1.3 Bonding (1)

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PRACTICE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS FOR 1.1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE
(includes some questions from 1.4 Periodicity)
1.
At room temperature, both sodium metal and sodium chloride are crystalline solids which contain
ions.
(a)
On the diagrams for sodium metal and sodium chloride below, mark the charge for
each ion.
Sodium metal
Sodium chloride
(2)
(b)
(i)
Explain how the ions are held together in solid sodium metal.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)
Explain how the ions are held together in solid sodium chloride.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(iii)
The melting point of sodium chloride is much higher than that of sodium metal.
What can be deduced from this information?
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(c)
Compare the electrical conductivity of solid sodium metal with that of solid sodium
chloride. Explain your answer.
Comparison ................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
Explanation ................................................................................................................
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(3)
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1
(d)
Explain why sodium metal is malleable (can be hammered into shape).
.....................................................................................................................................
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(1)
(Total 9 marks)
2.
The equation below shows the reaction between boron trifluoride and a fluoride ion.
BF3 + F– → BF 4–
(i)
Draw diagrams to show the shape of the BF3 molecule and the shape of the BF 4– ion. In
each case, name the shape. Account for the shape of the BF 4– ion and state the bond angle
present.
(ii)
In terms of the electrons involved, explain how the bond between the BF3 molecule and the
F– ion is formed. Name the type of bond formed in this reaction.
(Total 9 marks)
3.
Draw the shape of a molecule of BeCl2 and the shape of a molecule of Cl2O. Show any lone
pairs of electrons on the central atom. Name the shape of each molecule.
BeCl2
Cl2O
Name of shape ......................................... Name of shape .........................................
(4)
(Total 4 marks)
Mill Hill High School
2
4.
Ammonia, NH3, reacts with sodium to form sodium amide, NaNH2, and hydrogen.
(a)
−
Draw the shape of an ammonia molecule and that of an amide ion, NH 2
In each case show any lone pairs of electrons.
NH3
(b)
−
NH 2
State the bond angle found in an ammonia molecule.
........................................................................................…...............................
(c)
Explain why the bond angle in an amide ion is smaller than that in an ammonia
molecule.
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(5)
(Total 5 marks)
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3
5.
(a)
Describe the bonding that is present in metals.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
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(3)
(b)
Explain how the bonding and structure lead to the typical metallic properties of
electrical conductivity and malleability.
Electrical conductivity .....................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
Malleability.......................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(c)
Suggest a reason why aluminium is a better conductor of electricity than magnesium.
...........................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 9 marks)
6.
The table below shows the electronegativity values of some elements.
Electronegativity
(a)
Fluorine
Chlorine
Bromine
Iodine
Carbon
Hydrogen
4.0
3.0
2.8
2.5
2.5
2.1
Define the term electronegativity.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(2)
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4
(b)
The table below shows the boiling points of fluorine, fluoromethane (CH3F ) and hydrogen
fluoride.
F–F
H–F
F
C
H
Boiling point/K
(i)
85
H
194
H
293
Name the strongest type of intermolecular force present in:
Liquid F2 .........................................................................................................
Liquid CH3F ...................................................................................................
Liquid HF .......................................................................................................
(ii)
Explain how the strongest type of intermolecular force in liquid HF arises.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(6)
(c)
The table below shows the boiling points of some other hydrogen halides.
Boiling point / K
(i)
HCl
HBr
HI
188
206
238
Explain the trend in the boiling points of the hydrogen halides from HCl to HI.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)
Give one reason why the boiling point of HF is higher than that of all the other
hydrogen halides.
...........................................................................................................................
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(3)
(Total 11 marks)
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5
7.
(a)
Methanol has the structure
H
H
C
O
H
H
Explain why the O–H bond in a methanol molecule is polar.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(b)
The boiling point of methanol is +65 °C; the boiling point of oxygen is –183 °C. Methanol
and oxygen each have an Mr value of 32. Explain, in terms of the intermolecular forces
present in each case, why the boiling point of methanol is much higher than that of oxygen.
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(3)
(Total 5 marks)
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6
8.
(a)
The diagram below shows the melting points of some of the elements in Period 3.
2000
1600
Melting
point/K
1200
800
400
0
Na Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
(i)
On the diagram, use crosses to mark the approximate positions of the melting points
for the elements silicon, chlorine and argon. Complete the diagram by joining the
crosses.
