Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

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Lesson 2 | Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
Student Labs and Activities
Page
Launch Lab
25
Content Vocabulary
26
Lesson Outline
27
MiniLab
29
Content Practice A
30
Content Practice B
31
Language Arts Support
32
School to Home
34
Key Concept Builders
35
Enrichment
39
Challenge
40
Skill Practice
41
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Earth’s Atmosphere
Name
Date
Launch Lab
Class
LESSON 2: 15 minutes
What happens to air as it warms?
Earth receives light energy from the Sun, which is converted to thermal energy on Earth.
Thermal energy powers the weather systems that impact your everyday life.
Procedure
1. Read and complete a lab safety form.
4. Dust your hands with powder.
2. Turn on a lamp with an incandescent
5. Place your hands below the lightbulb
lightbulb.
3. Place your hands under the light near
and clap them together once.
6. Observe what happens to the particles.
the lightbulb. What do you feel?
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Data and Observations
Think About This
1. How might the energy in step 3 move from the lightbulb to your hand?
2. How did the particles move when you clapped your hands?
3.
Key Concept How did particle motion show you how the air was moving?
Earth’s Atmosphere
25
Name
Date
Class
Content Vocabulary
LESSON 2
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
Directions: On each line, write the term that correctly replaces the underlined words in each sentence.
conduction
convection
process
reflect
stability
temperature inversion
radiation
1. In the area of the atmosphere that is closest to Earth’s
surface, the transfer of thermal energy by collisions
between particles of matter occurs.
2. About one-quarter of the Sun’s radiation does not
reach Earth because clouds and small particles in the
air bounce back solar waves.
3. Visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared radiation
waves are types of electromagnetic waves that transfer
thermal energy from the Sun.
4. Close to Earth’s surface, where conduction occurs, the
5. The formation of thunderstorms depends on the
strength or weakness of circulating air motions of the
atmosphere.
6. A layer of cooler air near Earth’s surface is trapped
by a layer of warmer air when a condition in the
troposphere that involves a temperature increase with
altitude occurs.
7. The Sun’s energy reaches Earth through an ordered
series of actions known as radiation.
26
Earth’s Atmosphere
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
transfer of thermal energy by the movement of matter
from one place to another can also occur.
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Outline
LESSON 2
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
A. Energy from the Sun
1.
is the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
2. Most of the radiation that the Sun gives off is
3.
.
has shorter wavelengths than visible light and can
cause sunburn and skin cancer.
4.
has longer waves than visible light and is felt as heat.
B. Energy on Earth
1. As the Sun’s energy passes through Earth’s atmosphere, about 20 percent is
absorbed by
atmosphere.
and
2. Ozone, oxygen, and water vapor absorb
in the
. Water and
carbon dioxide absorb infrared radiation in the
3. Earth’s atmosphere and the surface of Earth
.
about
30 percent of the Sun’s radiation that comes toward Earth.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. About 50 percent of the Sun’s radiation that reaches Earth’s atmosphere is absorbed
by
.
C. Radiation Balance
1. Earth’s temperature remains stable because of the
between the amount of radiation coming from the Sun and the amount going out
from Earth.
2. Land, trees, and the ocean absorb and emit solar radiation, mainly in the form
of
.
D. The Greenhouse Effect
1. Glass allows
into a greenhouse. It prevents
from escaping, which keeps the greenhouse warm.
2. Certain
in the atmosphere act like the glass in a
greenhouse, warming the atmosphere.
E. Thermal Energy Transfer
1.
always moves from objects with high temperature
to objects with lower temperature.
Earth’s Atmosphere
27
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Outline continued
2.
is the transfer of thermal energy by the collisions
between particles of matter.
3. When air heats up, it becomes less
and rises,
transferring its energy upward.
4. The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of matter from one place
to another is
.
5. When water changes from one phase to another,
is
exchanged.
F. Circulating Air
1. When warm air is pushed
, cool air
to fill in the empty space left by the warm air.
2. Air that moves upward near mountain ranges causes
,
which form lenticular clouds.
3. Circulating air affects
and
around the world.
4.
is the property of the atmosphere that describes
whether circulating air motions will be strong or weak.
, circulating motions of the air are
strong.
6. A(n)
occurs in the troposphere when temperature
increases as altitude decreases.
7. Temperature inversions prevent air from mixing and can trap
close to Earth’s surface.
28
Earth’s Atmosphere
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. When the air is
Name
Date
Class
MiniLab
LESSON 2: 20 minutes
Can you identify a temperature inversion?
Altitude (m)
You’ve read that a temperature inversion is a reversal of normal temperature conditions in
the troposphere. What do data from a temperature inversion look like on a graph?
