the difference in the rates of diffusion in all the wells?
PART C—EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION ON THE RATE OF DIFFUSION
1. Obtain an agar plate with 1 cm wells scooped out of the middle.
2. Using a marker, label the lid of the agar plate well #1, well #2, and well #3.
3. Fill the wells as follows:
Well #1 with 0.01 M Potassium permanganate, KMnO4
Well #2 with 0.05 M KMnO4
Well #3 with 0.10 M KMnO4
4. Measure with a ruler the distance in mm that each concentration of KMnO4 has diffused in 10 minute
intervals for the next 50 minutes. Record the results in the table below.
TABLE C―DIFFUSION RESULTS FOR DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF KMnO4 IN AGAR
TIME (MIN)
WELL 1
(0.01 M KMnO4)
Diffusion Distance (mm)
WELL 2
(0.05 M KMnO4)
Diffusion Distance (mm)
WELL 3
(0.10 M KMnO4)
Diffusion Distance (mm)
10 min
20 min
30 min
40 min
50 min
5.
When you are DONE with this experiment:
Discard the agar plate in the BIOHAZARD WASTE bag.
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QUESTIONS
1. How did the rates of diffusion compare between wells? Which one had the fastest rate of diffusion?
Why? Explain the results.
2. What factor caused the difference in the rate of diffusion between the wells?
3. Name 2 places in your body where each of the following occur:
a. Diffusion of a solute into a liquid
b. Diffusion of a gas into a liquid
c. Diffusion of a solute or liquid into a colloid
OSMOSIS
PART A—THISTLE TUBE OSMOMETER
1. Set up the osmometer as follows:
a. Cut a 4-inch piece of dialysis membrane tubing and soak it in a dish containing distilled
water (dH2O) until it is soft and pliable.
b. Open the tubing with your fingers.
c. With scissors, cut dialysis membrane along one edge in order to make ONE long piece of
membrane.
d. Have one person fill the bulb of the tube with molasses while the other person closes off
the stem of the thistle tube with his/her finger.
e. Place the wet dialysis membrane over the bulb of the thistle tube and secure it TIGHTLY
in place by winding rubber bands over the bulb several times. Make sure that the syrup will not
leak through the sides!
f. Invert the tube and allow the syrup in the stem of the thistle tube to settle in the bulb before
MARKING the level of the syrup with a grease pencil.
g. Fill the plastic cup half full with distilled water and lower the thistle tube bulb in the cup. (SEE
diagram)
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2. Observe the level of the molasses for the next 30 to 40 minutes and write your observations below.
Observations:
3. When you are DONE with this experiment:
Dismantle the osmometer and thoroughly RINSE the thistle tube.
Wash and dry the plastic cup.
DISCARD dialysis membrane in trash bin.
QUESTIONS
1. What happened to the level of the molasses?
2. Explain what caused the movement of the molasses. Be specific.
3. Why didn’t the molasses leave the thistle tube and enter the water in the beaker?
4. If the thistle tube were a cell and the water in the beaker were the solution surrounding the cell:
a. Is the solution isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic? Explain.
b. Are there more solutes inside or outside the cell?
c. How long would water move into the cell? What might result from this?
5. Give some examples of where osmosis is taking place in your body.
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6. Is osmosis diffusion? Explain.
PART B—OSMOSIS IN POTATO CELLS
1. Fill one culture dish with distilled water (dH2O) and the other with 10% NaCl.
2. Using a cork borer, make SIX plugs of potato. Three plugs will be
soaked in distilled water, the other three will be soaked in 10% NaCl.
3. Measure the original volume of each set of three plugs as follows:
a. Place 25 mL of dH2O in BOTH 50 mL graduated cylinders. [This is
the initial water volume]
b. In the first cylinder, put the first set of 3 potato plugs and record
the final volume of water in the table below. [This set of plugs
will be soaked in the dish containing dH2O]
c. Determine the ORIGINAL volume of these plugs by subtracting
the initial volume of water from the final. Record this volume in
the table below.
d. Repeat this procedure for the other set of 3 potato plugs. [This
set of plugs will be soaked in the dish containing 10% NaCl]
4. After determining the volume of the plugs, place EACH set of plugs
into their designated solution and allow to soak for 30 minutes.
5. After 30 minutes, remove the potato plugs with the forceps provided
and observe the texture, color and flexibility of the plugs in each set.
Record these observations in the data table.
6. Remeasure the volume of each set of plugs and record the results below. If the mass increased over
the 30 minutes, place a (+) in the data table next to the amount changed. If the mass decreased, place
a (-) in the space.
7. When you are DONE with this experiment:
WASH glassware with soap and water and then DRY the outside surfaces with paper towel.
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OSMOSIS IN POTATO CELLS
Distilled Water (mL)
10%NaCl (mL)
25 mL
25 mL
25 mL
25mL
1. Vol. of H2O before adding plugs
2. Vol. of H2O after adding plugs
3. Original Vol. of Potatoes
(Vol in #2 – Vol in #1)
4. Volume. of H2O 30 min. later
(2nd measurement) before
adding plugs
5. Volume of H2O after adding
plugs (2nd measurement after 30
min. in Sol’n
6. Volume Change (+) or (-)
(negative change represents
volume loss while positive
change represents volume gain)
(Vol in #5 – Vol in #4)
7. Observations
QUESTIONS
1. Which group of plugs gained volume? Explain.
2. Which group of plugs lost volume? Explain
3. What type of solution was the 10% salt solution? The distilled water?
4. How did the rigidity of the plugs in the two solutions compare? Why the difference?
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
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5. In order to maintain the normal osmolarity of a potato cell, in what type of solution would need to put the
potatoes?
PART C—OSMOSIS IN HUMAN CELLS
1. Clean your finger with an alcohol pad. Let it dry before you prick your finger.
2. Prick your finger with the lancet at the SIDES of the finger.
3. Prepare THREE blood slides as follows:
a. Slide 1: Add one drop of distilled water + 1 drop of blood.
b. Slide 2: Add one drop of 0.9% NaCl solution + 1 drop of blood.
c. Slide 3: Add one drop of 5% NaCl solution + 1 drop of blood.
4. Cover each slide with a cover slip and observe under the microscope on high power.
5. Draw and record your observations below.
SLIDE 1 [DISTILLED H2O]
SLIDE 2 [0.9% NaCl]
SLIDE 3 [5% NaCl]
6. IMPORTANT SAFETY DISOSAL INSTRUCTIONS:
DISCARD the used blood lancets in the RED Sharps Container.
DISCARD the used slides in the Biohazardous Disposal Pouch.
DISCARD the used alcohol pads and any other materials containing blood
in the large receptacle.
QUESTIONS
1. Which slide contained cells in a hypertonic solution? Hypotonic? Isotonic?
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
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2. Describe and explain the cause of the appearance of the cells in each slide.
3. What is a physiological saline solution?
4. Define the following terms:
a. crenation–
b. hemolysis–
PART D—DIALYSIS
1. Cut approximately 15 cm (6- inch) of dialysis tubing and soak in dishpan filled with distilled water to
soften.
2. Remove the tubing from the water; fold over one end and tie off with string.
3. Slip the stem of a funnel into the open end of the bag and fill the bag
approximately half full with the solution labeled “Dialysis Solution.”
Contents of test solution in dialysis tubing:
Water
Glucose
Albumin (protein)
Starch
NaCl
4. Remove the funnel; fold and tie off the open end of the bag.
5. Place the dialysis tube ‘sausage’ into a beaker of distilled water and let sit for 30
minutes.
6. After 30 minutes, test the water in the beaker for the following substances to
determine if they have left the tubing and entered the water. Record your
results in the table.
a. Test for NaCl
i. Place several mL of water from the beaker in a test tube.
ii. Add several drops of silver nitrate solution (AgNO3).
iii. Formation of a white, cloudy precipitate indicates the presence of NaCl.
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b. Test for Glucose
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
Place several mL of water from the beaker in a test tube.
Add a squirt or 10 drops of Benedict’s solution to the tube.
Warm the tube in a hot water bath for 5 to 10 minutes.
Look for a color change. Any change to green, yellow, orange or red indicates the presence of
glucose.
c. Test for Starch
i. Place several mL of water from the beaker in a test tube.
ii. Add several drops of iodine solution.
iii. A bluish or purplish-black color indicates the presence of starch.
d. Test for Albumin (protein)
i. Place several mL of water from the beaker in a test tube.
ii. Carefully add several drops of nitric acid (HNO3) to the tube.
iii. Formation of a white, cloudy precipitate indicates the presence of protein.
RESULTS OF TESTS FOR SUBSTANCES IN BEAKER
Test for Presence of
Substance Added
NaCl
Silver nitrate
Observations Following Test
Substance Present?
(+) or (-)
Glucose
Starch
Albumin
7. When you are DONE with this experiment:
WASH ALL glassware with soap and water and then DRY the outside surfaces with
paper towel.
INVERT test tubes in the rack and allow to air dry.
QUESTIONS
1. Define dialysis–
2. Which of the four substances left the dialysis tube and entered the water?
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
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3. Why did some substances get through the membrane while others didn’t?
4. What physical characteristic of albumin affected its ability to pass through the membrane?
5. When solutes move, what usually follows?
FILTRATION
PART A—FILTRATION OF AN UNKNOWN SOLUTION
1. Assemble the filtration apparatus shown on diagram.
2. Fold a piece of filter paper per diagram.
3. Open filter paper in a cone and place it inside the funnel.
4. Fill the funnel with the solution labeled “Filtration Solution” to determine what
will pass through the filtration membrane.
5. If the filter paper gets clogged, place a new piece of filter paper in the funnel. You might have to
repeat this process a few times.
6. Continue adding the solution to the filter until there is enough filtrate in the beaker to fill 4 separate
test tubes about one inch high.
7. Use one test tube of filtrate to test for each of the following substances.
a. Test for Salt
i.
See Part D 6a (dialysis experiment) for the procedure to test for NaCl. Record the results in the
table.
b. Test for Starch
i.
See Part D 6c (dialysis experiment) for the procedure to test for starch. Record the results
below.
c. Test for Charcoal
i. Observe the filtrate in the test tube. Any gray or black particles indicate presence of charcoal.
ii. Indicate that the charcoal passed through the filter.
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iii. Record the results below.
d. Test for Copper Sulfate (CuSO4)
i. Observe the filtrate in the test tube for a bluish or aqua color.
ii. A blue color indicates copper sulfate has passed through the filter.
iii. Record the results below.
RESULTS OF FILTRATION TESTS
Test
Substance Present?
(+) or (-)
NaCl
Starch
Charcoal
Copper sulfate
8. When you are DONE with this experiment:
WASH ALL glassware with soap and water and then DRY the outside surfaces with paper
towel.
INVERT test tubes in the rack and allow to air dry.
QUESTIONS
1. Name three things that will determine whether a substance will pass through a filtration membrane.
2. In a closed system, what force is necessary for filtration to take place?
3. How could you increase this force?
4. Where does filtration take place in the body?
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OBJECTIVES
Learn the stages of the cell cycle and state the major events that occur during each stage.
Name each mitotic phase in order and learn the events that take place in each phase.
PART A—THE CELL CYCLE
Fill in the names for each stage below. List the major events that occur in each stage below the name.
S
(name of stage)
Events:
G1
G2
(name of stage)
Events:
(name of stage)
Events:
4th Phase
1st Phase
(name of stage)
(name of stage)
3rd Phase
2nd Phase
(name of stage)
(name of stage)
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PART B—MITOSIS
Mitosis (cell division) is the process by which organisms grow. A single PARENT cell undergoes mitosis and
forms two DAUGHTER cells. Each daughter has the same number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent (46 or 23
pairs in humans, 2n, diploid). Division of the nuclear material is called KARYOKINESIS and division of the cytoplasm
is CYTOKINESIS. Meiosis (reduction division) in contrast produces 4 cells, each with half of the chromosome
number of the parent.
Obtain a slide of Allium (onion) root tip. Identify the stages of mitosis.
Obtain a slide of whitefish blastula. Identify the stages of mitosis.
Identify the stage depicted in each picture below.
Identify the major events of each stage.
STAGE:
MAJOR EVENTS:
STAGE:
MAJOR EVENTS:
STAGE:
MAJOR EVENTS:
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STAGE:
MAJOR EVENTS:
STAGE:
MAJOR EVENTS:
PART C—TERMINOLOGY
Learn the following terms:
 interphase
 centromere
 karyokinesis
 kinetochore
 cytokinesis
 microtubules
 centrioles
 spindle fibers/ mitotic spindles
 chromatin
 poles
 chromatids
 cleavage furrow
 chromosomes
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OBJECTIVE
To learn and understand the steps in the process of DNA replication and to realize the purpose of the
event.
PART A—DNA REPLICATION
Before a cell can divide, its DNA must be duplicated so that identical copies of the cell’s genes can be passed on
to each new cell. This process is called replication. Replication occurs in the cell nucleus during interphase.
Read the section in your text on replication (Chapter 3).
Fill in the blanks below.
Label where each step (1-6) would occur on the diagram to the right.
QUESTIONS
1. The enzyme _______________ causes the DNA helix to
begin to ___________________.
2. The two DNA strands begin to _______________exposing
the _______________.
3. Each DNA strand will serve as a template for a
_________________.
4. The enzyme ______________ catalyzes the synthesis of the
new DNA strands as free DNA nucleotides attach to
_______________________ on the exposed DNA strands.
5. The short, new DNA segments are spliced together by the
enzyme __________________.
6. The result is the formation of __________________
______________________ identical to the original DNA
helix.
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OBJECTIVE
To understand when, where and how the steps of protein synthesis occur.
DNA serves as the master blueprint for any polypeptide or protein (including enzymes). Since DNA cannot
leave the nucleus, RNA must copy the DNA code and take it out of the nucleus (transcription) where the code will