(ii)
By referring to its structure and bonding, explain your choice of position for the
melting point of silicon.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(iii)
Explain why the melting point of sulphur, S8, is higher than that of phosphorus, P4
...........................................................................................................................
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(8)
(b)
State and explain the trend in melting point of the Group II elements Ca–Ba.
Trend ...........................................................................................................................
Explanation ..................................................................................................................
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(3)
(Total 11 marks)
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7
9.
State and explain the trend in the melting points of the Period 3 metals Na, Mg and Al.
Trend ...........................................................................................................................
Explanation ...............................................................................................................
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(3)
(Total 3 marks)
10.
(a)
(i)
Describe the bonding in a metal.
......................................................................................................................
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......................................................................................................................
(ii)
Explain why magnesium has a higher melting point than sodium.
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(4)
(b)
Why do diamond and graphite both have high melting points?
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(3)
(c)
Why is graphite a good conductor of electricity?
..............................................................................................................................
(1)
(d)
Why is graphite soft?
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(2)
(Total 10 marks)
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8
11.
Sodium sulphide, Na2S, is a high melting point solid which conducts electricity when
molten. Carbon disulphide, CS2, is a liquid which does not conduct electricity.
(a)
Deduce the type of bonding present in Na2S and that present in CS2
Bonding in Na2S ........................................................................................
Bonding in CS2...........................................................................................
(b)
By reference to all the atoms involved explain, in terms of electrons, how Na2S is
formed from its atoms.
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
(c)
Draw a diagram, including all the outer electrons, to represent the bonding present in
CS2
(6)
(Total 6 narks)
12.
(a)
The diagram below represents a part of the structure of sodium chloride. The ionic charge
is shown on the centre of only one of the ions.
+
(i)
On the diagram, mark the charges on the four negative ions.
(ii)
What change occurs to the motion of the ions in sodium chloride when it is heated
from room temperature to a temperature below its melting point?
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(2)
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9
(b)
Sodium chloride can be formed by reacting sodium with chlorine.
(ii)
A chloride ion has one more electron than a chlorine atom. In the formation of
sodium chloride, from where does this electron come?
....................................................................................................................
(ii)
What property of the atoms joined by a covalent bond causes the bond to be polar?
....................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)
13.
Phosphorus and nitrogen are in Group V of the Periodic Table and both elements form hydrides.
Phosphine, PH3, reacts to form phosphonium ions, PH +4 , in a similar way to that by which
ammonia, NH3, forms ammonium ions, NH +4
(a)
Give the name of the type of bond formed when phosphine reacts with an H+ ion. Explain
how this bond is formed.
Type of bond .............................................................................................................
Explanation .............................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(b)
Draw the shapes, including any lone pairs of electrons, of a phosphine molecule and of a
phosphonium ion.
Give the name of the shape of the phosphine molecule and state the bond angle found in the
phosphonium ion.
PH3
Shape of PH3
………………………
PH +4
Bond angle in PH 4+
……………......
(4)
(Total 7 marks)
Mill Hill High School
10
14.
(a)
State the meaning of the term electronegativity.
...............................................................................................................................
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(2)
(b)
State and explain the trend in electronegativity values across Period 3 from sodium to
chlorine.
Trend......................................................................................................................
Explanation............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)
15.
(a)
The shape of the molecule BCl3 and that of the unstable molecule CCl2 are shown below.
Cl
B
Cl
(i)
C
Cl
Cl
Cl
Why is each bond angle exactly 120° in BCl3?
.....................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................
(ii)
Predict the bond angle in CCl2 and explain why this angle is different from that in
BCl3
Predicted bond angle ...................................................................................
Explanation ..................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................
(5)
(b)
Give the name which describes the shape of molecules having bond angles of 109° 28'.
Give an example of one such molecule.
Name of shape ........................................................................................................
Example...................................................................................................................
(2)
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11
(c)
The shape of the XeF4 molecule is shown below.
F
F
Xe
F
(i)
F
State the bond angle in XeF4
.......................................................................................................................
(ii)
Suggest why the lone pairs of electrons are opposite each other in this molecule.
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
(iii)
Name the shape of this molecule, given that the shape describes the positions of the
Xe and F atoms only.
.......................................................................................................................