1,000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Atmospheric Temperatures
for Two Days in Seattle
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Temperature (°C)
Analyze and Conclude
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. Describe the information presented in the graph. How do the graph’s lines differ?
2. Analyze Which graph line represents normal conditions in the troposphere? Which
line represents a temperature inversion? Explain your answers.
3.
Key Concept From the graph, what pattern does a temperature inversion have?
Earth’s Atmosphere
29
Name
Date
Class
Content Practice A
LESSON 2
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
Directions: On the line before each statement, write T if the statement is true or F if the statement is false.
1. Ninety-nine percent of the radiation from the Sun consists of visible light,
ultraviolet light, and infrared light.
2. Ultraviolet radiation has longer wavelengths than visible light.
3. About 40 percent of incoming radiation is absorbed by gases and particles in
the atmosphere.
4. The ozone layer is located in the stratosphere.
5. Solar radiation absorbed at Earth’s surface is reemitted as infrared radiation.
6. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth would be much warmer.
7. The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of matter from one place
to another is called convection.
9. When warm air rises, thermal energy is transferred to the atmosphere by
conduction.
10. Temperature inversions result from stable atmospheric conditions.
30
Earth’s Atmosphere
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
8. When ice melts, it releases thermal energy.
Name
Date
Content Practice B
Class
LESSON 2
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
Directions: On each line, write the phrase that correctly completes each sentence.
1. Ninety-nine percent of the radiation Earth receives from the Sun
is
.
2. About 20 percent of the radiation from the Sun is
.
3. About 25 percent of radiation from the Sun is
.
4. About 5 percent of the radiation from the Sun
.
5. About 50 percent of the Sun’s rays
.
6. Absorbed radiation is reemitted as
.
Directions: Respond to each statement on the lines provided.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. Explain what radiation balance means.
8. List the three kinds of energy transfer and give an example of each.
Earth’s Atmosphere
31
Name
Date
Class
Language Arts Support
LESSON 2
Word-Building Activity: Sentence Completion
Directions: Study the terms and definitions below. On each line, write the term that correctly completes
each sentence.
atmosphere n. a thin layer of gases that surrounds Earth
exosphere n. the atmospheric layer that is farthest from Earth
ionosphere n. the region within the mesosphere where ions are located
mesosphere n. the layer of the atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere
stratosphere n. the layer of the atmosphere that is directly above the troposphere
thermosphere n. the layer of the atmosphere that is directly above the mesosphere
troposphere n. the layer of atmosphere that is closest to Earth’s surface
1. The second atmospheric layer, the
, includes a region
known as the ozone layer.
2. Birds, bats, and insects fly in the
, which is the lowest layer
of the atmosphere.
is the layer between the stratosphere and the
thermosphere.
4. Beyond the thermosphere is the
, which is the atmospheric
layer that is farthest from Earth.
5. Earth’s
contains water vapor, nitrogen, carbon dioxide,
oxygen, and other gases.
6. The
extends from the mesosphere to the exosphere.
7. Spectacular auroras might occur when charged particles in the
emit vivid colors.
32
Earth’s Atmosphere
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. The
Name
Date
Class
Language Arts Support
LESSON 2
Language-Usage Activity: The Passive Voice
A verb in English is in the active voice or the passive voice. If the subject is doing the
action, the verb is written in the active voice.
Biologists analyze new organisms.
The Chinese discovered the method to make gunpowder.
The spacecraft will explore the outer planets.
If the subject is not doing the action or the subject is unknown, the verb is written in the
passive voice. To write in the passive voice, use the verb be followed by a past participle
(am/is/are/were/be/been + verb + -ed/-en/-t).
The point where the lines converge is called the focal point.
The answers will be discovered by investigators.
Two common mistakes related to passive voice are using it too often, which makes the
writing seem unnatural, and forgetting to use both parts of the verbs (the verb be and a past
participle).
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Correct:
The large telescope was built on Mt. Palomar.
Incorrect: The large telescope built on Mt. Palomar.
The large telescope was build on Mt. Palomar.
Directions: Decide whether the active voice or the passive voice is correct in each sentence. Then circle the
correct form.
1. In the atmosphere, convection (is transferred/transfers) thermal energy from one region
to another.
2. The energy in sunlight (absorbs/is absorbed) by the land and heats the land.
3. When air above a warm surface is heated, the air becomes less dense and it
(rises/is rose).
4. The continuous vertical movement of air in a circular pattern (defined/is defined) as a
convection current.
5. Sometimes the air temperature in the troposphere (increases/is increased) as the altitude
gets higher.
6. An inversion layer (exists/is existed) when a layer of warm air is on top of a layer
of cold air in the troposphere.