be used to synthesize a protein (translation). The processes of transcription and translation must be used each
time a polypeptide is produced by the cell. The process begins in the nucleus but the ultimate act of producing the
protein takes place on the ribosome in the cytoplasm.
PART A—TRANSCRIPTION
Fill in the steps of transcription below and answer the following questions.
QUESTIONS
1. The enzyme ________________________ binds to the DNA molecule causing the DNA helix
to_____________________.
2. The two strands of DNA __________________ exposing the DNA nucleotides. One DNA strand, called the
_________________ strand, will serve as the template for construction of a complementary
__________________ molecule. _____________________ is also the enzyme responsible for bonding
mRNA nucleotides to the DNA template.
3. For each triplet (three base sequence on the DNA template), a complementary three base mRNA segment
called a _______________will be formed on the mRNA.
4. Before it can be used, the new mRNA strand must be edited. Noninformational regions called
___________________
must
be
removed.
The
remaining
informational
pieces
called
____________________ are spliced together to form a
functional mRNA strand.
5. The mRNA will leave the nucleus and carry the code to the
___________________ of the cell where it will attach to a
___________________.
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6. Why must mRNA be used to carry the DNA code?
7. What will the mRNA strand ultimately be used for?
8. In a diagram, how can you distinguish a newly forming mRNA strand from the DNA template?
PART B—TRANSLATION
Fill in the blanks below and answer the following questions.
Label the diagram.
QUESTIONS
1. The mRNA molecule attaches to a ___________________.
2. A new type of RNA called ______________ is used to bind amino acids and carry them to the mRNA on
the ribosome.
3. There are many different types of tRNA. Each type binds to a specific amino acid. The amino acid is bound
to one end of the tRNA while the other end contains a three base sequence called an
___________________.
4. The anticodons of the tRNA form ________________ bonds with the complementary codons on the
_________________.
5. As successive amino acids are brought to their proper positions by the tRNA, ______________________
bonds are formed between them and the formation of a _________________________ begins.
6. Where does the process of translation occur?
7. What molecule is used as a template for the construction of the polypeptide?
8. What is the job of tRNA?
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9. When will the processes of transcription and translation need to be used by the cell?
6
5
7
4
2
3
1
8
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OBJECTIVES
Be able to identify each tissue type.
Be able to identify associated structures.
Know the location of each tissue type.
Know the function of each tissue type.
Take a few minutes and review what you have previously learned about microscope use. Be sure you know
how to use the microscope properly before you begin.
STUDY THE BASIC TISSUE TYPES, CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIAL TISSUES AND EPITHELIAL TISSUE TYPES LISTED IN BOXES
A, B AND C BELOW.
PART A—BASIC TISSUE TYPES
1.
2.
3.
4.
Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous
PART B—CLASSIFICATION
1. Often named by shape
a. Squamous
b. Cuboidal
c. Columnar
2. Named by layers
a. Simple
i. Pseudostratified
b. Stratified
i. Transitional
PART C—SPECIFIC EPITHELIAL TISSUE TYPES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Simple squamous
Simple cuboidal
Simple columnar
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Stratified squamous
Transitional
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PART D—SIMPLE EPITHELIA
1. Simple squamous epithelium
TISSUE
LOCATIONS
FUNCTION & NOTES
DRAWING
LOCATIONS
FUNCTION & NOTES
DRAWING
Specific location:
TISSUE
Same as above
Same as above
Specific location:
2. Simple cuboidal epithelium
TISSUE
LOCATIONS
FUNCTION & NOTES
DRAWING
LOCATIONS
FUNCTION & NOTES
DRAWING
Specific location:
3. Simple columnar epithelium
TISSUE
Specific location:
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4. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
TISSUE
LOCATIONS
FUNCTION & NOTES
DRAWING
FUNCTION & NOTES
DRAWING
LOCATIONS
FUNCTION & NOTES
DRAWING
LOCATIONS
FUNCTION & NOTES
DRAWING
PART E—STRATIFIED EPITHELIA
1. Nonkeratinizing stratified squamous epithelium
TISSUE
LOCATIONS
2. Keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium
TISSUE
Specific location:
3. Transitional epithelium
TISSUE
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PART F—QUESTIONS
1. What are goblet cells?
2. What epithelial tissues did you observe which had goblet cells?
3. What are cilia? What is their function? Give an example of where in the body ciliated cells are located.
4. What are microvilli? What is their function? Give an example of where in the body microvilli are located.
5. What is the difference between the two pictures shown under simple squamous epithelium?
6. What is a basement membrane? What is it made of?
7. What is the difference between simple and stratified epithelial tissues relative to the basement
membrane?
8. How can you tell the difference between stratified squamous and transitional epithelium?
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9. What is the difference in appearance and placement of nuclei in each of these tissues: simple columnar,
simple cuboidal, and pseudostratified ciliated columnar?
10. What other simple and stratified epithelial types can you name?
11. Name the type of tissue that membranes such as visceral and parietal serous membranes are composed
of.
12. What are the main functions of epithelial tissue?
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OBJECTIVES
Be able to identify each tissue type.
Be able to identify associated structures.
Know the location of each tissue type.
Know the function of each tissue type.
Before you begin today’s lab, take a few minutes to review the tissues that you have already studied. The
second major group of tissues that we will study is connective tissue. Begin your study of connective tissue as
outlined below.
PART A—BASIC CHARACTERISTICS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Multiple cell types
Fibers
Increased intercellular matrix
Vascular
PART C—Fiber Types
1. Collagen
2. Elastic
3. Reticular
PART B—CELL TYPES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Fibroblasts
Macrophages
Mast cells
Plasma cells
Leukocytes
Adipose cells (adipocytes)
Chondrocytes
Osteocytes
2
PART D—CONNECTIVE TISSUE TYPES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1
Areolar (loose)
Adipose
Reticular
Dense regular
Dense irregular
Elastic connective tissue
3
6
5
4
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PART E—LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
1. Areolar connective tissue
TISSUE
LOCATIONS
FUNCTION &NOTES
DRAWING
TISSUE
LOCATIONS
FUNCTION &NOTES
DRAWING
Same as above
Same as above
Name the cell:
2. Adipose connective tissue
TISSUE
LOCATIONS
FUNCTION &NOTES
DRAWING
LOCATIONS
FUNCTION &NOTES
DRAWING
3. Reticular Connective Tissue
TISSUE
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PART F—DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
1. Dense regular connective tissue (dense white fibrous)
TISSUE
LOCATIONS
FUNCTION &NOTES
DRAWING
FUNCTION &NOTES
DRAWING
FUNCTION &NOTES
DRAWING
2. Dense irregular connective tissue
TISSUE
LOCATIONS
3. Elastic connective tissue (dense yellow elastic)
TISSUE
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
LOCATIONS
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PART G—QUESTIONS
1. What is matrix and what is its composition?
2. Identify the various types of cells that can be found in connective tissue and give a function for each.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
3. Answer these questions about fibers:
a. What are they?
b. How many types are there?
c. What produces all 3 types of fibers?
d. Where can they be found?
e. What is the distinction of each fiber type?
i.
ii.
iii.
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4. List 6 characteristics of connective tissue:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
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OBJECTIVES
Be able to identify each tissue type.
Be able to identify associated structures.
Know the location of each tissue type.
Know the function of each tissue type.
Cartilage and bone are stronger than other connective tissues because of the types of chemicals that compose
their matrix.
For this lab, you will look at 3 types of cartilage and a slide of compact bone.
PART A—TYPES OF CARTILAGE
1. Hyaline
2. Elastic
3. Fibrocartilage
PART B—GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
1. Tough and flexible
2. Avascular
3. No innervation
4. Chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid
5. Largely water
6. Chondrocytes and chondroblasts
7. Lacunae
8. Fibers
PART C—QUESTIONS
1. What are lacunae?
2. What are glycosaminoglycans and what is their significance? Give two examples of GAG’s.
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3. Are fibers present in cartilage?
4. Are fibers always visible in cartilage?
PART D—CARTILAGE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
1. Hyaline cartilage
TISSUE
LOCATIONS
NOTES &FUNCTION
DRAWING
LOCATIONS
NOTES &FUNCTION
DRAWING
LOCATIONS
NOTES &FUNCTION
DRAWING
2. Elastic cartilage
TISSUE
3. Fibrocartilage
TISSUE
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PART E—BONE (OSSEOUS) CONNECTIVE TISSUE
TISSUE
LOCATION
NOTES &FUNCTION
DRAWING
TISSUE
LOCATION
NOTES &FUNCTION
DRAWING
Same as above
Same as above
Name the passageway:
PART F—TERMS
1. Lacuna−
2. Osteoblasts−
3. Osteocytes−
4. Osteoclasts−
5. Lamellae−
6. Osteon (Haversian system)−
7. Haversian canal−
8. Volkmann’s canal−
9. Canaliculi−
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PART G—QUESTIONS
1. What is perichondrium?
2. What is periosteum?
3. Which cartilage type has the most visible fibers?
4. Which type of cartilage is most abundant in the body?
5. Does cartilage heal better than bone? Explain.
6. What is articular cartilage?
7. What is an epiphyseal plate?
8. What is ground substance?
9. What makes the matrix of bone hard?
10. What is the difference between the organic and inorganic matrix in bone?
11. Medically speaking, what happens to an individual who has abnormalities in the relative amounts of
organic and inorganic matter?
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PART H—DIAGRAMS
Label the indicated structures on the diagram.
1
2
6
3
4
5
7
8
9
10
4
5
11
12
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circumferential lamella
interstitial lamella
concentric lamella
lacunae
Haversian system
Haversian canal
Haversian canal
Volkmann’s canal
spongy bone
trabecula
concentric lamella
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OBJECTIVE
Learn and understand the basic structure of skin including its layers, important structures, and functions.
PART A—THE INTEGUMENT
Observe the skin models and slides (scalp, thin skin, thick skin, etc.) and locate the following structures:
1. EPIDERMIS
a. Layers
i.
Stratum basale (germinativum)
ii. Stratum spinosum
1
iii. Stratum granulosum
iv. Stratum lucidum
2
v. Stratum corneum
b. Cells
i.
Keratinocytes
aa. Keratin
3
ii. Dendritic (Langerhans) cells
iii. Tactile (Merkel) cells
iv. Melanocytes
c. Epidermal peg
4
2. DERMIS
a. Layers
i.
Papillary
5
aa. Dermal papillae
bb. Meissner’s corpuscles
ii. Reticular
aa. Dense irregular connective tissue
bb. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands
cc. Sebaceous (oil) glands
b. Appendages
i.
Hair
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aa. Root
bb. Follicle
cc. Shaft
dd. Arrector pili
3. HYPODERMIS (SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE)
a. Adipose tissue
b. Pacinian corpuscle
c. Blood vessels
PART B—SKIN STRUCTURES
Label the indicated structures of the skin.
1
5
6
2
7
8
3
9
10
4
11
12
15
13
14
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PART C—QUESTIONS
1. Name the 3 layers of skin. (Technically 2 layers with a layer beneath)
2. Name the 5 zones of the epidermis.
3. What are the characteristics of each zone of the epidermis?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
4. What structures are responsible for fingerprints?
5. Where is melanin located in the skin?
6. What cell produces melanin?
7. How do non-melanin producing cells get melanin in them?
8. What is the function of melanin?
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9. Describe what happens when a person gets a suntan.
10. What are freckles?
11. What are the differences in melanin and melanin producing cells between light and dark skin?
12. What causes goose bumps?
13. What is the function of a sebaceous gland?
14. Which specific layer of the skin is mitotic?
15. What is the function of Meissner’s corpuscles?
16. What is the function of Pacinian corpuscles?
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Meissner’s corpuscle
dermal papilla
hair shaft
Epidermis
epidermal peg
sebaceous gland
arrector pili muscle
Dermis
hair follicle
Hypodermis
eccrine sweat
gland
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OBJECTIVE
To learn the structure and function of bone, as well as, its developmental stages.
PART A—INTRODUCTION TO BONES
Study the split femur and identify the following parts.
Define each term and where appropriate give a function.
1. Diaphysis−
2. Epiphysis−
3. Spongy (cancellous) bone−
4. Compact bone−
5. Medullary cavity−
6. Red marrow−
7. Yellow marrow−
8. Endosteum−
9. Periosteum−
10. Epiphyseal plate−
QUESTIONS
1. What are the two types of bone formation?
2. Which bones are formed from each type of bone formation?
3. Are bones supplied with arteries? Veins? Nerves? Lymph?
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4. Differentiate between interstitial, concentric and circumferential lamellae.
PART B—DIAGRAMS
Label the indicated structures on the diagram.
1
4
5
6
7
2
8
3
6
9
8
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PART C—EPIPHYSEAL PLATE
Observe the slide of developing bone (endochondral ossification). Identify and draw the following zones:
1. Zone of resting (reserve) cartilage
ZONE
NOTES
DRAWING
NOTES
DRAWING
NOTES
DRAWING
2. Zone of proliferation (growth zone)
ZONE
3. Zone of hypertrophy
ZONE
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4. Zone of erosion (destruction)
ZONE
NOTES
DRAWING
NOTES
DRAWING
5. Zone of bone formation (osteogenic)
ZONE
QUESTIONS
1. What type of cartilage is present on the articulating surfaces of movable joints?
2. At what age does the epiphyseal plate close?
3. Is there an epiphyseal plate at both ends of a typical long bone?
4. Why is damaged cartilage more difficult to heal than bone?
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5. List the differences between cartilage and bone.
CARTILAGE
BONE
Nerves
Blood vessels
Lymph channels
Matrix type
PART D—OSTEOLOGICAL TERMS
The irregular surface of the bones is due to either projections called processes or depressions called fossae.
