Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 1
Key Concept 6.1 - ​Tech, Mass Production, and Industrialization - Technological advances, large-scale
production methods, and the opening of new markets encouraged the rise of industrial capitalism in the United
Large-scale industrial production — accompanied by massive technological change, expanding international
communication networks, and pro-growth government policies — generated rapid economic development
and business consolidation.
A. Following the Civil War, government subsidies for transportation and communication systems helped
open new markets in North America.
B. Businesses made use of technological innovations, greater access to natural resources, redesigned
financial and management structures, advances in marketing, and a growing labor force to dramatically
increase the production of goods.
C. As the price of many goods decreased, workers’ real wages increased, providing new access to a variety
of goods and services; many Americans’ standards of living improved, while the gap between rich and
poor grew.
D. Many business leaders sought increased profits by consolidating corporations into large trusts and
holding companies, which further concentrated wealth.
E. Businesses and foreign policymakers increasingly looked outside U.S. borders in an effort to gain greater
influence and control over markets and natural resources in the Pacific Rim, Asia, and Latin America.
II. A variety of perspectives on the economy and labor developed during a time of financial panics and
A. Some argued that laissez-faire policies and competition promoted economic growth in the long run, and
they opposed government intervention during economic downturns.
B. The industrial workforce expanded and became more diverse through internal and international
migration; child labor also increased.
C. Labor and management battled over wages and working conditions, with workers organizing local and
national unions and/ or directly confronting business leaders.
D. Despite the industrialization of some segments of the Southern economy — a change promoted by
Southern leaders who called for a “New South” — agriculture based on sharecropping and tenant
farming continued to be the primary economic activity in the South.
III. New systems of production and transportation enabled consolidation within agriculture, which, along with
periods of instability, spurred a variety of responses from farmers.
A. Improvements in mechanization helped agricultural production increase substantially and contributed to
declines in food prices.
B. Many farmers responded to the increasing consolidation in agricultural markets and their dependence on
the evolving railroad system by creating local and regional cooperative organizations.
C. Economic instability inspired agrarian activists to create the People’s (Populist) Party, which called for a
stronger governmental role in regulating the American economic system.
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 2
Key Concept 6.2​ - Social and Cultural Changes Caused by Industrialization - The migrations that accompanied
industrialization transformed both urban and rural areas of the United States and caused dramatic social and
cultural change.
International and internal migration increased urban populations and fostered the growth of a new urban
A. As cities became areas of economic growth featuring new factories and businesses, they attracted
immigrants from Asia and from southern and eastern Europe, as well as African American migrants
within and out of the South. Many migrants moved to escape poverty, religious persecution, and limited
opportunities for social mobility in their home countries or regions.
B. Urban neighborhoods based on particular ethnicities, races, and classes provided new cultural
opportunities for city dwellers.
C. Increasing public debates over assimilation and Americanization accompanied the growth of
international migration. Many immigrants negotiated compromises between the cultures they brought
and the culture they found in the United States.
D. In an urban atmosphere where the access to power was unequally distributed, political machines
thrived, in part by providing immigrants and the poor with social services.
E. Corporations’ need for managers and for male and female clerical workers as well as increased access
to educational institutions, fostered the growth of a distinctive middle class. A growing amount of
leisure time also helped expand consumer culture.
II. Larger numbers of migrants moved to the West in search of land and economic opportunity, frequently
provoking competition and violent conflict.
A. The building of transcontinental railroads, the discovery of mineral resources, and government policies
promoted economic growth and created new communities and centers of commercial activity.
B. In hopes of achieving ideals of self-sufficiency and independence, migrants moved to both rural and
boomtown areas of the West for opportunities, such as building the railroads, mining, farming, and
C. As migrant populations increased in number and the American bison population was decimated,
competition for land and resources in the West among white settlers, American Indians, and Mexican
Americans led to an increase in violent conflict.
D. The U.S. government violated treaties with American Indians and responded to resistance with military
force, eventually confining American Indians to reservations and denying tribal sovereignty.
E. Many American Indians preserved their cultures and tribal identities despite government policies
promoting assimilation, and they attempted to develop self-sustaining economic practices.
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 3
Key Concept 6.3 ​Cultural and Intellectual Movements, Reform, and Political Debate - The Gilded Age produced
new cultural and intellectual movements, public reform efforts, and political debates over economic and social
New cultural and intellectual movements both buttressed and challenged the social order of the Gilded Age.
A. Social commentators advocated theories later described as Social Darwinism to justify the success of
those at the top of the socioeconomic structure as both appropriate and inevitable.
B. Some business leaders argued that the wealthy had a moral obligation to help the less fortunate and
improve society, as articulated in the idea known as the Gospel of Wealth, and they made philanthropic
contributions that enhanced educational opportunities and urban environments.
C. A number of artists and critics, including agrarians, utopians, socialists, and advocates of the Social
Gospel, championed alternative visions for the economy and U.S. society.
II. Dramatic social changes in the period inspired political debates over citizenship, corruption, and the proper
relationship between business and government.
