introduction

advertisement
CHAPTER I
Introduction
Background of the Study
Vehicle accidents in different aspects, particularly in street highways, pedestrian lanes, and
even in parking lots are the usual problems encountered in our daily lives. In this day and age with
the progression of science there has been a corresponding radical change in the automobile sector.
But, this headway of technology has likewise prompted the expansion in the quantity of vehicles
in the world (Handia V., Jeyanthib S., et al, 2018). The escalating number of vehicles in recent
days, particularly in urban areas brings the problem of increasing crashes (Cheng, Q., Ochieng
W.Y., et al 2017).
These crashes cause heavy traffics, physical loss and injuries to people of all ages,
casualties and damages on properties which perhaps lead to costly reimbursements. Despite of
having these consequences, the aggregate quantities of vehicle accidents are still dramatically
increasing. World Health Organization (WHO) stated that 1.25 million people around the world
die annually both predictable and preventable due to road crashes (2015). Furthermore, majority
of the casualties originate from low and middle-income countries.
Additionally, road accidents are currently the fourth leading cause of death in the
Philippines according to the report by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA),
total of 434 Filipinos died and 19,374 were wounded in the capital region due to road crashes.
Moreover, 4 in every 100,000 Filipinos died while 193 people in every 100,000 were injured
(2016).
1
By this, the researchers decided to come up with a product that might be a proposal in
lessening issues of road accidents. The researchers have come up with a collision avoidance system
installed in a car serving a precautionary stop if an obstacle like other car, by passer or even other
objects that come its way, it will suddenly stop.
Review of Related Literature
The rate of the collisions is high due to the high number of vehicles, particularly during
rush hours (Osipychev D., 2016). Moreover, Philippine Statistics Authority (2015) also produced
a very revealing report showing that the total number of deaths nationwide are due to road crashes
which has been rapidly increasing since 2006. PSA recorded 6,869 deaths during that year,
however after nine years later, in 2015, the number jumped to 10,012 - a 45.76% increase from
6,869 deaths. Even the researchers themselves have witnessed a lot of incidents and experience
the disturbance brought by vehicular accidents.
Riaz and Niazi (2016) stated that operators can be alerted 1.86s before accident by using
radar device, but what if drivers are mentally distracted and do not take action. In this case, there
is a need of some mechanism that takes action autonomously to avoid collision. That's why the
researchers decided to create and improvise a device that can be easily integrated and tailored at
school, which can help predict chances of rear collisions.
No innovation has affected the twentieth century more than the vehicle. The vast majority
of us utilize vehicle day by day, as our essential method of transportation. Truth be told, there are
by and by more than 800 million cars sold out around the world (Shinar, D., 2000). He also added
that, development of break cautioning system is a mechanism that actuates the brake lights in
2
response to a quick disengagement of the gas pedal, before the driver’s foot arrives at the brake
pedal.
To enhance movement security, Nissan built up its Distance Control Assist System to
enable drivers to control the distance among themselves and the vehicle before them. The
framework determines the accompanying distance between the driver, and in addition the relative
speed of the two vehicles, utilizing a radar sensor in the front rear (Allan R., 2006). To keep away
from the street impacts, human drivers utilize brakes all the more regularly when contrasted with
controlling actuator. While more ideal moves can be performed utilizing just guiding.
As stated by Arbaz Hussain, HC-SR04 IS usually used for non-contact distance
measurement from 2cm to 400cm. This sensor uses sonar (the same with bats and dolphin) to
gauge distance accurately and fixed readings. It contains ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and
control circuit. The transmitter transfuses sudden bursts that gets reflected through the obstacle
towards the receiver. The time difference between the transmission and receiving of ultrasonic
signal could be calculated through the equation using the speed of sound s =

time
. The
time taken by pulse is actually for to and from peregrination of ultrasonic signals, since we need
only half of this, that’s why time is taken as time divided by two (May 26, 2017).