Since processes and fossae come in a variety of shapes and size more specific terms are often used.
Using the bones, locate some of these processeses and fossae.
1. PROCESSES−any bony projection
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
Condyle−a rounded articulating process
Epicondyle−a projection located above a condyle
Tuberosity−a large rounded or irregular process
Tubercle−a small rounded process
Trochanter−a very large, often blunt process
Spine−a sharp, slender process
Hamulus−a hook-shaped process
Line−a very slighrt ridge of bone
Crest−a prominent ridge of bone
Facet−a smooth flattened articulating surface
2. FOSSAE−any bony depression, and bony openings
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Foramen−a hole in a bone through which nerves and blood vesels pass
Meatus or Canal−a tunnel-like passage through a bone
Sinus−a cavity within a bone
Sulcus or Groove−a furrow on a bone’s surface
Fissure−a slit-like opening in a bone
Fovea−a shallow depression
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articular cartilage
epiphyseal plate
Proximal Epiphysis
spongy bone
periosteum
medullary cavity
nutrient artery
compact bone
yellow marrow
Diaphysis
nutrient foramen
periosteum
compact bone
spongy bone
Distal Epiphysis
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OBJECTIVE
To name, identify, describe the bones and bone markings of the axial and appendicular skeletons.
ORGANIZATION OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
PART A—AXIAL SKELETON
1. SKULL (8)
2. FACE (14)
a. Cranium
a. Mandible (1)
b. Frontal (1)
b. Maxilla (2)
c. Occipital (1)
c. Nasal (2)
d. Parietal (2)
d. Vomer (1)
e. Sphenoid (1)
e. Lacrimal (2)
f. Ethmoid (1)
f. Inferior nasal concha (2)
g. Temporal (2)
g. Palatine (2)
h. Zygomatic (2)
3. HYOID (1)
4. VERTEBRAL COLUMN (33)
a. Cervical (7)
a. Sternum
b. Thoracic (12)
i.
c. Lumbar (5)
ii. Gladiolus (body)
d. Sacrum (5)
iii. Xiphoid process
e. Coccyx (4)
6
5. THORAX (25)
Manubrium
b. Ribs (12 pairs)
EAR OSSICLES (6)
a. Malleus
b. Incus
c. Stapes
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PART B—APPENDICULAR SKELETON
1. PECTORAL GIRDLE (4)
a. Clavicle
b. Scapula
2. UPPER EXTREMITY (60)
a. Humerus
b. Radius
3. PELVIC GIRDLE (2)
a. Os coxa
i.
Ilium
ii. Ischium
iii. Pubic
4. LOWER EXTREMITY (60)
c. Ulna
a. Femur
d. Carpals
b. Patella
i.
Capitate
c. Tibia
ii. Trapezoid
d. Fibula
ii. Trapezium
e. Tarsals
iv. Scaphoid
i.
Talus
v. Lunate
ii. Calcaneus
vi. Triquetral
iii. Cuboid
viii. Pisiform
iv. Navicular
xi. Hamate
v. Medial cuneiform
e. Metacarpals
vi. Intermediate cuneiform
f. Phalanges
vii. Lateral cuneiform
f. Metatarsals
g. Phalanges
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THE AXIAL SKELETON
Familiarize yourself with all the bones of the body using the plastic replicas, as well as, the real human
bones.
Be able to identify each bone and how they articulate with one another.
PART A—VERTEBRAE
OBJECTIVE
Be able to identify each vertebrae type.
Know the number of each type.
Distinguish each type of verterbrae.
What does each vertebrae articulate with?
What does C1 specifically articulate with?
1. In the table below, list the regional vertebral characteristics that will allow you to distinguish one
vertebra from the other.
CERVICAL
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THORACIC
LUMBAR
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2. VERTEBRAL LANDMARKS
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
•
Body
•
Transverse foramen (cervical only)
•
Demifacet (thoracic only)
•
Lamina
•
Superior articular process
•
Facet (thoracic only)
•
Pedicle
•
Inferior articular process
•
Vertebral foramen (spinal canal)
•
Spinous process
•
Inferior notch
•
Transverse process
•
Intervertebral foramen (formed by 2
vertebrae)
1
2
4
3
5
6
8
7
9
3. ATLAS (C1)
6
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagram.
•
Anterior arch
•
Posterior arch
•
Superior articular facet
•
Inferior articular facet
2
3
4
1
1
4. AXIS (C2)
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagram.
•
Dens (odontoid process)
•
Superior articular facet
•
Inferior articular facet
5
2
3
4
5
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5. SACRUM AND COCCYX
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
•
Sacral promontory
•
Superior articular process
•
Sacral foramina
•
Ala
•
Sacral canal
•
Articular fossa for ilium
•
Body
•
Sacral hiatus
•
Coccyx
1
2
3
5
6
7
8
4
9
PART A—QUESTIONS
1. What features make the cervical vertebrae unique?
2. What blood vessel is closely associated with the cervical vertebrae? How?
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3. What separates vertebral bodies from each other and what are they made of?
4. What nervous structures exit the intervertebral foramina?
5. How do the ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae?
6. How many articulating surfaces does T8 have?
PART B—THE THORACIC CAGE
1. STERNUM
1
2
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagram.
3
•
Manubrium
4
•
Gladiolus (body)
•
Xiphoid process
5
•
Clavicular notch
6
•
Jugular (interclavicular) notch
•
Sternal angle
•
Costal facets
QUESTIONS
7
1. What is the clinical significance of the xiphoid process and the body?
2. Can you palpate the jugular notch?
3. How are the ribs attached to the sternum?
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2. RIBS
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
•
1st rib
•
Neck
•
Body
•
Typical rib
•
Tubercle of rib
•
Costal groove
•
Head
•
Sternal end
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
QUESTIONS
1. Can you distinguish between the sternal and vertebral ends of each rib? How?
2. Which rib stands out as having a unique shape?
3. Can you clearly describe how the ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae?
4. What are the spaces between ribs called?
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5. What structures travel in the costal groove?
6. As a group, what are the first seven pairs of ribs called? Why?
7. As a group, what the lower five pairs of ribs called? Why?
8. What name is given to the last two pairs of ribs? Why?
9. Which of the two figures in the previous page represents a RIGHT rib?
PART C—THE SKULL
1. ANTERIOR ASPECT OF SKULL
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bones.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
•
Frontal
•
Ethmoid
•
Maxilla
•
Nasal
•
Lacrimal
•
Temporal
•
Inferior nasal concha
•
Vomer
•
Mandible
•
Sphenoid
•
Zygomatic
Identify and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
NOTE: Labels on the diagram do not correspond with the list below.
•
Nasal cavity
•
Supraorbital foramen
•
Optic canal (foramen)
•
Mental foramen
•
Perpendicular plate (ethmoid)
•
Superior orbital fissure
•
Orbital cavity
•
Infraorbital foramen
•
Inferior orbital fissure
•
Alveolar process
•
Middle nasal concha
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
9
12
11
13
14
15
16
17
19
18
20
21
2. LATERAL ASPECT OF SKULL
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bones.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
•
Mandible
•
Frontal
•
Maxilla
•
Temporal
•
Sphenoid
•
Nasal
•
Occipital
•
Lacrimal
•
Parietal
•
Ethmoid
Identify and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagram below. **Labels on the diagram do not correspond to the list below**
•
Zygomatic arch
•
Condylar process (mandibular condyle)
•
Zygomatic process (temporal)
•
Mastoid process
•
Temporal process (zygomatic)
•
Squamous suture
•
Alveolar process
•
Styloid process
•
Lambdoid suture
•
External occipital protuberance
•
External acoustic meatus
•
Lacrimal fossa
•
Coronoid process (mandible)
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
9
11
12
14
13
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
3. POSTERIOR ASPECT OF SKULL
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bones and structures.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
•
Parietal
•
Sagittal suture
•
Occipital
•
Lambdoid suture
•
External occipital protuberance
1
2
3
4
5
6
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4. INFERIOR ASPECT OF SKULL
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bones and structures.
LABEL them in the diagram below. **Labels on the diagram do not correspond with the list below**
OCCIPITAL
TEMPORAL
SPHENOID
•
Occipital condyles
•
Carotid canal
•
Foramen ovale
•
Foramen magnum
•
Mastoid process
•
Foramen spinosum
•
External occipital protuberance
•
Styloid process
•
Medial pterygoid process
MAXILLA
•
Foramen lacerum
•
Lateral pterygoid process
Palatine process
•
Jugular foramen
•
Greater wing
PALATINE
•
Stylomastoid foramen
Horizontal plate
•
Mandibular fossa
•
Zygomatic process
•
External acoustic meatus
•
•
VOMER
1
2
5
3
4
6
7
9
10
11
8
12
15
16
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14
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5. SUPERIOR VIEW OF SKULL
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bones and structures.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
SPHENOID
TEMPORAL
•
Greater wing
•
Foramen rotundum
•
Foramen lacerum
•
Lesser wing
•
Foramen ovale
•
Internal acoustic meatus
•
Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica
•
Foramen spinosum
•
Optic canal
•
Lateral pterygoid process**
•
Anterior clinoid process
•
Posterior clinoid process
• Medial pterygoid process**
**[SEE SECOND DIAGRAM]
•
Superior orbital fissure
OCCIPITAL
•
Hypoglossal canal
ETHMOID
•
Cribriform plate
•
Crista galli
1
2
4
6
8
3
5
7
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
17
16
POSTERIOR VIEW
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6. ADDITIONAL SKULL BONES—ETHMOID
—
2
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagram.
1
ETHMOID
•
Perpendicular plate
•
Crista galli
•
Cribriform plate
•
Superior nasal concha
•
Middle nasal concha
3
4
ANTERIOR VIEW
7. ADDITIONAL SKULL BONES—TEMPORAL
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
TEMPORAL
•
Mastoid process
•
External acoustic meatus
•
Styloid process
•
Internal acoustic meatus
•
Zygomatic process
•
Carotid canal
•
Foramen lacerum
•
Jugular foramen
•
Stylomastoid foramen
•
Mandibular fossa
1
5
2
4
3
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8. ADDITIONAL FEATURES OF THE SKULL
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bones and structures.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
OCCIPITAL
FRONTAL
•
External occipital protuberance
•
Occipital condyle
•
Foramen magnum
•
Supraorbital foramen
ZYGOMATIC
•
PARIETAL
NASAL
LACRIMAL
Temporal process
VOMER
INFERIOR NASAL CONCHAE
1
4
2
5
3
6
7
8
9
11
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10
12
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9. ADDITIONAL SKULL BONES—MAXILLA AND PALATINE
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagram.
1
MAXILLA
•
Palatine process
•
Alveolar process
•
Infraorbital foramen
2
PALATINE
•
Horizontal plate
10. ADDITIONAL SKULL BONES—MANDIBLE
3
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
MANDIBLE
•
Ramus
•
Body
•
Angle
•
Coronoid process
•
Alveolar process
•
Mandibular notch
•
Condylar process
•
Mandibular foramen
•
Mental foramen
POSTERIOR VIEW
1
8
9
2
7
3
4
6
5
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11. ADDITIONAL SKULL BONES—OSSICLES
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bones.
LABEL them in the diagram.
1
OSSICLES
•
Malleus
•
Incus
•
Stapes
2
3
QUESTIONS
1. What bones form the nasal septum?
2. What bones form the zygomatic arch
3. What bones form the hard palate?
4. Looking at the skull from above with the calvarium removed, what bone can be seen protruding through the
frontal bone?
5. What bone contains the ear ossicles?
6. What bones form the sagittal suture?
7. What bones form the lambdoid suture?
8. What bones form the coronal suture?
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9. What endocrine structure rests in the hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica?
10. Name four foramina that are clustered together in the sphenoid bone?
11. What is a sinus?
12. Which bones have sinuses?
13. What bone does the mandible articulate with?
APPENDICULAR SKELETON ANATOMY
OBJECTIVES
Be able to identify each bone type.
Distinguish between RIGHT and LEFT bones.
Be able to identify articulations between bones and bone markings.
PART A—THE PECTORAL (SHOULDER) GIRDLE
1. CLAVICLES
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bones and structures.
LABEL them in the diagrams below.
•
Acromial end
•
Sternal end
A
1
B
2
SUPERIOR VIEW
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QUESTIONS
1. Indicate which of the two figures above is a LEFT clavicle. How can you tell?
2. SCAPULA
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagrams below. **Labels on the diagram do not correspond with the list below**
•
Suprascapular notch
•
Supraglenoid tubercle
•
Superior border
•
Infraglenoid tubercle
•
Superior angle
•
Coracoid process
•
Vertebral (medial) border
•
Acromion process
•
Inferior angle
•
Spine
•
Axillary (lateral) border
•
Supraspinous fossa
•
Subscapular fossa
•
Infraspinous fossa
•
Glenoid cavity
1
15
6
14
5
13
2
12
11
3
4
7
16
17
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
10
8
9
Page 96
QUESTIONS
1. Indicate whether the figure on page 96 is a LEFT or RIGHT scapula. How can you tell?
PART B—THE UPPER LIMBS
1. HUMERUS
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagrams below.
•
Head
•
Deltoid tuberosity
•
Trochlea
•
Surgical neck
•
Radial groove
•
Medial epicondyle
•
Anatomical neck
•
Lateral supracondylar ridge
•
Medial supracondylar ridge
•
Greater tubercle
•
Lateral epicondyle
•
Coronoid fossa
•
Lesser tubercle
•
Radial fossa
•
Olecranon fossa
•
Intertubercular sulcus
•
Capitulum
•
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
15
14
16
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Page 97
QUESTIONS
1. Indicate whether the figure on page 97 is a LEFT or RIGHT humerus. How can you tell?
2. RADIUS AND ULNA
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bones and structures.
LABEL them in the diagrams below.
RADIUS
ULNA
•
Head
•
Head
•
Radial tuberosity
•
Olecranon process
•
Ulnar notch (fossa)
•
Trochlear notch
•
Styloid process
•
Coronoid process
•
Radial notch
•
Styloid process
1
5
4
2
3
6
8
7
(bone)
(bone)
9
11
10
12
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Page 98
QUESTIONS
1. Indicate whether the figures on page 96 are of a LEFT or RIGHT forearm. How can you tell?
3. HAND
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bones.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
CARPALS (WRIST)
METACARPALS 1-5 (PALM)
PHALANGES 1-5 (FINGERS)
•
Capitate
•
Lunate
•
Trapezoid
•
Triquetrum
•
Proximal
•
Trapezium
•
Pisiform
•
Middle
•
Scaphoid
•
Hamate
•
Distal
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
8
9
10
11
12
QUESTIONS
1. Indicate whether the figure above is a LEFT or RIGHT hand. How can you tell?
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Page 99
PART C—THE PELVIC (HIP) GIRDLE
1. OS COXAE (HIP BONES)
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bones and structures.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