7. Inversions (cause/are caused) poor visibility and make air pollution worse in some cities.
8. In some cities, air pollution warnings (mentions/are mentioned) during weather reports.
Earth’s Atmosphere
33
Name
Date
School to Home
Class
LESSON 2
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
Directions: Use your textbook to answer each question.
1. The Sun is the source of much of the energy on Earth.
In what form does solar energy travel to Earth?
2. Because of the greenhouse effect, Earth’s temperature is suitable for the
many forms of life that live on the planet.
What is the greenhouse effect? How does it work?
How do these three types of thermal energy transfer warm Earth’s atmosphere?
4. Air is constantly moving and sinking in Earth’s atmosphere.
What is the difference between stable and unstable air?
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Earth’s Atmosphere
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. There are three types of thermal energy transfer.
Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 2
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
Key Concept How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and the atmosphere?
Directions: Answer each question on the lines provided.
1. What is the term for the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves?
2. Which three components make up almost all the energy Earth receives from the Sun?
3. How do wavelengths of infrared light compare to wavelengths of ultraviolet light?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. How does the atmospheric ozone layer protect Earth?
5. About how much incoming solar radiation is absorbed by Earth’s atmosphere?
6. How do bright surfaces on Earth affect what happens to incoming sunlight?
7. About how much incoming solar radiation reaches Earth’s surface and is absorbed?
8. What is absorbed radiation reemitted as?
Earth’s Atmosphere
35
Name
Date
Key Concept Builder
Class
LESSON 2
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
Key Concept How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and the atmosphere?
Directions: Study the diagram. Then explain what the diagram shows at each step on the lines below.
Sun
3.
4.
1. 2.
Earth
Atmosphere
1.
2.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3.
4.
Directions: Answer each question on the lines provided.
5. What name is given to the process depicted in the diagram?
6. Which gases in the atmosphere contribute the most to this process?
36
Earth’s Atmosphere
Name
Date
Key Concept Builder
Class
LESSON 2
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
Key Concept How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere created?
Directions: On the line after each item, write conduction, convection, or radiation to indicate the type of
thermal energy transfer that it represents.
1. the warming rays of the Sun
2. the flow of ocean currents
3. a branding iron making a mark
4. hot feet from hot sand
5. a cool breeze
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. heat from glowing coals
7. high-altitude air streams
8. the warmth of a heating pad
Directions: On the line before each item, write A if it involves the absorption of thermal energy, or write R if it
involves the release of thermal energy.
9. water freezing
10. ice melting
11. water evaporating
12. water vapor condensing
Earth’s Atmosphere
37
Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 2
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere
Key Concept How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere created?
Directions: On each line, write the term that correctly completes each sentence. Each term is used only once.
air pollution
convection
lenticular
mountain wave
sinking
stable
temperature inversion
unstable
1. When warm air rises, energy is transferred to the atmosphere
by
.
2. Rising air is always accompanied by
air.
3. Air moving over a mountain range is called a(n)
4. This type of air movement creates
.
clouds.
, the vertical movements of air are strong.
6. When air is
, these movements are weak.
7. A(n)
occurs when air in the upper troposphere is warmer
than air in the lower troposphere.
8. This condition can cause a buildup of
38
at lower altitudes.
Earth’s Atmosphere
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
5. When air is
Name
Date
Class
Enrichment
LESSON 2
Albedo
If incoming solar radiation is absorbed at
Earth’s surface, the planet becomes warmer;
if the radiation is reflected into space, the
planet becomes cooler. Radiation reflects
from many surfaces—some surfaces are
better reflectors than others. The reflectivity,
or albedo, of Earth’s different surfaces is an
important factor in determining the
temperature at different locations.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Open ocean
α = 0.06
Bare ice
α = 0.5
Ice with snow
α = 0.9
1
1
1
0.94
0.5
0.1
Albedo, as illustrated in the figure, is the
fraction of the total incoming radiation that
is reflected by a surface. Sparkling snowfields
and icy glaciers have high albedo, and they
cool Earth by reflecting a large amount of
sunlight. When Earth warms a little, snow
and ice melt, more solar energy is absorbed
by the uncovered soil and rock surfaces, and
the albedo decreases. When albedo decreases,
the atmosphere gets warmer; more snow
melts, which warms the atmosphere even
more and makes more snow and ice melt;
and the cycle repeats. This phenomenon is
known as a positive feedback mechanism,
which means that one component of the
process prompts the cycle to continue.
Albedo and Temperature
The temperature of the atmosphere
is greatly affected by the albedo of the
hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.
The table lists the albedo of some different
surfaces on Earth.