However, it is intriguing to demonstrate the proposed run roused path driving calculation
by imagining each independent vehicle as a different intellectual operator. The agent-based model
may be useful in investigating collaboration elements between neighboring autonomous vehicles
and in planning better agreeable lane-driving algorithm (Riaz, F., Niazi M.A., 2016).
Streets are brimming with deterrents. Many are static, for example, trenches and berms in
the desert, or checks and stopped vehicles in an urban situation. To stay away from such static
3
obstructions, the two vehicles fabricate neighborhood inhabitance network maps that keep up the
area of static hindrances (Sebastian T., 2010). In that case, Alboon S., Alqudah A., et al decided
to work on forward vehicle crash alleviation with a specific end goal to lessen the likelihood of
vehicles' mishaps. The grouping of this work was on front-to rear mischances. The crash
alleviation is finished utilizing slowing mechanism as it were. The choice whether to actuate the
slowing mechanism or not is performed utilizing counterfeit honey bee settlement (ABC)
calculation (June 30, 2015).
This study “Development of Automated Braking System for Avoidance of Vehicles”
proposed a product that is use to back off the speed of the vehicle via naturally inciting the slowing
mechanism is separated into detection of the vehicle and programmable breaking system. The
researchers utilize ultrasonic sensors on the grounds that is considered as the modest and simple
instrument in order to introduce a simple to design. Ultrasonic sensor uses air as a medium to
proliferate, as speed of sound is 340 m/s at a recurrence of 200 kHz which is difficult to hear by
ordinary human ears. In this model the scope of the ultrasonic sensor utilized in the model has a
scope of 100 cm. The power to motor gets detached and the braking activates when impediment
approach the sensor. If the distance of the object from the sensor is greater than 70 cm, there is no
response from the system. If the object is in the range of 30-70 cm, then the sensor send signal to
the microcontroller. The ultrasonic sensor predicts the distance with an average absolute error of
2.31%. The pneumatic braking is controlled with a relay and solenoid valves controlled by signals
given by the microcontroller. The presence of an object in close proximity, signal from
microcontroller is encourage into both buzzer and solenoid valve. The solenoid valve actuates and
stops the turn of wheel - automatic braking (Handia V., Gridharan., et al, 2018).
4
Furthermore, Roger stated autos like the Mercedes-Benz S-class, 24/77-GHz radar guided
frameworks assume a major job in enhancing safety. Brake Assist, Parking Assist, Pre-Safe,
Distronic Plus, and Adaptive Brake highlights utilize seven radar sensors (five in the front guard
and two in the back guard) to extraordinarily upgrade security levels. Fabregas and Faraias et al.
(February 25, 2018) added that the Infrared (IR) and Ultrasonic (UR) sensors are the most broadly
utilized as a part of apply autonomy, because of their minimal effort and quick time reaction, which
make them an appealing choice for ongoing article location. The technique for building the device
is a monotonous and extensive process that is normally done physically.
A group of researchers - Felipe Jiménez, José Eugenio Naranjo and Óscar Gómez present
a study on forward crash warning system in light of a laser scanner that can distinguish several
potential danger circumstances. Decision calculations attempt to decide the most convenient move
while assessing the deterrents' positions and speeds, street geometry, and so on. They permit taking
estimates a few seconds ahead of time, enabling new measures to be taken and additionally
expanding their effectiveness. Some of the activities are automatic braking, programmed activity
on the controlling framework to enhance the edge of effect, pre tensioner initiation, readiness of
airbags and measures to enhance the similarity between vehicles, for example, extendable guards,
suspension tallness control, and so on., or the organization of measures to limit the impacts of
person on foot mischances. This study aims to recognize and track obstructions and determine
their speed and heading while at the same time recognizing deterrents that are inside the region of
intrigue and may show a hazard, and those that are within the area of interest and may present a
risk, and those that are outside.