ILIUM
ISCHIUM
PUBIS
•
Iliac crest
•
Ischial spine
•
Superior ramus of pubis
•
Anterior superior iliac spine
•
Lesser sciatic notch
•
Anterior inferior iliac spine
•
Ischial tuberosity
•
Acetabular fossa
•
Posterior superior iliac spine
•
Ischiopubic ramus
•
Acetabular notch
•
Posterior inferior iliac spine
 Inferior ramus of pubis
•
Acetabulum
•
Greater sciatic notch
 Inferior ramus of ischium
•
Obturator foramen
1
2
(bone)
3
5
7
6
4
9
8
10
11
13
12
(bone)
17
(bone)
14
15
16
18
QUESTIONS
1. Indicate whether the figure above is a LEFT or RIGHT os coxa. How can you tell?
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
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PART D—THE LOWER LIMB
1. FEMUR (THIGH)
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following structures.
LABEL them in the diagrams below.
•
Head
•
Linea aspera (posterior)
•
Fovea capitis
•
Lateral epicondyle
•
Neck
•
Medial epicondyle
•
Greater trochanter
•
Adductor tubercle
•
Lesser trochanter
•
Medial condyle
•
Intertrochanteric crest (posterior)
•
Lateral condyle
•
Intertrochanteric line (anterior)
•
Intercondylar fossa
•
Gluteal tuberosity (posterior)
•
Patellar surface
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
16
11
10
12
13
14
15
QUESTIONS
1. Indicate whether the figure above is a LEFT or RIGHT femur. How can you tell?
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Page 101
2. TIBIA AND FIBULA (LEG)
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bones and structures.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
TIBIA
FIBULA
•
Lateral condyle
•
Head
•
Medial condyle
•
Lateral malleolus
•
Intercondylar eminence
•
Tibial tuberosity
•
Anterior crest (border)
•
Medial malleolus
1
2
3
4
5
7
6
QUESTIONS
1. Indicate whether the figure above is a LEFT or RIGHT leg. How can you tell?
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
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3. FOOT
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bones.
LABEL them in the diagram below.
TARSALS
METATARSALS 1-5
PHALANGES 1-5 (TOES)
•
Talus
•
Lateral cuneiform
•
Calcaneus
•
Intermediate cuneiform
•
Proximal
•
Cuboid
•
Medial cuneiform
•
Middle
•
Navicular
•
•
Distal
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
9
8
10
11
QUESTIONS
1. Indicate whether the figure above is a LEFT or RIGHT foot. How can you tell?
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Page 103
4. PATELLA
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bone.
LABEL the diagrams below.
this side is
raised
this side
falls flat
1.
VIEW
2.
VIEW
QUESTIONS
1. Indicate whether the figure above is a LEFT or RIGHT patella. How can you tell?
PART E—MISCELLANEOUS BONES
1. HYOID
IDENTIFY and LEARN the following bone and structure.
LABEL the diagram below.
1
QUESTIONS
1. To which bone does the hyoid bone directly articulate?
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Page 104
Fracture is incomplete and fragments
the bone into 3 or more pieces.
Fracture is incomplete and only one
side breaks and the other bends.
Caused by twisting a bone excessively.
Occurs when broken bone portion is
pressed inward.
Occurs when epiphysis separates from
the diaphysis along the epiphyseal
plate.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Occurs when n bone is crushed.
Page 105
MOVEMENT TYPE
Gliding
EXAMPLES
Intercapal and intertarsal joints
Joints between vertebral
articular surfaces
MOVEMENT TYPE
Flexion and extension
Adduction and abduction
EXAMPLES
Metacarpophalangeal joints
(knuckles)
Wrist joints
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
MOVEMENT TYPE
Flexion and extension
EXAMPLES
Elbow joints
Interphalangeal joints
MOVEMENT TYPE
Flexion and extension
Adduction and abduction
EXAMPLES
Carpometacarpal joints of the
thumbs
MOVEMENT TYPE
Rotation
EXAMPLES
Proximal radioulnar joints
atlantoaxial joint (atlas and axis
vertebrae)
MOVEMENT TYPE
Flexion and extension
Adduction and abduction
Rotation
EXAMPLES
Shoulder joints
Hip joints
Page 106
OBJECTIVES
To learn the histology and physiology involved in skeletal muscle contraction.
To learn the location, points of attachment and actions of the major skeletal muscles in the human
muscular system.
PART A—TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE
Identify each type of muscle below.
List the identifying features for each type of muscle below the picture.
Review the slides of the three muscle types. Locate the distinguishing features of each so that you can identify
each muscle type histologically
Characteristics:
Characteristics:
Characteristics:
Define each of the following and give their location.
TERM
DEFINITION
LOCATION
a. Sarcolemma
b. Intercalated disc
c. Sarcoplasm
d. Fascicle
e. Striations
f. Myofilaments
g. T-tubules
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
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Complete the following chart comparing the three muscle types.
SKELETAL
CARDIAC
SMOOTH
Location
No. nuclei per fiber
Location of nuclei
Striations?
Branching fibers?
Intercalated discs?
Fiber length
Contraction time
Endurance?
PART B—SKELETAL MUSCLE STRUCTURE
Label the structures on the following diagrams.
2
1
(covering)
3
4
(covering)
8
5
(#5 enlarged)
6
(covering)
7
(#3 enlarged)
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Page 108
9
11
10
13
12
14
15
16
17
18
19
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Page 109
20
22
21
23
25
24
QUESTIONS
1. What is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
2. The T-tubule is a deep extension of what structure?
3. What is the function of the T-tubule?
4. What causes the troponin complex to change its configuration?
5. What occurs as a result of the troponin complex changing form?
6. What causes the power stroke to occur?
7. What occurs when ATP attaches to the myosin head?
8. What chemical reaction allows the myosin head to return to its high-energy state or its “cocked” position?
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Page 110
PART C—MAJOR SKELETAL MUSCLES OF THE HUMAN BODY
Although we will be using the cat to learn the major muscles, remember that you are learning HUMAN
muscles.
Be sure to know each muscle on the human diagrams and models, as well as, on the cat.
Begin by studying the models and diagrams of the human body. Label the superficial muscles on the
diagram below.
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
10
9
11
12
13
15
14
16
17
18
20
19
21
23
22
25
24
26
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
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27
28
29
31
30
33
32
34
35
36
37
38
39
41
43
40
42
44
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
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PART D—CAT DISSECTION
CAREFULLY dissect the cat as directed by your instructor.
Learn the superficial muscles of each region first, and then dissect the opposite side to locate the deep
muscles. The muscles you are responsible for knowing are listed on the table below. Your instructor will
review the region you are to dissect each lab—follow his/her directions.
Use the cat diagrams on the following pages to locate these muscles on the cat.
For each muscle listed you are responsible for knowing:
Location in both cat and human
Main actions
Points of attachment
HEAD AND NECK MUSCLES
MUSCLE
Epicranius (frontal belly)
Orbicularis oculi
Buccinator
Zygomaticus
Orbicularis oris
Temporalis
Masseter
Sternocleidomastoid
ORIGIN
INSERTION
ACTION
Aponeurosis
Skin of eyebrows
 Elevates eyebrows
 Wrinkles forehead
Frontal and maxillary bones
Tissue of eyelids
Closes eyes as in blinking
Maxilla and mandible
Orbicularis oris
Compresses cheeks inward (whistling and
sucking)
Zygomatic bone
Skin and muscle at corner of mouth
Raises corners of mouth (smiling)
Maxilla and mandible
Skin and muscle around mouth
Closes and puckers the lips
Temporal bone
Mandible (coronoid process)
 Closes jaw
 Elevates and retracts mandible
Zygomatic bone (arch)
Mandible (ramus)
 Closes jaw
 Elevates mandible
 Sternum (manubrium)
 Clavicle
Temporal bone (mastoid process)
 Rotates head to opposite side (one)
 Flexes head (both)
MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE SHOULDER
MUSCLE
ORIGIN
INSERTION
ACTION
 Occipital bone
 Thoracic vertebrae
 Clavicle
 Scapula (spine and acromion
process)
 Elevates and adducts scapula
 Extends neck
Levator scapulae
Vertebrae (upper cervical)
Superior scapula
Elevates and adducts scapula
Rhomboid major
Rhomboid minor
Vertebrae (C7–T5)
Scapula (medial border)
Stabilizes and adducts scapula
Pectoralis minor
Ribs (3-5)
Scapula (coracoid process)
Pulls scapula downward and forward
(abduct)
Serratus anterior
Ribs (upper 8)
Scapula (anterior vertebral border)
Pulls scapula against the chest wall
Trapezius
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
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MUSCLES THAT STABILIZE THE SHOULDER JOINT
MUSCLE
ORIGIN
INSERTION
ACTION
*Supraspinatus
Scapula (supraspinous fossa)
Humerus (greater tubercle)
 Holds head of humerus stable in glenoid cavity
 Abducts arm (30°)
*Infraspinatus
Scapula (infraspinous fossa)
Humerus (greater tubercle)
 Holds head of humerus stable in glenoid cavity
 Rotates arm laterally
*Teres minor
Scapula (lateral border)
Humerus (greater tubercle)
 Holds head of humerus stable in glenoid cavity
 Rotates arm laterally
*Subscapularis
Scapula (subscapular fossa)
Humerus (lesser tubercle)
 Holds head of humerus stable in glenoid cavity
 Rotates arm medially
*Collectively they are referred to as the rotator cuff muscles and are a common site for shoulder injury.
MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE ARM
MUSCLE
ORIGIN
INSERTION
ACTION
Clavicle, sternum, & ribs (1-6)
Humerus (intertubercular
sulcus and greater tubercle)
Adducts, flexes and medially rotates arm
at shoulder joint
Lateral clavicle
Scapula (spine & acromion process)
Humerus (deltoid tuberosity)
Abducts, flexes and medially rotates arm
at shoulder joint
Coracobrachialis
Scapula (coracoid process)
Humerus (shaft)
Adducts and flexes arm at shoulder joint
(synergist to pectoralis major)
Latissimus dorsi
 Vertebrae (lumbodorsal fascia)
 Iliac crest & ribs (lower 4)
Humerus (intertubercular
sulcus)
Adducts, extends and medially rotates
arm at shoulder joint
Scapula (inferior angle)
Humerus (lesser tubercle)
Adducts, extends, and medially rotates
arm at shoulder joint (synergist to
latissimus dorsi)
Pectoralis major
Deltoid
Teres major
MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE FOREARM
MUSCLE
ORIGIN
INSERTION
Biceps brachii
 Short head-Scapula (coracoid process)
 Long head-Scapula (supraglenoid
tubercle)
Radius (radial tuberosity)
 Flexes forearm at elbow (synergist to
brachiallis)
 Supinates forearm
Humerus (anterior shaft)
Ulna (coronoid process)
Flexes forearm at elbow
Humerus (lateral supracondylar ridge)
Radius (styloid process)
Flexes forearm at elbow (synergist to biceps
brachii)
 Scapula (infraglenoid tubercle)
 Posterior proximal humerus
Ulna (olecranon process)
Extends forearm at elbow
Brachialis
Brachioradialis
Triceps brachii
(long, lateral, medial)
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
ACTION
Page 114
MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE WRIST, HAND AND FINGERS
MUSCLE
ORIGIN
Flexor carpi muscles
(radialis, ulnaris)
Flexor digitorum muscles
(superficialis, profundus, flexor pollicis)
Extensor carpi muscles
(radialis, ulnaris)
Extensor digitorum
INSERTION
ACTION
Humerus (medial epicondyle)
Metacarpals
Flex hand at wrist
 Distal humerus
 Proximal radius or ulna
Middle or distal phalanges
Flex the fingers
Distal, lateral humerus
Metacarpals
Extend hand at wrist
Humerus (lateral epicondyle)
Distal phalanges
Extends the hands and
fingers
MUSCLES OF THE ANTERIOR AND LATERAL ABDOMINAL WALL
MUSCLE
ORIGIN
**Rectus abdominis
Pubic bone (crest & symphysis)
INSERTION
ACTION
 Sternum (xiphoid process)
 Ribs (costal cartilages of ribs 5-7)
 Flexes & rotates lumbar vertebrae
 Stabilizes pelvis
 Flexes vertebrae and compresses
abdomen
 Rotates and flexes trunk laterally
 Tendinous intersection:
 Linea alba “white line”:
**External oblique
Ribs (lower 8)
 Ilium (iliac crest)
 Linea alba
**Internal oblique
Ilium (iliac crest)
 Pubis and lower ribs
 Linea alba
 Flexes vertebrae and compresses
abdomen
 Rotates and flexes trunk laterally
 Ilium (iliac crest)
 Ribs (lower 6)
 Pubis
 Linea alba
Compresses abdomen
**Transversus abdominis
**All 4 muscles above work to compress the abdominal wall and the contents within
MUSCLES THAT AID IN BREATHING
MUSCLE
ORIGIN
INSERTION
ACTION
External intercostals
Inferior border of rib above
Superior border of rib below
 Pull ribs towards one another to elevate rib
cage
 Aid in inspiration (synergist to diaphragm)
Internal intercostals
Superior border of rib below
Inferior border of rib above
 Draws ribs together to depress rib cage
 Aid in expiration (antagonist to diaphragm)
 Inferior border of rib cage and
sternum
 Margins of thoracic cage
Central tendon of diaphragm
Contracts to cause inspiration
Diaphragm
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Page 115
MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE THIGH
MUSCLE
ORIGIN
Sartorius
Ilium (anterior superior iliac spine)
Tibia (medial surface)
 Flexes and rotates thigh laterally
 Flexes knee
Ilium (iliac crest)
Iliotibial tract
 Flexes and abducts thigh
 Rotates thigh medially
Iliopsoas
 Ilium
 Lumbar vertebrae
Femur (lesser trochanter)
 Flexes thigh towards the trunk
 Rotates thigh laterally
Gluteus maximus
 Posterior ilium
 Sacrum and coccyx
 Femur (gluteal tuberosity)
 Iliotibial tract
 Extends thigh at the hip
 Rotates thigh laterally
Gluteus medius
Ilium (lateral surface)
Femur (greater trochanter)
Abducts and rotates thigh medially
Gluteus minimus
Ilium (lateral surface)
Femur (greater trochanter)
Abducts and rotates thigh medially
Tensor fasciae latae
INSERTION
ACTION
ADDUCTORS OF THE THIGH
MUSCLE
Adductor longus
ORIGIN
INSERTION
ACTION
Pubis (pubic symphysis)
Femur (linea aspera)
Adducts, flexes and rotates thigh medially
Adductor brevis
(Humans)
Adductor femoris (Cat)
Pubis (inferior ramus)
Femur (linea aspera)
Adducts, flexes and rotates thigh medially
Adductor magnus
 Ischium (ramus)
 Pubis (ramus)
Femur (adductor tubercle and
linea aspera)
 Adducts, flexes and rotates thigh medially
(anterior part)
 Extends thigh (posterior part)
Pectineus
Pubis (superior ramus)
Posterior femur
Adducts, flexes and rotates thigh medially
Gracilis
Pubis (pubic symphysis)
Tibia (proximal medial
surface)
 Adducts thigh
 Flexes and rotates leg medially
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Page 116
MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE THIGH
MUSCLE
ORIGIN
INSERTION
ACTION
QUADRICEPS:
Rectus femoris
Ilium (iliac spine)
Patella and tibia via the patellar
ligament
Vastus lateralis
Femur (greater trochanter)
Patella and tibia via the patellar
ligament
Extends leg at knee
Vastus medialis
Femur (medial surface)
Patella and tibia via the patellar
ligament
Extends leg at knee
Femur (anterior and lateral surfaces)
Patella and tibia via the patellar
ligament
Extends leg at knee
Vastus intermedius