A. The major political parties appealed to lingering divisions from the Civil War and contended over tariffs
and currency issues, even as reformers argued that economic greed and self-interest had corrupted all
levels of government.
B. Many women sought greater equality with men, often joining voluntary organizations, going to college,
promoting social and political reform, and, like Jane Addams, working in settlement houses to help
immigrants adapt to U.S. language and customs.
C. The Supreme Court decision in ​Plessy v. Ferguson t​ hat upheld racial segregation helped to mark the end
of most of the political gains African Americans made during Reconstruction. Facing increased violence,
discrimination, and scientific theories of race, African American reformers continued to fight for political
and social equality.
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 4
Part 1 - Chapter 16
1. How did the U.S. policymakers seek to stimulate the economy and integrate the trans-Mississippi west
into the nation, and how did this affect people living there? (pg. 508) - KC - 6.1.I.A
2. In what ways did the Republican federal power expand and change in the post Civil War era, and in what
ways did it stay the same? (pgs. 510 - 515) - KC - 6.1.I
Trade with Asia
The railroads - KC - 6.1.I.A
the protective tariff - KC - 6.2.II.A
The Court system (Munn v. Illinois)
The gold standard: KC - 6.2.II.C
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 5
3. What was the vision of the Homestead Act? How was this vision flawed? (pg. 515-516)
The Homestead Act
The Morrill Act
land-grant colleges
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 6
Part 2 - Chapter 16
1. How did the mining industry transform the development of the west? (pgs. 516 - 517) - KC - 6.2.II.A
Comstock Lode
General Mining Act
2. Why were bison killed in such great numbers on the Great Plains? (pgs. 518-519) - KC - 6.2.II.C
the Long Drive
the open range vs. barbed wire
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 7
3. Compare the development of mining, ranching, and farming in the West. How did their environmental
consequences differ? (pgs. 517-521) - KC - 6.2.II.A
4. Why did the exodusters “exo”? (pg. 520) - KC - 6.2.I.A
5. What unique challenges did women settlers face in the West? (pg. 550-521)
6. What factors led to the creation of the first national parks?
John Wesley Powell and the challenge of homestead farming
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 8
Part 3 - Chapter 16
1. How were Indians involved in the Civil War on the plains? (pgs. 526-527) - KC - 6.2.II.C
The Dakota uprising
The Sand Creek Massacre
The Fetterman Massacre
2. How did post-Civil War reformers believe they were improving U.S. Indian policies, and in what
ways did that prove true and untrue? (pg. 528-529) - KC - 6.2.II.D
Indian Boarding Schools
“domestic dependent nations”
Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 9
3. What was the basic objective of the Dawes Severalty Act? How did it try to accomplish this goal? (pg.
532) - KC - 6.2.II.D
4. What was the "Ghost Dance?" Why was it so threatening to the white community nearby? (pg. 534) KC 6.2.II.E
5. Why has Wounded Knee, SD become a symbol in the struggle for Native American civil rights? (pg. 534 535) KC - 6.2.II.E
9. How does the myth of the west compare with reality? pg. 535 - KC - 6.1.I.E
Buffalo Bill Cody/ cowboys vs. savage Indians
Frederick Jackson Turner thesis (really define this, you will need to
know it)
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 10
Part 4 - Chapter 17
1. Why did prices fall in the late 1800s? (pg. 546) - KC - 6.1.I.C
2. Compare and contrast the vertical and horizontal integration strategies of business combinations. Which
approaches did Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller use initially? Why did they evolve toward using
both strategies? (pgs. 544, 546-548) - KC - 6.1.I.D
vertical integration
John D. Rockefeller
Andrew Carnegie (skip back to pg. 544)
horizontal integration
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 11
3. How did the birth of modern advertising transform consumerism? (pg. 548-549) - KC - 6.1.I.B
4. What opportunities did the rise of corporations offer to different types of “middle workers” – those
who were neither top executives nor blue-collar laborers? (pgs. 549-550) - KC - 6.2.I.E
5. How did conditions change for industrial workers in the late nineteenth century, and why? (pgs.
551-552) - KC - 6.2.I.C
mass production
scientific management - Frederick W. Taylor
6. How did working conditions deteriorate as industrialized labor became more prevalent? (pgs. 553 556) - KC - 6.2.I.C
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 12
Part 5 – Chapter 17
1. How did the immigrant experience vary in this time period? (pgs. 557-560) - KC - 6.1.II.B and 6.2.I.C
2. What were the long-term consequences of the Chinese Exclusion Act for U.S. immigration policy?
(pgs. 561-564) - KC - 6.2.I.A
3. What was the significance of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877? (pgs. 564) - KC - 6.1.II.C
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Henry George - Progress and Poverty
4. Compare and contrast the protest methods of the Greenbackers and the railroad workers. (pgs.
565-566) - KC - KC - 6.1.III.B
The Greenback Labor Party
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 13
Cont’d from question 4
Granger Laws
5. What factors contributed to the rapid rise of the Knights of Labor? To its decline? (pgs. 567-568) KC - 6.1.III.B and 6.1.II.C
Knights of Labor (Terence Powderly)
the Haymarket Riot
6. Why did farmers and industrial workers have in common? (pgs. 568-569) - KC - 6.1.III.B
The Farmer’s Alliance
The Hatch Act
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 14
Cont’d from question 6
Interstate Commerce Act
7. How did the key institutions and goals of the labor movement change, and what gains and losses
resulted from this shift? (pgs. 569-571) - KC - 6.1.II.C
closed shops
The American Federation of Labor
Samuel Gompers
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 15
Part 6 - Chapter 18
1. How did industrialization and consumerism, reshape Americans’ gender, class and race relations? (pgs.
576-577) - KC - 6.2.I.E
New stuff to spend money on?