Surface
Albedo
(percent)
Soil and rocks
5–45
Sand
30–60
Vegetation
5–25
Grass
10–25
Sea (sun incidence > 20 degrees)
1–10
Sea (sun incidence < 20 degrees)
10–70
Snow and ice
25–80
Glaciers
50–90
Blacktopped road
5–10
In the arctic, warmer temperatures have
promoted the growth of bushes that
protrude above the spring snow. This affects
the albedo of snow and ice (25 percent to
80 percent) because the bushes absorb solar
energy (5 percent to 25 percent albedo),
making the area warmer. This in turn
promotes the growth of more bushes,
creating a positive feedback cycle.
Applying Critical-Thinking Skills
Directions: Respond to each statement.
1. Hypothesize about what the Inuit man knew that prompted him to transport the
researcher off the snowfield and into the forest.
2. One hundred of the 150 glaciers in Glacier National Park have disappeared since 1850.
Hypothesize whether the melting rate of the glaciers during the last 50 years has been
faster, slower, or the same as the melting rate during the first 50 years. Explain your answer.
Earth’s Atmosphere
39
Name
Date
Class
Challenge
LESSON 2
Albedo
The reflectivity, or albedo, of Earth’s different surfaces is an important factor in
determining the temperature at different locations. Albedo is the fraction of the total
incoming radiation that is reflected by a surface.
As reference material for this activity, use the table of albedo values for different Earth
surfaces as well as any additional values you find through further research on the concept
of albedo.
Surface
Albedo
(percent)
5–45
Sand
30–60
Vegetation
5–25
Grass
10–25
Sea (sun incidence > 20 degrees)
1–10
Sea (sun incidence < 20 degrees)
10–70
Snow and ice
25–80
Glaciers
50–90
Blacktopped road
5–10
Local Albedo
1. Choose an area of about four square blocks around your home, school, or another
accessible location.
2. On a separate sheet of paper, prepare an outline map of the area. Identify major streets,
bodies of water, and geographic landmarks.
3. Survey the area for different types of reflective surfaces and note them on your map,
labeling each surface. Use different colors or patterns to represent different albedo.
Label each surface with the appropriate albedo value or make a legend, identifying the
albedo value of each color or pattern.
4. Analyze your map in relation to the balance between areas of high and low albedo.
Identify any areas where you know or can hypothesize that the albedo has changed
because of human activity.
40
Earth’s Atmosphere
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Soil and rocks
Name
Date
Skill Practice
Compare and Contrast
Class
LESSON 2: 30 minutes
Can you conduct, convect, and radiate?
After solar radiation reaches Earth, the molecules closest to Earth transfer thermal energy
from molecule to molecule by conduction. The newly warmed air becomes less dense and
moves through the process of convection.
Materials
candle
metal rod
glass rod
wooden dowel
500-mL beaker
ice
2 bowls
lamp
glass cake pan
food coloring
250-mL beaker
Safety
Learn It
When you compare and contrast two or more things, you look for similarities and
differences between them. When you compare two things, you look for the similarities,
or how they are the same. When you contrast them, you look for how they are different
from each other.
Try It
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. Read and complete a lab safety form.
2. Drip a small amount of melted candle wax onto one end of a metal rod, a glass rod,
and a wooden dowel.
3. Place a 500-mL beaker on the lab table. Have your teacher add 350 mL of very hot
water. Place the ends of the rods without candle wax in the water. Set aside.
4. Place an ice cube into each of two small bowls labeled A and B.
5. Place bowl A under a lamp with a 60- or 75-watt lightbulb. Place the light source 10 cm
above the bowl. Turn on the lamp. Set bowl B aside.
6. Fill a glass cake pan with room-temperature water to a level of 2 cm. Put 2–3 drops of
red food coloring into a 250-mL beaker of very hot water. Put 2–3 drops of blue food
coloring into a 250-mL beaker of very cold water and ice cubes. Carefully pour the hot
water into one end of the pan. Slowly pour the very cold water into the same end of
the pan. Observe what happens from the side of the pan. Record your observations in
the space below.
Earth’s Atmosphere
41
Name
Date
Class
Skill Practice continued
7. Observe the candle wax on the rods in the hot water and the ice cubes in the bowls.
Apply It
8. What happened to the candle wax? Identify the type of energy transfer.
9. Which ice cube melted the most in the bowls? Identify the type of energy transfer
that melted the ice.
happened when the cold water was added after the hot water? Identify the type of
energy transfer.
11.
Key Concept Explain how each part of the lab models radiation, conduction, or
convection.
42
Earth’s Atmosphere
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
10. Compare and contrast how the hot and cold water behaved in the pan. What
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