Extends leg at knee
Flexes thigh at hip
HAMSTRINGS:
Biceps femoris
(2 heads)


Long head-Ischium (ischial
tuberosity)
Short head-Femur (linea aspera)
 Tibia (lateral condyle)
 Fibula (head)


Semitendinosus
Ischium (ischial tuberosity)
Tibia (upper medial surface of shaft)

Semimembranosus
Ischium (ischial tuberosity)
Tibia (medial condyle)



Flexes and rotates leg laterally
Extends thigh
Flexes and rotates leg medially
Extends thigh
Flexes and rotates leg medially
Extends thigh
MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE FOOT
MUSCLE
ORIGIN
INSERTION
ACTION
Tibia (lateral condyle and
surface)
Medial cuneiform and 1st metatarsal
Dorsiflexes and inverts foot at ankle
Tibia (lateral condyle)
Middle and distal phalanges

Fibularis longus
Fibula (head)
By tendon curving under the foot to
1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform
Gastrocnemius
(2 heads)
Femur (lateral and medial
condyles)
Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon

Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Plantar flexes foot at ankle
Tibialis anterior
Extensor digitorum longus
Soleus
Flexor digitorum longus
(tendon posterior to medial
malleolus)
Tibialis posterior


Tibia (posterior surface)
Fibula (posterior surface)

Plantar flexes and everts foot at ankle


Tibia (posterior surface)
Distal phalanges of toes 2-5



Tibia (posterior surface)
Fibula (posterior surface)
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Under foot medially into tarsals &
metatarsals
Dorsiflexes and everts foot at ankle
Extends toes
Plantar flexes foot at ankle
Flexes leg at knee
Plantar flexes and inverts foot at
ankle
Flexes toes
Plantar flexes and inverts foot at ankle
Page 117
MUSCLE
Perimysium
Epimysium
FASCICLE
MUSCLE FIBER
Fascicle
Muscle fiber (cell)
MYOFIBRIL
Endomysium
Myofibril
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Page 118






MYOFIBRIL
Z line
Sarcomere

Actin filament
(thin)

Rod-like contractile element
Occupy most of cell volume
Run parallel
Extend entire length of muscle cell
Appear banded
Composed of sarcomeres
Z line
Contractile unit, composed of
myofilaments made up of contractile
proteins
Center is devoid of myosin heads
Myosin filament
(thick)
SARCOMERE
Tropomyosin
Troponin complex
G actin
THIN FILAMENT





Composed of contractile protein actin
Contains actin strand twisted into a helix
G actin (globular) subunits are sites to which myosin cross bridges attach during contraction
Tropomyosin molecules coil around actin filament for reinforcement
Troponin complex attaches to each tropomyosin complex
Head
Tail
Myosin molecule
THICK FILAMENT




Composed of contractile protein myosin
Rod-like tail ending in two globular heads
Myosin molecules are bundled together with their heads facing outward
Heads or cross bridges link the thick and thin myofilaments together during contraction
Portion of thick
filament
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Page 119
Nucleus
MYOFIBRIL
Z line
MUSCLE FIBER
A band
Z line
Actin filament
Myosin filament
Z line
I
b d
I
b d
Sarcomere
Z line
A band
H zone
Z line
Actin filament
RELAXED
Myosin filament
Z line
Z line
M line
CONTRACTED
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MUSCLE FIBER
Nucleus
Myofibril
Sarcolemma
Sarcoplasm
Sarcoplasm
Triad
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Terminal cisterna
T-tubule
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Axon terminal
Synaptic vesicles
Ca2+ ions
Synaptic cleft
T-tubule
Axon terminal
Sarcolemma
Motor end
plate
Terminal cisternae
Sarcoplasmic
reticulum
Axon membrane and sarcolemma are resting (polarized)
Inside is negative (in respect to the outside), while outside is
positive [RMP = -70 mV]
Na+ and K+ voltage-gated channels are closed
Nerve impulse
1
STEP 1
Action potential travels along the axon
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2
Nerve impulse
STEP 2
Action potential reaches axon terminal
Depolarization of axon membrane opens both Na+
and Ca2+ voltage-gated channels
Ca2+ influx into axon terminal from extracellular fluid
3
STEP 3
2+
Ca ions promote fusion of synaptic vesicles with
axon terminal membrane
4
STEP 4
Synaptic vesicles release acetylcholine (ACh) into the
synaptic cleft by exocytosis
Ach diffuses across synaptic cleft and binds to Ach
receptors on the motor end plate
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5
Depolarization of
motor end plate
STEP 5
Binding of ACh to ACh receptors on sarcolemma opens chemically-gated Na+
channels
Na+ ions diffuse rapidly into the cell at the motor end plate
Change in membrane potential (voltage); interior becomes slightly less
negative
RMP decreases = depolarization of sarcolemma at motor end plate
+ +
h l
h i
i
i
i i l
6
Depolarization
wave
STEP 6
Propagation of action potential along sarcolemma as the local
depolarization wave spreads to adjacent areas of sarcolemma,
opening Na+ voltage-gated channels
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Repolarization wave
STEP 7
7
Immediately after the depolarization wave passes,
repolarization wave quickly follows
Na+ channels close and K+ channels open
Na+ influx stops and K+ diffuses out of cell
This restores the internal negativity of sarcolemma
(polarized state)
Repolarization occurs in the same direction as
depolarization
STEP 8
8
Action potential travels down the T-tubules
9
STEP 9
Action potential triggers terminal cisternae to
release Ca2+ ions into the sarcoplasm
Ca2+ ions
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Terminal cisternae
Ca2+ ions
Sarcolemma
Troponi
Thin filament
Tropomyosin
Myosin head
Thick filament
RELAXED STATE
Low levels of intracellular Ca2+
Tropomyosin blocks myosin binding sites on actin
Prevents attachment of myosin heads
Action potential
1
STEP 1
Action potential triggers the release of Ca2+
from terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic
reticulum
2
STEP 2
2+
Ca ions bind to troponin
Troponin changes shape
Moves tropomyosin away from actin’s binding
sites (removes blocking action of tropomyosin)
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STEP 3
Activated myosin head is attracted to the
exposed actin binding sites
Myosin head attaches to actin myofilament
3
STEP 4
4
Low energy
5
Myosin head pivots, changing from its highenergy configuration to its bent, low-energy
configuration = power stroke
ADP + Pi (inorganic phosphate) are released
Bending pulls on thin filament, sliding it
toward the center of sarcomere (toward M
line)
STEP 5
New ATP molecule binds to myosin head
Causes myosin head to detach from actin
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6
STEP 6
ATP hydrolysis to ADP + Pi, provides energy
to return the myosin head to its highenergy or “cocked” position
Myosin head is ready for the next
attachment and power stroke
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Sternomastoid
Trapezius
Cleidomastoid
Pectoralis
Major
ANTERIOR VIEW
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Sternomastoid
Pectoralis major
Pectoralis minor
Brachioradialis
Flexors
Triceps brachii (long head)
Latissimus dorsi
External oblique
ANTERIOR VIEW
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Levator scapulae
Pectoralis minor
Coracobrachialis
Pectoralis major (cut)
Biceps brachii
Subscapulari
Brachialis
Teres major
Latissimus dorsi
Triceps brachii (long head)
Serratus anterior
Rectus abdominis
External oblique
ANTERIOR VIEW
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Supraspinatus
Subscapularis
Coracobrachialis
Biceps brachii
Flexors
Teres major
Triceps brachii
(long head)
Triceps brachii
(medial head)
ANTERIOR VIEW
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Trapezius
Trapezius
Deltoid
Sternomastoid
Latissimus dorsi
Triceps brachii
(long head)
Triceps brachii
(lateral head)
LATERAL VIEW
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Deltoid
Brachioradialis
Extensors
Trapezius
Infraspinatus
Teres major
Trapezius
Triceps brachii
(lateral head)
Triceps brachii
(long head)
Latissimus dorsi
POSTERIOR VIEW
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Levator scapulae
Triceps brachii (medial head)
Rhomboid minor
Brachialis
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Extensors
Rhomboid major
Triceps brachii (long head)
Teres major
POSTERIOR VIEW
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Iliopsoas
Adductor longus
Pectineus
Adductor femoris
Vastus medialis
Sartorius
Gracilis
Semitendinosus
Gastrocnemius
Flexor digitorum longus
Tibialis anterior
ANTERIOR VIEW
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Iliopsoas
Tensor fasciae latae
Rectus femoris
Pectineus
Adductor longus
Vastus medialis
Adductor femoris
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Gastrocnemius
Flexor digitorum longus
Soleus
Tibialis anterior
MEDIAL VIEW
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Tensor fasciae latae
Sartorius
Gluteus medius
Gluteus maximus
Iliotibial tract
Biceps femoris
Semitendinosus
Gastrocnemius
Tibialis anterior
Extensor digitorum
Soleus
Fibularis longus
POSTERIOR VIEW
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Tensor fasciae latae
Gluteus medius
Gluteus maximus
Vastus lateralis
Adductor magnus
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Extensor digitorum
Gastrocnemius
Soleus
POSTERIOR VIEW
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Gluteus medius (cut)
Sartorius
Tensor fasciae latae
Gluteus minimus
Vastus lateralis
Gluteus
maximus (cut)
Adductor magnus
Biceps femoris
(cut)
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
POSTERIOR VIEW
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OBJECTIVE
To understand the structure and function of the eye.
PART A—EXTRINSIC EYE MUSCLES
Observe the models and diagrams of the eye.
Identify and learn the actions and innervations of the eye muscles listed below.
Label the diagram below.
EXTRINSIC EYE MUSCLES
•
Superior rectus
•
Medial rectus
•
Inferior rectus
•
Superior oblique
•
Lateral rectus
•
Inferior oblique
1
2
3
4
5
6
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PART B—EYE STRUCTURES
Observe the models of the eye. Identify and learn the functions of the structures below.
Label the diagram below.
INTERNAL STRUCTURES
•
Sclera
•
Iris
•
Optic nerve
•
Choroid
•
Pupil
•
Scleral venous sinus (Canal of Schlemm)
•
Retina
•
•
Macula lutea/Fovea centralis
•
Conjunctiva
Anterior segment
 Anterior chamber
•
•
Cornea
 Posterior chamber
Lacrimal apparatus
 Lacrimal gland
•
Optic nerve
•
Posterior segment
 Lacrimal canaliculi
•
Lens
•
Ora serrata
 Lacrimal puncta
•
•
Ciliary body
Ciliary zonule (suspensory
ligament
•
Vitreous humor
 Lacrimal sac
•
Optic disc
 Nasolacrimal duct
1
15
14
13
2
3
12
11
4
10
9
8
5
6
7
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PART C—RETINAL LAYER
Observe a slide of the retina. Identify and learn the functions of the following structures.
a. Sclera
b. Choroid
c. Retina
i.
Photoreceptor layer
aa. Rods
bb. Cones
d. Ganglion layer
e. Bipolar layer
Label the diagrams below.
1
2
3
4
5
7
6
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
8
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PART D—DISSECTION OF COW EYE
Dissect a cow eye.
Identify and learn the functions of the structures listed below.
a. Conjunctiva
f. Optic nerve
k. Pupil
b. Sclera
g. Lens
l.
c. Choroid
h. Ciliary body
m. Vitreous humor
d. Retina
i.
Ciliary zonule
n. Optic disc
e. Cornea
j.
Iris
Ora serrata
When you are done with the dissection:
WASH the dissecting tray and dissection tools with soap and water and then DRY with paper
towel.
Put dissection tools back in their appropriate bins.
Place the eye in a specimen bag clearly LABELED with your name(s) and
lab section. Then place the bag in the plastic bin.
Use the cleaning solution in the spray bottle to wipe your lab bench.
PART E—VISUAL TESTS
1. Visual Acuity—Snellen Eye Chart
REMOVE your glasses or contact lenses and stand or sit 20 feet from the eye chart.
Keep BOTH eyes open and cover one eye with the palm of your hand, or a piece of paper without
pressing on the eyelid.
READ out loud the SMALLEST line of letters you can see on the chart.
Cover the other eye and begin the test again.
RECORD your visual acuity.
Visual Acuity:
If you have read the test as successfully with the right eye as with the left eye, you probably have good
central acuity.
2. Astigmatism Test
Place yourself at approximately 3 feet from the chart.
Cover one eye with your hand, without pressing on the lid, and test whether all the lines appear black.
Cover the other eye and begin the test again.
If some of the lines appear grayer and some blacker, you probably have an astigmatism.
3. Dominant Eye Test
Make a small hole in a piece of paper.
Place a coin at your feet on the floor.
Hold the paper with the hole in it at waist level.
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Locate the coin through the hole and close your right eye. If the coin DISAPPEARS you have a
dominant RIGHT eye. If the coin does NOT DISAPPEAR you have a dominant LEFT eye.
RECORD your dominant eye.
Dominant Eye:
4. Blind Spot Test
Hold this page approximately centered about 20 inches in front of your face with the LEFT eye
CLOSED.
Focus on the cross below. At this distance both the cross and the circle should be seen.
Gradually bring the page closer until the circle cannot be seen. At this point the image is focused on
the blind spot.
Bring the page closer to your face. The circle should reappear.
Repeat the procedure using your RIGHT eye closed.
+

5. Color Blindness Test (Daltonism)—Ishihara Test
Identify the hidden numbers in the following plates within 5 seconds.
RECORD your observations below each plate.
ANSWER:
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
ANSWER:
ANSWER:
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ANSWER:
ANSWER:
ANSWER:
ANSWER:
ANSWER:
ANSWER:
PART F—VISUAL PATHWAY
Review the structures of the visual pathway (in text book and lecture notes).
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PART G—QUESTIONS
1. What is accommodation?
2. What is presbyopia?
3a. Explain the term “bleaching of the pigment”.
3b. What is the ultimate result of “bleaching of the pigment”?
4. Why do people say that carrots promote good vision?
5a. Explain why it is difficult to see when you first enter a darkened movie theatre.
5b. Which photoreceptors must be functioning to see in the dark?
5c. Why aren’t they working when you first enter?
6. What is the anatomical relationship of the optic chiasm to the sella turcica and what is the clinical significance
of this relationship?
7. Explain anatomically why your eyes often water and become irritated after you develop an infection of the
throat.
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8a. What is glaucoma?
8b. What causes it?
9. Explain why cones are able to detect color while rods cannot.
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Palpabrae (eyelids)
Palpabral conjuctiva
Pupil
Bulbar (ocular) conjunctiva
Iris
Lateral canthus
Medial canthus
Caruncle
Eyelashes
LACRIMAL APPARATUS
Lateral lacrimal canaliculi
Lateral lacrimal gland
Caruncle
Lacrimal ducts
Lacrimal sac
Bulbar (ocular)
conjunctiva
Nasolacrimal duct
Palpabral conjuctiva
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Lateral rectus muscle
Ora serrata
Sclera
Bulbar (ocular) conjunctiva
Ciliary muscle
Choroid
Scleral venous sinus
Retina
Fovea centralis
POSTERIOR CHAMBER
Iris
Macula lutea
Cornea
Pupil (opening)
Central artery
Lens
Central vein
ANTERIOR CHAMBER
OPTIC NERVE (II)
Ciliary zonule (suspensory ligament
Optic disc
Ciliary body
Medial rectus muscle
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Superior oblique
Superior rectus
Trochlea
Medial rectus
Inferior rectus
Lateral rectus
Inferior oblique
Inferior rectus
Superior oblique (CN IV)
LEFT EYE
Superior rectus (CN III)
Lateral rectus (CN VI)
Medial rectus (CN III)
Inferior oblique (CN III)
Inferior rectus (CN III)
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Optic nerve fibers
Ganglion cell layer
Bipolar cell layer
Photoreceptor layer
Cone
Rod
Pigmented layer
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OBJECTIVE
To understand the structure and function of the ear.
PART A—STRUCTURE OF THE EAR
Observe the models and diagrams of the ear.
Identify and learn the functions of the structures listed below.
OUTER EAR
•
Pinna
•
External auditory canal
MIDDLE EAR
•
Tympanic membrane
•
Incus
•
Oval (vestibular) window
•
Stapes
•
Round (cochlear) window
•
Tensor tympani muscle
•
Pharyngotympanic tube
•
Stapedius muscle
•
Malleus
•
Cochlea
 Scala vestibuli
INNER EAR
•
Bony labyrinth
 Perilymph
•
Membranous labyrinth
 Endolymph
•