railroads as a vision of America
Plessy v. Ferguson - KC 6.3.II.C
2. Why did sports suddenly become popular? How did athletics soften or sharpen social distinctions? (pgs.
580-583) - KC - 6.2.I.E
The Negro Leagues
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 16
3. What was the Comstock Act? In what ways did the Comstock Act represent and in what ways did it
contradict the realities of American life in the industrial era? (pgs. 585-586) - KC 6.3II.B
4. How did educational opportunities change after the Civil War, and for whom? (pgs. 586-587) - KC 6.2.I.E
5. What changes did Booker T. Washington advocate? (pg. 588) - KC - 6.3.II.C
Atlanta Compromise
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 17
Part 7 – Chapter 18
1. How did women use widespread beliefs about their “special role” to justify political activism, and for
what goals? Why do you think they had to justify their activism? (pgs. 589 - 592) - KC - 6.3.II.B
Frances Willard
Ida B. Wells
National Association of Colored Women
2. How did the goals of black women differ from those of white women? (pgs. 591-592) - KC - 6.3.II.B
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 18
3. How did the ideas of scientists and social scientists reflect events they saw happening around them?
(pgs. 592-594) - KC - 6.3.I.A
Charles Darwin
Herbert Spencer/ Social Darwinism
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 19
Part 8 – Chapter 19
1. How did America’s religious life change in the era, and what prompted those changes? (pgs. 598 602) - KC - 6.3.I.C
Catholic changes
Jewish Changes
Protestant Changes
The Social Gospel
The Salvation Army
Fundamentalism/ Billy Sunday
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 20
2​. How were America’s industrial cities different from the typical city before 1860? - (pgs. 608-609) KC - 6.2.I.A
Mass Transit
3. What opportunities did urban neighborhoods provide to immigrants and African Americans, and
what problems did these newcomers face? (pgs. 609-615)
The Italians
African Americans
Tenement buildings
The Tenement House Law of 1901
Mutual aid societies
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 21
Part 9 - Chapter 19
1. How did working-class elite city residents differ in how they spent their money and leisure time?
(pgs. 615-619) - KC - 6.3.I.B and 6.3.I.C
Vaudeville theater
Coney Island
Dumbbell Tenements
Dance Halls and Ragtime
Sex and the City –“ treating” and drag balls!
High Society leisure time
Yellow Journalism
Muckrakers (Ida Tarbell/ David Graham Phillips)
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 22
2. Why, given that everyone agreed machines were corrupt, did urban voters support them? (pgs. 619 622) - KC 6.2.I.D
Political machines
Tammany Hall
Boss Tweed
3. To what extent were reformers able to limit the tactics of machine politics? (pgs. 623-624)
List at least 3 tactics taken by reformers
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 23
Part 10 - Chapter 19
1. What were the origins of social settlements, and how did they develop over time? (pgs. 627-628) KC - 6.3.I.C
Hull House
Jane Addams
Margaret Sanger
2. What factors led to the close party competition in the 1880s? (pg. 638) - KC - 6.3.II.A
The Gilded Age
The election of 1880
The election of 1884
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 24
The election of 1888
Waving the bloody shirt
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 25
Part 11 - Chapter 20
1. How did the presidents expand federal power in the late 1800s? (pg. 638-642)
The Pendleton Act (6.3.II.A)
The Sherman-AntiTrust Act (6.1.II.C)
The Interstate Commerce Act (6.1.II.C)
2. How did the political goals of Populists differ in this period from those of Democrats and
Republicans? (pgs. 642- 644) - KC - 6.1.II.A
What smaller political parties joined to form the Populists?
The Omaha Platform
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 26
3. How did different groups of Americans react to the economic depression of the 1890s, and what
happened as a result? (pg. 644-645) - KC 6.1.II.C
Coxey’s Army
Free silver policy
The failure of the Populist Party
Name ________________________
APUSH - Period 6 pg. 27
Part 12 – Chapter 20
1. How did politics change is the South between the 1880s and the 1910s? (pgs. 645 - 646) - KC - 6.1.
Grandfather clauses/ poll taxes/ literacy tests… lynching
Williams v. Mississippi
Convict leasing
2. What developments caused the percentage of Americans who voted to plunge after 1890, and what
role did courts play in anti-democratic developments? (pgs. 646-650) - KC - 6.1.III.C
William Jennings Bryan and his speech
The election of 1900
Antidemocratic voting restrictions
17​th​ amendment
Lochner v. New York