Mood disorders Depressive Lack of interest in usual activities Change in body weight Insomnia or hypersomnia Loss of energy Problems with concentration Recurrent thoughts of death Mania Grandiose ideas Diminished need for sleep Over-talkative Flight of ideas Distractibility Psychomotor agitation Types of depression DSM-5 (APA, 2013) Major depressive disorder – intense symptoms, lasting more that 2 months. Dysthymia disorder – less severe symptoms and lasting 2+ years Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder – severe recurring tantrums, verbal or behavioral Premenstrual dysphoric disorder – mood swings associated with the cycle. Just depression without the mania is Unipolar Types of Bipolar DSM-5 (APA, 2013) Bipolar Disorder I – severe mania and depression, possible psychosis. Bipolar Disorder II – hypomania (not severe enough to impair functioning) and depression Cyclothymic disorder – within a 2-year period there is a cycle of hypomania and depression, with no history of depression or mania. Euthymia – symptom free normal states. Aetiology of depression A combination of genetic predisposition and psychological and medical factors Genetic disposition o Hereditary, 3x more likely to get it if a first degree relative also has it o Twin concordance rate, is a lot higher for monozygotic twins the difference between monozygotic and dizygotic concordance rates is enough to indicate a strong genetic component (Kendler et al., 2006). Low levels of Serotonin and Norepinephrine o In the 1950s medicine to lower blood pressure was found to lower levels of either (monoamine neurotransmitters) and cause depression Therapeutic effect takes two weeks, but the levels go up instantly? Also helps with anxiety, which isn’t understood why? Other compounds increase monoamine neurotransmitters, but they don’t have an antidepressant effect Cortisol levels o The stress hormone, studies believe those with depression have more of it (Young, 2004) o Constant high stress might deplete serotonin stores. Treatments for Depression Antidepressants Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Behavioral activation therapy Treatments for Bipolar Mood-stabilizing drugs Antipsychotic Drugs Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Psychoeducation Family-focused therapy (FFT) Prevent the depletion of neurotransmitters in the brain; Tricyclics – prevent the absorption of serotonin and norepinephrine. Side effects include increased heart rate, dry mouth and constipation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; stop the reuptake of serotonin. Side effects include nausea, anxiety and indigestion. Producing a seizure by the application of an electric current to the brain. Short-term side effects are headache, and muscle ache. LT – memory problems. The identification and modification of faulty cognitions and problematic behaviors. Beck – 1967. Turning negative schemas into healthy/positive ones. Reasons for schemas; Arbitrary inference Selective abstraction Over generalization Magnification and minimization Law of effect – Thorndike’s proposal that behavior that is rewarded will be repeated, and visa versa. Believes depression results from a lack of positive reinforcement, so goal is to increase number of enjoyable activities. Lithium. Effective at both manic and depressive symptoms. SE, thirst, gain weight and blurred vision. Alternative – Sodium Valporate. Altering levels of neurotransmitters commonly dopamine and serotonin Grandiose ideas may be challenged during a manic phase as well as behavioral strategies to reduce psychomotor agitation. Educating family and friends to improve coping method. Enhance positive communication patterns within the family, as well as strategies to help everyone cope. Examples of essay 1. Compare depression and mania while discussing the symptoms of each. 2. Contrast unipolar depression and bipolar disorder while discussing the symptoms of each. 3. Describe the biological, psychological, and sociocultural perspectives of depression. 4. Describe the possible roles of neurotransmitters in unipolar depression. 5. Distinguish among the three diagnostic options for bipolar disorder. 6. Discuss the biological theory of bipolar disorder.