Scala tympani

Scala media (cochlear duct)
 Organ of Corti
Vestibule
 Saccule and Utricle
 Tectorial membrane
 Macula
 Basilar membrane
 Otolith
 Otolithic membrane
•
 Hair cells
•
 Hair cells
Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
 Vestibular branch
 Hair bundle

Cochlear branch
Semicircular canals
 Ampulla
 Crista ampullaris
 Cupula
 Hair cells
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1
PART B—EAR DIAGRAMS
2
3
Label the diagrams below.
4
6
5
8
7
9
10
11
12
Know the location of endolymph and perilymph
13
14
(inner channel)
(bony channel)
16
15
17
18
19
20
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21
22
23
25
24
PART C—MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF THE EAR
Observe a slide of the cochlea and identify the following structures.
Label the diagrams below.
•
Scala tympani
•
Organ of Corti
•
Scala vestibuli
•
Hair cells
•
Scala media (cochlear duct)
•
Basilar membrane
•
Tectorial membrane
•
Vestibular membrane
2
1
3
4
5
6
7
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PART D—QUESTIONS
1. Where specifically do you find the maculae? What do they detect (be specific).
2. What other structures detect dynamic equilibrium? Where are they found and how many total do we have?
3. Where is endolymph found?
4. What nerve carries information regarding equilibrium to the brain? (Be specific)
5. What are hair cells? What happens when the hairs on the hairs cells bend?
6. What is the function of the Organ of Corti? In which canal does it reside?
7. Explain the function of the round window. It is found at the end of which canal?
8. What is the function of the Tensor Tympani and the Stapedius muscles? In which region of the ear are they
found?
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OUTER EAR
MIDDLE EAR
INNER EAR
Incus
Semicircular canals
Pinna
Stapes
Cochlea
External auditory
canal
Pharyngotympanic
(auditory) tube
Malleus
Tympanic membrane
Lobule
OSSICLES OF THE MIDDLE EAR
MALLEUS
INCUS
STAPES
Tensor tympani muscle
Tympanic membrane
Pharyngotympanic
(auditory) tube
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BONY LABYRINTH
Semicircular canals
Vestibule
Cochlea
Oval window
Round window
MEMBRANOUS LABYRINTH
Perilymph
Membranous labyrinth
Membranous
labyrinth
Bony labyrinth
Bony labyrinth
Endolymph
Membranous labyrinth
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Semicircular
canals
Ampullae
Utricle
Endolymphatic duct
MEMBRANOUS LABYRINTH
Vestibule
Saccule
Vestibular branch
Cochlear branch
Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
Cochlea
Crista ampullaris
Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
INNER MEMBRANOUS
LABYRINTH
Macula of utricle
Macula of saccule
Cochlea
Endolymphatic duct
Otoliths
Otolithic membrane
Supporting cells
Stereocilia
Hair cells
Vestibular
nerve fibers



MACULAE
Contains otoliths (calcium carbonate crystals)
Maculae of utricle move head from side to side
Maculae of saccule move head up and down
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
Stereocilia
Cupula
(gelled mass)
Receptor cells
Vestibular
nerve fibers
CRISTA AMPULLARIS
 Receptor for dynamic equilibrium
 Respond to changes in the velocity of rotatory
(angular) movements
Page 159
Scala vestibuli
Scala media (cochlear duct)
Organ of Corti
Scala tympani
Tectorial membrane
Outer hair cells
Stereocilia (hairs)
Supporting cells
Organ of Corti
Basilar membrane
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LAB MANUAL ANSWERS
LAB 1
PART A DIAGRAM (P. 3)
1. Frontal
18. Pelvic
2. Orbital
19. lInguinal
3. Nasal
20. Coxal
4. Buccal
21. Pubic
5. Oral
22. Carpal
6. Mental
23. Pollex
7. Cervical
24. Palmar
8. Thoracic (pectoral)
25. Digital
9. Sternal
26. Femoral
10. Axillary
27. Patellar
11. Mammary
28. Crural
12. Acromial
29. Fibular (peroneal)
13. Brachial
30. Tarsal
14. Antecubital
31. Metatarsal
15. Antebrachial
32. Digital (phalangeal)
16. Abdominal
33. Hallux
17. Umbilical
PART A DIAGRAM (P. 4)
34. Cephalic
42. Gluteal
35. Otic
43. Perineal
36. Occipital
44. Manus
37. Scapular
45. Popliteal
38. Vertebral
46. Sural
39. Olecranal
47. Calcaneal
40. Lumbar
48. Plantar
41. Sacral
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PART B TABLE (P. 5)
CAVITY
1. Thoracic
a. Pleural cavities
MAJOR ORGANS
Lungs
b. Mediastinum
Pericardial cavity, heart, aorta, esophagus, and trachea
c. Pericardial cavity
Heart
2. Abdominal cavity
Digestive: Stomach, pancreas, intestines, liver, kidneys
3. Pelvic cavity
Urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum
4. Cranial cavity
Brain
5. Vertebral (spinal) cavity
Spinal cord
6. Orbital cavity―located in the anterior of the skull and contains the eyes
7. Nasal cavity―located within and posterior to the nose in the skull and is part of the respiratory system
8. Oral (buccal) cavity―located in the skull and contains the teeth and tongue; part of digestive system
PART B QUESTIONS (P. 5)
1. Ventral cavity
4d. Abdominal (abdominopelvic)
2. Abdominopelvic cavity
4e. Pelvic (abdominopelvic)
3. Dorsal cavity
4f. Vertebral (dorsal)
4a. Cranial (dorsal)
4g. Orbital
4b. Mediastinum (thoracic)
4h. Pleural (thoracic)
4c. Pericardial (thoracic)
PART C DIAGRAM (P. 6)
1. Cranial cavity
6. Pelvic cavity
2. Vertebral cavity
7. Superior mediastinum
3. Dorsal cavity
8. Pleural cavity
4. Thoracic cavity
9. Pericardial cavity
5. Abdominal cavity
10. Abdomino-pelvic cavity
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PART D TABLE (P. 7)
REGIONS
MAJOR ORGANS
1. Epigastric
Stomach, liver, transverse colon
2. Umbilical
Small intestines
3. Hypogastric
Small intestines, urinary bladder, rectum, uterus, prostate
4. Right hypochondriac
Liver, gall bladder
5. Left hypochondriac
Spleen, part of stomach
6. Right lumbar
(R) kidney, ascending colon
7. Left lumbar
(L) kidney, descending colon
8. Right inguinal (iliac)
Cecum (beginning colon), appendix
9. Left inguinal (iliac)
Sigmoid colon, small intestines
PART D DIAGRAM (P. 7)
1. (R) Hypochondriac region
6. (L) Lumbar region
2. (R) Lumbar
7. (L) Inguinal (iliac) region
3. (R) Inguinal (iliac) region
8. Hypogastric
4. Epigastric region
9. Umbilical
5. (L) Hypochondriac region
PART E DIAGRAM (P. 8)
1. Transverse
2. Coronal or frontal
3. Median sagittal
PART F QUESTIONS (P. 8)
1. Liver or gallbladder
6. Sagittal
2. Epigastric
7. Midsagittal; parasagittal
3. Hypogastric
8. Transverse or cross-section
4. Right lumbar
9. Frontal or coronal
5. Small intestines
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PART G QUESTIONS (P. 9)
1. Superior
5. Medial
2. Distal
6. Deep
3. Lateral
7. Visceral
4. Superficial
8. Parietal
LAB 2
PART A DIAGRAM (P. 12)
1. Ocular
9. Revolving nosepiece
2. Microscope body or frame
10. Objective
3. On/Off switch
11. Stage clip
4. Light intensity knob
12. Stage
5. Y-axis stage control knob
13. Iris diaphragm lever
6. Coarse focus adjustment knob
14. Condenser
7. Fine focus adjustment knob
15. Illuminator
8. X-axis stage control knob
PART B QUESTIONS (PP. 13-14)
1. Multiply ocular magnification, times objective magnification
2. Parfocal microscopes remain in focus at high power once they’ve been focused on low power
3. Lower the light intensity by closing the iris diaphragm
4. The clarity of the image being viewed
5. The higher power of the objective, the more light is necessary
6. In order not to break the slide or more importantly, to avoid damaging the objective
PART C QUESTIONS (P. 14)
1a. To the left
1b. Turns the image upside down and reverses it
PART D QUESTIONS (P. 15)
6a. Nucleus, plasma membrane, vacuoles or vescicles
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
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PART E QUESTIONS (P. 16)
2a. Onion cells are rectangular shaped and onion cells have a cell wall.
2b. Cell wall, nucleus
PART F QUESTIONS (PP. 16-17)
4a. Chloroplasts: contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis
4b. Human or onion cells do not possess chloroplasts. Onions do not photosynthesize because they are
the roots of the plant. Humans do not use photosynthesis to produce glucose.
4c. Plants: cell wall, chloroplasts, large vacuoles, no centrioles; Animal: no cell wall, no chloroplasts,
smaller vacuoles, centrioles
LAB 3
PART A CONVERSIONS (P. 19)
PART B CONVERSIONS (P. 19)
PART C CONVERSIONS (P. 19)
1. 3450 mm
1. 1000 mL
1. 154.35 lbs
2. 160,000 m
2. 150 mL
2. 300,000 mg
3. 2.5 mm
3. 1800 mL
3. 4 mg
4. 110,000,000 nm
4. 200 injections
4. 88.45 kg x 2 = 176.9 mL
5. 0.001 m
5. 520,000 mg
6. 0.0002 mm
6. 0.00425 g
7. 0.1 nm
PART D QUESTIONS (P. 20)
PART E QUESTIONS (P. 20)
PART E QUESTIONS (P. 21)
1. 0.039 in
2a. ≈4 mm
3b. 0.5 mm
2. 1000
2b. ≈2 mm
3c.
3. Graduated cylinder
2c. ≈0.5 mm
3 mm
= 0.272 mm
11 cells
4. Depends on individual slides
4. kL
5. mL
PART F QUESTIONS (P. 22)
1. 25.4 mm
4 mm
= 1 mm
4 cells
4 mm
Width =
= 0.4 mm
10 cells
2. Length =
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
1000 µ
= 1000 µ
1 mm
1000 µ
0.4 mm ×
= 400 µ
1 mm
1 mm ×
Page 165
LAB 4
PART A DIAGRAM (P. 24)
1. Glycocalyx/carbohydrate branches
4. Peripheral protein
2. Phospholipid molecule
5. Lipid bilayer
3. Integral protein
PART A QUESTIONS (P. 24)
1. Individual marker for self-recognition (so the immune system doesn’t attack our own cells); Sticky
surface (glycocalyx) causes adjacent cells to adhere to one another.
2. No, because it is water soluble and the phospholipids are hydrophobic.
3. May serve as a channel for passage of substance through the membrane (i.e. ions, glucose); May have
a receptor on the exterior surface for binding of chemicals/hormones
4. May be an inactive enzyme that when activated by changes in the plasma membrane will trigger a
series of reactions in the cell; May be a motor protein that may cause change of the cell shape or
muscle contraction
PART B DIAGRAM (P. 26)
1. Nuclear envelope
9. Mitochondrion
2. Nucleus
10. Lysosome
3. Plasma membrane
11. Ribosomes
4. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
12. Cytoplasm or Cytosol
5. Golgi apparatus
13. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
6. Vesicle (phagocytic or pinocytic)
14. Nucleolus
7. Microtubule
15. Chromatin (DNA)
8. Centriole
LAB 5
PART A DIAGRAM (P. 30)
1. Phosphate
4. Deoxyribose sugar
2. Hydrogen bonds
5. Nucleotide
3. Nitrogenous base
PART A QUESTIONS (P. 31)
1. Adenine; guanine; cytosine; thymine; uracil
2. Deoxyribose sugar; phosphate
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3. Nitrogenous base; hydrogen bond
4. Double helix
5. Adenine; cytosine; uracil
6. Nucleus; mitochondria
7. Determines the genetic code for protein construction; makes up genes on chromosomes
8. Gene
9. Replicate
PART B QUESTIONS (P. 32)
1. RNA—ribose sugar, single-stranded, and uracil base instead of thymine; DNA—deoxyribose sugar,
double-stranded, and thymine base
2. Nucleus, Cytoplasm (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA), ribosomes (rRNA) and nucleolus.
3. Carries out orders of DNA
4a. Formed in nucleolus. Used to make ribosomes
4b. Carries DNA code out of nucleus to ribosomes in cytoplasm
4c. Carries amino acids to ribosomes for construction of proteins
LAB 7
PART A DIAGRAM (P. 45)
1. S = Synthesis
5. 3rd phase = Anaphase
2. G2 = Gap 2
6. 4th phase = Telophase
3. 1st phase = Prophase
7. G1 = Gap 1
4. 2nd phase = Metaphase
PART B DIAGRAM (PP. 45-46)
1. Interphase
 Nuclear envelope and nucleolus are intact and visible
 Centrioles and chromosomes (DNA) replicate
2. Prophase