Osipychev mentioned on his research “Collision Avoidance for Autonomous Cars Based
on Human Intention) there is a significant advantage over the reactive methods using a full-stop
5
algorithm programed with” if -else” were reached in the travel time and acceleration.
Simulations showed that the delay was reduced by 25 - 50% for the case of the cross-traffic. The
car has performed a full stop only when there was not enough distance to maintain the lower
speed while other cars were passing through (2016).
Crash relief framework or any impact shirking framework requires a separation between
the facilitating vehicle and the objective, with a specific end goal to work and to do the correct
activity. This separation is known as the ''ceasing separation.'' However, great crash moderation
frameworks or impact evasion frameworks abbreviate this separation. This work has done
incredible upgrade on this separation; the proposed framework abbreviated the expected separation
to maintain a strategic distance from or if nothing else alleviate mischances. Crash moderation
frameworks are essential to relieve the impacts of mischances on people and economy. This work
prevailing with regards to decreasing the speed of impact, so that regardless of whether the crash
couldn't be abstained from, applying this framework will diminish the impact of the crash to spare
the lives of people engaged with the mischance (Alboon S., Alqudah A., et al, 2015).
Software is the essential commitment primary contribution of vehicles, as programming is
the way to automated driving. Self-ruling driving programming for the most part factors are
divided into three primary useful zones: observation, arranging, and control. (Sebastian T., 2010).
Precision, trustworthiness, progression and accessibility are the principle parameters to
gauge the execution of a route framework. Precision alludes to the measurable appropriation (at
the 95th percentile) of position mistake. Uprightness is the capacity of a framework to give
opportune and substantial alerts if the position blunder surpasses a predetermined caution
constrain. Progression hazard is the likelihood that an administration, accessible toward the
beginning of an activity, is hindered amid that task. Accessibility estimates a route framework's
6
operational economy—an administration is accessible if the exactness, uprightness and coherence
prerequisites are fulfilled (Cheng Q., Occhieng Y., et al, 2017).
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to make a collision avoidance system device installed in car that might
help car to put a sudden stop if an obstacle is encountered.
Moreover, this study seeks to answer the following objectives:
1.) To determine the braking distance of the car from the source;
2.) To measure the stopping time of the device before avoiding the obstacle; and
3.) To determine the significant relationship between the braking distance and the stopping
time of the device.
Statement of Null Hypothesis
H0
:
There is no significant relationship between the braking distance of the car and
the stopping time of the device.
Significance of the Study
Collision avoidance systems are vital due to the continuous increase number of
automobiles which results numerous accidents in roads and during traffic congestion. That’s why
the results and findings revealed from the study aims to contribute benefit to the following:
7
Drivers. Collision Avoidance System assist drivers to avoid potential accidents. It is a
device designed to automatically avoid any obstacle that is out of vision while driving.
Children. Kids who are more vulnerable are at higher risk of vehicle casualties, since
almost of them have limited impulse, control, circumscribed mobility challenges and difficulties
on understanding.
Senior Citizens. Senior citizens’ abilities and actions are much slower which results longer
time to buckle-up, consequently, sometimes they tend to be victims of collision impulsive and
careless drivers.
Entrepreneurs. This study provides opportunity to the entrepreneurs who wants to engage
in product and business idea and knowledge about collision avoidance systems.
Future Researchers. It widens future researchers’ idea about new innovations with
regards to the accidents in road and during traffic congestion.
Scope and Limitation
The study aims to determine the braking distance of the car and to measure the stopping
time of the device before eluding the obstructions.
This study focuses only on the obstacles encountered in front and drifts to the opposite
side avoiding the barriers. Trials and tests were facilitated in Compostela Science and
Technology High School’s Chemistry Laboratory.
Moreover, CarColAi, an alternative collision avoidance system car is programmed to
have precautionary stop if an upcoming obstacle is approaching.
8
Download
Related flashcards
Create flashcards