3. Metaphase
 Two centrosomes are at opposite poles of cell
 Chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell’s spindle
Chromatin condenses forming chromosomes
Nucleoli disappears
Centrioles separate forming mitotic spindle
Nuclear envelope disappears
Kinetochore microtubules attach to kinetochores on each chromosome’s centromere
Centrioles migrate to opposite pole
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4. Anaphase
 Chromosomes split at the centromere into pairs of chromatids (daughter
chromosomes)
 Kinetochore microtubules gradually pull each chromatid towards opposite ends of the
plate
5. Telophase
 Chromosomes uncoil and resume into chromatin form
 Nuclear envelope reforms and spindle breaks down
 Cytokinesis occurs and a cleavage furrow forms leading to the separation of the cell
into 2 daughter cells
LAB 8
PART A QUESTIONS (P. 48)
1. DNA helicase, uncoil or unwind
2. Separate; nitrogenous bases
3. New DNA strand
4. DNA polymerase, nitrogenous bases
5. DNA ligase
6. Two double-stranded DNA molecules
LAB 9
PART A QUESTIONS (PP. 49-50)
1. RNA polymerase; unwind
5. Cytoplasm; ribosome
2. Separate; template; mRNA; RNA polymerase
6. DNA cannot leave the nucleus
3. Codon
7. A template for construction of a protein
4. Introns; exons
8. RNA has uracil as a base instead of thymine
PART B QUESTIONS (PP. 50-51)
1. Ribosome
6. On the ribosomes (in cytoplasm)
2. tRNA
7. mRNA (originally from DNA)
3. Anticodon
4. Hydrogen; mRNA
8. Carries amino acids to site where they attach to
mRNA and form a polypeptide
9. Whenever proteins such as enzymes, pigments,
cell structures, etc. need to be produced
5. Peptide; polypeptide
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PART B DIAGRAM (P. 51)
1. mRNA
6. Amino acid
2. Ribosome
7. Peptide bond
3. mRNA codon
8. Polypeptide
4. tRNA anticodon
5. tRNA
LAB 10
PART F QUESTIONS (PP. 55-56)
1. Mucus producing, single-celled glands
2. Simple columnar and pseudostratified ciliated columnar
3. Tiny projections on cell surfaces that move substances; found in upper respiratory tract, fallopian
tubes
4. Tiny, fuzzy projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells, such as cells lining digestive system;
increase surface are for absorption
5. Answers vary
6. Protein fibers formed from underlying connective tissue to reinforce the epithelial tissue. Helps to
keep E.T. from overstretching or tearing.
7. Simple, one layer of cells above the basement membrane; stratified–many cell layers above the
membrane
8. Stratified squamous tissue cells are flat at the apical surface, whereas transitional tissue cells may be
cuboidal at the apical surface
9. Simple columnar–nucleus near the basement membrane; simple cuboidal–centrally located nucleus;
pseudostratified ciliated columnar–scattered nuclei giving the appearance of stratification
10. Stratified cuboidal
11. Simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium) on a connective tissue base
12. Diffusion, filtration, protection
LAB 11
PART A-D DIAGRAM (P. 57)
1. Fibroblast on a collagen fiber
4. Reticular fiber
2. Mast cell
5. Fibroblast
3. Collagen fiber
6. Elastic fiber
PART G QUESTIONS (PP. 60-61)
1. Ground substance (composed of interstitial fluid and proteoglycans) and fibers (collagen, elastic,
reticular)
2a. Fibroblasts–produce proteoglycans and all three type of fibers (collagen, elastic, reticular)
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2b. Mast cells–produce histamines and heparin for the inflammatory response
2c. Plasma cells–produce antibodies
2d. Macrophages–phagocytize foreign particles
2e. Leukocytes–white blood cells acting as body’s defense
2f. Chondroblasts (cytes)–produce matrix in cartilage
2g. Osteoblasts (cytes)–produce organic matrix in bone
3a Protein fibers that provide support for connective tissue
3b Three (collagen, elastic and reticular)
3c. Synthesized by blast cell types
3d. In the matrix
3e(i).
Collagen–thick protein fibers constructed primarily of the fibrous protein collagen
3e(ii). Elastic–long, thin fibers containing elastin protein, that allows them to stretch and recoil
3e(iii). Reticular–fine collagenous fibers forming delicate networks that support soft tissue of organs
4a. Vascular or avascular
4b. Extracellular matrix composed of ground substance and fibers
4c. Loosely scattered cells
4d. Binds, supports, protects, insulates, transports
4e. Blast cell types produce organic matrix
4f. Many cells types
LAB 12
PART C QUESTIONS (PP. 62-63)
1. Small spaces surrounding chrondrocytes and osteocytes.
2. Polysaccharides attached to proteoglycans; produced by blast cells to thicken the matrix. Examples:
chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid.
3. Yes
4. No. The fibers are not visible in hyaline cartilage.
PART F TERMS (P. 64)
1. Lacuna−small space or cavity at junctions of the lamella which occupy osteocytes
2. Osteoblasts−actively mitotic bone-forming cells that secrete the bone matrix
3. Osteocytes−spidery, mature bone cells that occupy the lacunae and conform to their shape
4. Osteoclasts−giant multinucleate cells that resorb (break down) bone
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5. Lamellae−a layer of growth rings of bone matrix in an osteon of compact bone
6. Osteon (Haversian system)−a group of hollow tubes that comprise the structural unit of compact
bone
7. Haversian canal−central canal running through the core of each osteon that contains blood vessels
and nerve fibers that serve the osteon’s cells
8. Volkmann’s canal−perforating canals lying at right angles to the long axis of bone that connect blood
and nerve supply of periosteum to those in the central canals and medullary cavity
9. Canaliculi−hair like canals connecting the lacunae to each other
PART G QUESTIONS (P. 65)
1. Fibrous, vascular connective tissue on the surface of cartilage
2. Vascular connective tissue on the surface of bone
3. Elastic cartilage, although some collagen fibers are visible in fibrocartilage
4. Hyaline cartilage
5. No because it does not have its own blood supply. Bone on the other hand is vascular so it heals well.
6. Hyaline cartilage located on the end of bones that articulate at a joint
7. A growth plate where the growth in long bones occurs
8. Gelatinous substance filling the space between cells and contains the fibers. Composed of interstitial
fluid and proteoglycans
9. Mineral salts such as calcium hydroxyapatite
10. Organic matter contains fibers and ground substance produced by blast cell types; inorganic matter
contains mineral salts deposited from the blood
11. Disorders such as rickets/osteomalacia
PART H DIAGRAM (P. 66)
1. Spongy bone
7. Periosteum
2. Compact bone
8. Vein
3. Osteon (Haversian system)
9. Nerve
4. Central (Haversian) canal
10. Artery
5. Circumferential lamellae
11. Canaliculi
6. Volkmann’s canal
12. Osteocyte in a lacuna
LAB 13
PART A DIAGRAM (P. 68)
1. Stratum corneum
4. Stratum basale (germinativum)
2. Stratum granulosum
5. Papillary layer of dermis
3. Stratum spinosum
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PART B DIAGRAM (P. 69)
1. Hair shaft
9. Eccrine Sudoriferous (sweat) gland
2. Epidermis
10. Pacinian corpuscle
3. Dermis
11. Arrector pili muscle
4. Hypodermis (subcutaneous)
12. Cutaneous plexus
5. Epidermal peg
13. Hair follicle
6. Dermal papilla
14. Adipose tissue
7. Meissner’s corpuscle
15. Sebaceous gland
8. Free nerve endings
PART C QUESTIONS (PP. 70-71)
1. Epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis
2. Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum
3a. Stratum basale—mitotic; contains melanocytes
3b. Stratum spinosum—largest, living layer containing spiny-shaped cells
3c. Stratum granulosum—numerous keratohyaline granules
3d. Stratum lucidum—translucent, dead cell layer located only in thick skin
3e. Stratum corneum—thick layer of dead, flaking cells
4. Dermal and epidermal ridges
5. Produced by melanocytes in the stratum basale. Melanosomes (melanin granules) may be present in
the stratum spinosum
6. Melanocytes
7. Melanin is transferred from the melanocytes processes to nearby keratinocytes
8. UV protection
9. UV light stimulates melanin production therefore, the skin becomes darker
10. Localized patches of melanin
11. Both have same number of melanocytes but dark skin contains more numerous and darker colored
melanosomes
12. Contraction of arrector pili muscles
13. Secretes sebum to soften and lubricate skin and hair
14. Stratum basale (germinativum)
15. Detects light pressure or discriminative touch
16. Detects deep pressure or crude touch
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LAB 14
PART A TERMS (P. 73)
1. Diaphysis−elongated shaft of a long bone
2. Epiphysis−end of a long bone attached to the shaft
3. Spongy (cancellous) bone−internal layer of skeletal bone
4. Compact bone−dense external layer of skeletal bone
5. Medullary cavity−central cavity of a long bone containing yellow or red marrow
6. Red marrow−hematopoietic tissue found within the trabeculae of spongy bone and in the diploë of
flat bones
7. Yellow marrow−fat content in the medullary cavity of adults
8. Endosteum−connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surfaces
9. Periosteum−white, double-layered membrane covering the external surface of the entire bone
10. Epiphyseal plate−plate of hyaline cartilage at the junction of the diaphysis and epiphysis that grows
during childhood to lengthen a long bone
PART A QUESTIONS (PP. 73-74)
1. Intramembranous and endochondral
2. Intramembranous (skull and clavicle); endochondral (all other bones, long bones)
3. Yes; veins, arteries and lymph
4. Interstitial lamella–incomplete lamella lying between intact Haversian systems; concentric lamella–
rings of lamella making up each osteon; circumferential lamella–lamella extending around the entire
circumference of the bone shaft
PART B DIAGRAM (P. 74)
1. Proximal epiphysis
6. Compact bone
2. Diaphysis
7. Yellow marrow
3. Distal Epiphysis
8. Periosteum
4. Epiphyseal plate
9. Cancellous bone
5. Medullary cavity (lined with endosteum)
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PART C QUESTIONS (PP. 76-77)
1. Hyaline cartilage
4. Absence of blood supply
2. Following puberty
5.
3. Yes
CARTILAGE
BONE
Absent
Nerves
Present
Absent
Blood vessels
Present
Absent
Lymph channels
Organic
Matrix type
Present
Organic &
inorganic
LAB 15
PART A2 VERTEBRAL LANDMARKS DIAGRAM (P. 82)
1. Spinous process
6. Pedicle
2. Lamina
7. Demifacet
3. Facet (transverse costal)
8. Vertebral foramen
4. Transverse process
9. Body
5. Superior articular process
PART A3 ATLAS DIAGRAM (P. 82)
1. Anterior arch
4. Transverse foramen
2. Superior articular facet
5. Posterior arch
3. Transverse process
6. Vertebral foramen
PART A4 AXIS DIAGRAM (P. 82)
1. Spinous process
4. Superior articular facet
2. Lamina
5. Dens (odontoid process)
3. Transverse process
PART A5 SACRUM AND COCCYX DIAGRAM (P. 82)
1. Sacral promontory
6. Sacral canal
2. Ala
7. Articular fossa for ilium (auricular surface)
3. Body
8. Sacral foramina
4. Coccyx
9. Sacral hiatus
5. Superior articular process
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PART A QUESTIONS (PP. 83-84)
1. Transverse foramina, small bifid (split at the tip) spinous process
2. Vertebral arteries pass through transverse foramina on both sides to service the brain
3. Intervertebral discs which are made of fibrocartilage
4. Spinal nerves
5. Head of rib articulates with demifacet on the thoracic vertebrae bodies. The tubercle of rib articulates
with facet on transverse process of thoracic vertebrae.
6. Twelve
PART B1 STERNUM DIAGRAM (P. 84)
1. Jugular (interclavicular) notch
5. Costal facet
2. Clavicular notch
6. Gladiolus
3. Manubrium
7. Xiphoid process
4. Sternal angle
PART B1 STERNUM QUESTIONS (P. 84)
1. Used to locate region for compression during CPR
2. Yes
3. By individual costal cartilages
PART B2 RIBS DIAGRAM (P. 83)
1. Tubercle
5. Neck
2. Facet of rib
6. Shaft or body
3. Costal groove
7. Sternal end
4. Head of rib
PART B2 RIBS QUESTIONS (PP. 83-84)
1. Vertebral end is the end with the head, neck, tubercle and facets
2. First pair is flattened and broad forming a horizontal plate
3. The head of a typical rib articulates with the bodies of the thoracic vertebra by two facets: one
articulates with the demifacet of the same-numbered thoracic vertebra, the other articulates with the
demifacet of the thoracic vertebra immediately superior. The tubercle of the rib articulates with the
transverse process of the same-numbered thoracic vertebra.
4. Intercostal space
5. Intercostal nerves and blood vessels
6. True (vertebrosternal) ribs because they attach directly to the sternum by individual costal cartilages.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 2A—REBECCA LOOMIS
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7. False (vertebrochondral) ribs. Rib pairs 8-10 attach to the sternum indirectly; each joins the costal
cartilage immediately above.
8. Floating ribs because they have no anterior attachment.
9. Top figure.
PART C1 ANTERIOR ASPECT OF SKULL DIAGRAM (P. 87)
1. Frontal bone
12. Zygomatic bone
2. Parietal bone
13. Middle nasal concha
3. Nasal bone
14. Infraorbital foramen
4. Supraorbital foramen
15. Perpendicular plate of ethmoid
5. Optic canal (foramen)
16. Inferior nasal concha
6. Superior orbital fissure
17. Maxillary bone (maxilla)
7. Temporal bone
18. Vomer bone
8. Sphenoid bone
19. Alveolar process
9. Lacrimal bone
20. Mandible
10. Ethmoid bone
21. Mental foramen
11. Inferior orbital fissure
PART C2 LATERAL ASPECT OF SKULL DIAGRAM (P. 88)
1. Sphenoid bone
12. Occipital bone
2. Squamous suture
13. External acoustic meatus
3. Coronal (frontal) suture
14. Zygomatic bone
4. Frontal bone
15. Coronoid process
5. Parietal bone
16. Maxilla
6. Ethmoid bone
17. Mastoid process
7. Lacrimal bone
18. Styloid process
8. Temporal bone
19. Condylar process (mandibular condyle)
9. Lambdoid suture
20. Mandible
10. Nasal bone
21. Zygomatic process
11. Lacrimal fossa
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PART C3 POSTERIOR ASPECT OF SKULL DIAGRAM (P. 88)
1. Sagittal suture
4. Occipital bone
2. Parietal bone
5. External occipital protuberance
3. Lambdoid suture
6. Mastoid process
PART C4 INFERIOR ASPECT OF SKULL DIAGRAM (P. 89)
1. Palatine bone
7. Carotid canal
13. Jugular foramen
2. Vomer bone
8. Styloid process
14. Foramen magnum
3. Foramen lacerum
9. Temporal bone (zygomatic process) 15. Mastoid process
4. Foramen ovale
10. Mandibular fossa
5. Medial pterygoid process
11. External acoustic meatus
6. Sphenoid bone (greater wing)
12. Stylomastoid foramen
16. Occipital condyle
PART C5 SUPERIOR VIEW OF SKULL DIAGRAM (P. 90)
1. Crista galli
7. Foramen rotundum
2. Hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica 8. Foramen ovale
13. Lesser wing of sphenoid
bone
14. Greater wing of sphenoid
3. Cribriform plate of ethmoid
9. Foramen spinosum
15. Superior orbital fissure
4. Lesser wing of sphenoid bone
10. Posterior clinoid process
16. Medial pterygoid process
5. Optic canal
11. Foramen lacerum
17. Lateral pterygoid process
6. Anterior clinoid process
12. Hypoglossal canal
PART C6 ADDITIONAL SKULL BONES—ETHMOID (P. 91)
1. Crista galli
2. Cribriform plate
3. Perpendicular plate
4. Middle nasal concha
PART C7 ADDITIONAL SKULL BONES—TEMPORAL (P. 92)
1. Zygomatic process of temporal bone
2. Mandibular fossa
3. Styloid process
4. Mastoid process
5. External auditory (acoustic) meatus
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PART C8 ADDITIONAL FEATURES OF THE SKULL (P. 92)
1. Parietal bone
7. Frontal bone
2. Occipital bone
8. Supraorbital foramen
3. Zygomatic bone
9. Nasal bone
4. Occipital condyle
10. Lacrimal bone
5. Foramen magnum
11. Vomer bone
6. External occipital protuberance
12. Inferior nasal concha
PART C9 ADDITIONAL SKULL BONES—MAXILLA AND PALATINE (P. 93)
1. Infraorbital foramen
2. Alveolar process
3. Horizontal plate of palatine bone
PART C10 ADDITIONAL SKULL BONES—MANDIBLE (P. 93)
1. Coronoid process
6. Mandibular angle
2. Mandibular foramen
7. Ramus
3. Alveolar process
8. Mandibular notch
4. Mental foramen
9. Condylar process
5. Body
PART C11 ADDITIONAL SKULL BONES—OSSICLES (P. 94)
1. Incus
2. Malleus
3. Stapes
PART C QUESTIONS (PP. 94-95)
1. Vomer and the perpendicular plate of ethmoid
2. Temporal bone and zygomatic bone
3. Palatine bone and maxilla
4. Ethmoid bone (cribriform plate and crista galli)
5. Temporal bone
6. Parietal bones
7. Occipital bone and the parietal bones
8. Frontal bone and the parietal bones
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9. Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
10. Foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, foramen spinosum, and foramen lacerum
11. Air-filled cavity in certain skull bones
12. Frontal bone, sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone, and maxilla
13. Temporal bone
PART A1 CLAVICLE DIAGRAM (P. 95)
1. Acromial end
2. Sternal end
PART A1 QUESTIONS (P. 96)
1. Figure A
PART A2 SCAPULAE DIAGRAMS (P. 96)
1. Coracoid process
10. Vertebral (medial) border
2. Subscapular fossa
11. Spine
3. Vertebral (medial) border
12. Supraspinous fossa
4. Axillary (lateral) border
13. Superior angle
5. Glenoid cavity
14. Superior border
6. Acromion process
15. Suprascapular notch
7. Infraspinous fossa
16. Supraglenoid tubercle
8. Axillary (lateral) border
17. Infraglenoid tubercle
9. Inferior angle
PART A2 QUESTIONS (P. 97)
1. Left scapula
PART B1 HUMERUS DIAGRAMS (P. 97)
1. Greater tubercle
9. Medial supracondylar ridge
2. Head
10. Lateral supracondylar ridge
3. Surgical neck
11. Coronoid fossa
4. Anatomical neck
12. Capitulum
5. Intertubercular sulcus or groove
13. Medial epicondyle
6. Lesser tubercle
14. Lateral epicondyle
7. Radial groove
15. Olecranon fossa
8. Deltoid tuberosity
16. Trochlea
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PART B1 QUESTIONS (P. 98)
1. Right humerus
PART B2 RADIUS AND ULNA DIAGRAMS (P. 98)
1. Trochlear notch
7. Radius
2. Radial notch
8. Ulna
3. Head of radius
9. Ulnar notch
4. Olecranon process
10. Styloid process of ulna
5. Coronoid process
11. Head of ulna
6. Radial tuberosity
12. Styloid process of radius
PART B2 QUESTIONS (P. 99)
1. Left forearm
PART B3 HAND DIAGRAM (P. 99)
1. Middle phalanx #4
7. Hamate
2. Proximal phalanx #2
8. Trapezium
3. Distal phalanx #1
9. Scaphoid
4. Metacarpal #3
10. Pisiform
5. Trapezoid
11. Triquetral
6. Capitate
12. Lunate
PART B3 QUESTIONS (P. 99)
1. Left hand. Thumb is located on the left. REMEMBER that the hand is in anatomical position.
PART C1 OS COXA DIAGRAM (P. 100)
1. Iliac crest
10. Ischial spine
2. Ilium
11. Acetabular notch
3. Anterior superior iliac spine
12. Pubis
4. Anterior inferior iliac spine
13. Lesser sciatic notch
5. Posterior superior iliac spine
14. Ischial tuberosity
6. Posterior inferior iliac spine
15. Inferior ramus of pubis
7. Acetabulum
16. Obturator foramen
8. Acetabular fossa
17. Ischium
9. Greater sciatic notch
18. Inferior ramus of ischium (ischial ramus)
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PART C1 QUESTIONS (P. 100)
1. Right os coxa. Acetabulum is always lateral.
PART D1 FEMUR DIAGRAM (P. 101)
1. Fovea capitis
9. Linea aspera
2. Intertrochanteric line
10. Intercondylar fossa or notch
3. Neck
11. Lateral epicondyle
4. Head
12. Medial epicondyle
5. Greater trochanter
13. Adductor tubercle
6. Intertrochanteric crest
14. Medial condyle
7. Lesser trochanter
15. Lateral condyle
8. Gluteal tuberosity
16. Patellar surface
PART D1 QUESTIONS (P. 101)
1. Right femur. Head is located medially.
PART D2 TIBIA AND FIBULA DIAGRAM (P. 102)
1. Intercondylar eminence
5. Anterior crest
2. Lateral condyle
6. Medial malleolus
3. Head of fibula
7. Lateral malleolus
4. Tibial tuberosity
PART D2 QUESTIONS (P. 102)
1. Right leg
PART D3 FOOT DIAGRAM (P. 103)
1. Middle phalanx #2
7. Intermediate or middle cuneiform
2. Distal phalanx #4
8. Cuboid
3. Proximal phalanx #1
9. Navicular
4. Metatarsals
10. Talus
5. Lateral cuneiform
11. Calcaneus
6. Medial cuneiform
PART D3 QUESTIONS (P. 103)
1. Left foot
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PART D4 PATELLA DIAGRAM (P. 104)
1. Anterior view
2. Posterior view
PART D4 QUESTIONS (P. 104)
1. Left patella
PART E1 HYOID DIAGRAM (P. 104)
1. Greater cornu
PART E QUESTIONS (P. 104)
1. It does not articulate directly with any other bone. It is anchored to the styloid process of the
temporal bones by ligaments.
LAB 16
PART B DIAGRAMS (PP. 108-110)
1. Muscle
10. T-tubule
19. Sarcomere
2. Epimysium
11. Muscle fiber
20. Troponin complex
3. Fascicle
12. Sarcoplasmic reticulum
21. G actin
4. Perimysium
13. Terminal cisternae
22. Tropomyosin
5. Muscle fiber (cell)
14. I band
23. Thin (actin) filament
6. Endomysium
15. A band
24. Myosin head
7. Nucleus
16. Z disc
25. Thick (myosin) filament
8. Myofibril
17. H band
9. Myofibril
18. M line
PART B QUESTIONS (P. 110)
1. Calcium (Ca2+) ions
2. Sarcolemma
3. Muscle contraction is controlled by action potentials travelling along sarcolemma. Since t-tubules are
continuations of the sarcolemma, they conduct impulses (action potential) deep into the muscle fiber.
4. Binding of Ca2+
5. Tropomyosin strand moves away from actin’s binding sites
6. As myosin heads bind to the active sites on the actin myofilament, it changes from its high-energy,
“cocked” position to its low-energy shape, which pulls on the thin filament, sliding it toward the center
of the sarcomere.
7. As a new ATP molecule binds to the myosin heads, the myosin heads detach from actin
8. Hydrolysis of ATP into ADP + Pi provides the energy needed to return the myosin head to its highenergy, or “cocked,” position.
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PART C DIAGRAM (P. 111)
1. Sternocleidomastoid
10. Brachioradialis
19. Gracilis
2. Pectoralis minor
11. Internal oblique
20. Rectus femoris
3. Serratus anterior
12. Flexors
21. Vastus lateralis
4. Deltoid
13. Transversus abdominis
22. Vastus medialis
5. Pectoralis major
14. Iliopsoas
23. Gastrocnemius
6. Biceps brachii
15. Tensor fasciae latae
24. Extensor digitorum
7. Rectus abdominis
16. Pectineus
25. Tibialis anterior
8. Brachialis
17. Sartorius
26. Soleus
9. External oblique
18. Adductor longus
PART C DIAGRAM (P. 112)
27. Sternocleidomastoid
33. Triceps brachii
39. Biceps femoris
28. Trapezius
34. Extensors
40. Semitendinosus
29. Deltoid
35. Gluteus medius
41. Semimembranosus
30. Infraspinatus
36. Gluteus maximus
42. Gastrocnemius
31. Teres major
37. Adductor magnus
43. Soleus
32. Latissimus dorsi
38. Iliotibial tract
44. Calcaneal tendon
LAB 17
PART A DIAGRAM (P. 141)
1. Superior oblique
4. Lateral rectus
2. Superior rectus
5. Inferior rectus
3. Medial rectus
6. Inferior oblique
PART B DIAGRAM (P. 142)
1. Sclera
9. Ciliary zonules or suspensory ligaments
2. Choroid
10. Lens
3. Retina
11. Cornea
4. Macula lutea & fovea centralis
12. Anterior segment (aqueous humor)
5. Optic nerve
13. Iris
6. Optic disc
14. Ciliary body
7. Posterior segment (vitreous humor)
15. Ora serrata
8. Scleral venous sinus
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PART C DIAGRAM (P. 143)
1. Ganglion cell layer
5. Sclera
2. Bipolar layer
6. Photoreceptor layer
3. Retina
7. Cone
4. Choroid
8. Rod
PART E VISUAL ACUITY TESTS (PP. 145-146)
NORMAL COLOR VISION: “12”
RED-GREEN COLOR BLINDNESS: “12”
TOTAL COLOR BLINDNESS: “NOTHING”
NORMAL COLOR VISION: “8”
RED-GREEN COLOR BLINDNESS: “3”
TOTAL COLOR BLINDNESS: “NOTHING”
NORMAL COLOR VISION: “5”
RED-GREEN COLOR BLINDNESS: “2”
TOTAL COLOR BLINDNESS: “NOTHING”
NORMAL COLOR VISION: “45”
TOTAL COLOR BLINDNESS: “NOTHING”
NORMAL COLOR VISION: “7”
TOTAL COLOR BLINDNESS: “NOTHING”
NORMAL COLOR VISION: “26”
RED COLOR BLINDNESS: “6”, “faint 2”
GREEN COLOR BLINDNESS: “2”, “faint 6”
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NORMAL COLOR VISION: “74”
RED-GREEN COLOR BLINDNESS: “21”
TOTAL COLOR BLINDNESS: “NOTHING”
NORMAL COLOR VISION: “6”
TOTAL COLOR BLINDNESS: “NOTHING”
NORMAL COLOR VISION: “3”
RED-GREEN COLOR BLINDNESS: “5”
TOTAL COLOR BLINDNESS: “NOTHING”
Red and green deficiencies occur with the most frequency and red deficiency is known as protanopia while green
deficiency is known as deuteranopia.
PART G QUESTIONS (PP. 147-148)
1. Process of ciliary muscles contracting and releasing tension on the suspensory ligaments of the lens.
As a result, the lens thickens to focus on a near object.
2. A condition resulting in the loss of near focusing ability due to decreased elasticity in the lens as one
ages.
3a. Bleaching refers to the fact that retinal changes configuration when hit by light, releasing the opsin
protein. The color of retinal changes from rose color to clear/white so therefore it is referred to as
“bleaching”.
3b. The ultimate result is a series of reactions resulting in an action potential being generated from the
ganglion cells and an impulse traveling down the optic nerve.
4. Carrots contain vitamin A which is necessary to form the visual pigment retinal.
5a. Because cones stop functioning in low-intensity light. Rod pigments have been bleached out by the
bright light, and the rods are still initially inhibited.
5b. Rods.
5c. They are bleach out (from being in the light) and need time in the dark to reform rhodopsin (retinal +
opsin).
6. Optic chiasm is superior and anterior to the sella turcica where the pituitary gland (hypophysis) sits.
Any tumors or enlargements of the pituitary gland can compress the optic chiasm causing visual
impairments or blindness
7. The lacrimal canals (sacs) drain the eye to the nasal cavity. Infections from the throat can spread to
the nasal cavity and reach the lacrimal sac to the eye
8a. Condition in which intraocular pressure (due to blocked drainage of the aqueous humor) increases to
levels that cause compression of the retina and optic nerve, resulting in blindness.
8b. Pressure on the retina caused by too much aqueous humor.
9. Cones have 3 different visual pigments and each one bleaches in response to a different wavelength
(color) of light. Rods have only one pigment that bleaches out equally for all wavelengths of light.
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LAB 18
PART B DIAGRAMS (PP. 154-155)
1. Outer Ear
14. Membranous labyrinth
2. Middle Ear
15. Semicircular canals
3. Inner Ear
16. Saccule
4. Pinna
17. Utricle
5. External auditory canal
18. Ampulla
6. Malleus
19. Vestibule
7. Tensor tympani muscle
20. Oval window
8. Incus
21. Vestibular nerve
9. Stapedius muscle
22. Cochlear nerve
10. Stapes
23. Cochlea
11. Tympanic membrane
24. Stapes in oval window
12. Eustachian or auditory tube
25. Cupula of crista ampullaris
13. Bony labyrinth
PART C DIAGRAMS (P. 155)
1. Cochlea
5. Tectorial membrane
2. Scala vestibuli
6. Organ of Corti
3. Scala media or cochlear duct
7. Basilar membrane
4. Scala tympani
PART D QUESTIONS (P. 156)
1. In the saccule and utricle of the vestibule.
2. Crista ampullaris found in the ampullas of the semicircular canals. 6 total: 3 in each ear.
3. Within the membranous labyrinth.
4. The Vestibular nerve which joins the Cochlear nerve to form Cranial nerve 8 (Vestibulocochlear).
5. Specialized neurons that function as receptors. Bending of the hairs stimulates production of an action
potential.
6. Detects sound waves. Scala media.
7. Helps to reduce over vibration. Scala tympani.
8. Reduces over vibration of the ear ossicles. Middle ear.
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