(4)
(d)
Draw a sketch of the NF3 molecule. Indicate in your sketch any lone pairs of electrons on
nitrogen.
(2)
(Total 13 marks)
16.
(a)
Describe the motion of the particles in solid iodine and in iodine vapour.
Motion in solid iodine..................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
Motion in iodine vapour..............................................................................................
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(3)
(b)
Explain why solid iodine vaporises when warmed gently.
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(2)
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12
(c)
Silver and sodium chloride melt at similar temperatures. Give two physical properties of
silver which are different from those of sodium chloride and, in each case, give one reason
why the property of silver is different from that of sodium chloride.
First property of silver................................................................................................
Reason for difference..................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
Second property of silver............................................................................................
Reason for difference..................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(d)
Draw the shapes of BeCl2, NCl3 and BeCl 2 –4 . In each case, show any lone-pair electrons on
the central atom and state the value of the bond angle.
BeCl2
NCl3
BeCl 2 –4
(6)
(Total 15 marks)
17.
Silicon dioxide has a macromolecular structure. Draw a diagram to show the arrangement
of atoms around a silicon atom in silicon dioxide. Give the name of the shape of this
arrangement of atoms and state the bond angle.
Diagram
Name of shape ............................................................................................................
Bond angle ..................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 3 marks)
Mill Hill High School
13
18.
(a)
When considering electron pair repulsions in molecules, why does a lone pair of electrons
repel more strongly than a bonding pair?
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(b)
The diagram below shows a hydrogen peroxide molecule.
H
O
O
H
(i)
On the diagram above, draw the lone pairs, in appropriate positions, on the oxygen
atoms.
(ii)
Indicate, on the diagram, the magnitude of one of the bond angles.
(iii)
Name the strongest type of intermolecular force which exists between molecules of
hydrogen peroxide in the pure liquid.
...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(c)
Draw a diagram to illustrate the shape of a molecule of SF4 and predict the bond angle(s).
Diagram of shape
Bond angle(s)..............................................................................................................
(4)
(d)
Name two types of intermolecular force which exist between molecules in liquid SF4
Type I...........................................................................................................................
Type2............................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 11 marks)
19.
(a)
Name the type of force that holds the particles together in an ionic crystal.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(b)
What is a covalent bond?
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(1)
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(c)
State how a co-ordinate bond is formed.
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(2)
(d)
Describe the bonding in a metal.
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(2)
(e)
A molecule of hydrogen chloride has a dipole and molecules of hydrogen chloride attract
each other by permanent dipole-dipole forces. Molecules ot chlorine are non-polar.
(i)
What is a permanent dipole?
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(ii)
Explain why a molecule of hydrogen chloride is polar.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(iii)
Name the type of force which exists between molecules of chlorine.
...........................................................................................................................
(5)
(f)
Show, by means of a diagram, how two molecules of hydrogen fluoride are attracted to
each other by hydrogen bonding; include all lone-pair electrons and partial charges in your
diagram.
(3)
(g)
Why is there no hydrogen bonding between molecules of hydrogen bromide?
.....................................................................................................................................
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(1)
(Total 15 marks)
Mill Hill High School
15
20.
The table below gives the boiling points, Tb, of some hydrogen halides.
Hydrogen halide
HF
HCl
HBr
HI
Tb /K
293
188
206
238
(a)
By referring to the types of intermolecular force involved, explain why energy must be
supplied in order to boil liquid hydrogen chloride.
....................................................................................................................................
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(3)
(b)
Explain why the boiling point of hydrogen bromide lies between those of hydrogen
chloride and hydrogen iodide.
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(2)
(c)
Explain why the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride is higher than that of hydrogen
chloride.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(d)
Draw a sketch to illustrate how two molecules of hydrogen fluoride interact in liquid
hydrogen fluoride.
(2)
(Total 9 marks)
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16
21.
Sulphur will combine separately with carbon, hydrogen and sodium to form carbon
disulphide (CS2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and sodium sulphide (Na2S) respectively. The
bonding in these compounds is similar to that in CO2, H2O and Na2O .
(a)
Complete the table in Figure 2 by classifying the compounds as either ionic or
covalent.
Melting point/K
Carbon disulphide
162
Hydrogen sulphide
187
Sodium sulphide
1450
Ionic or covalent
Figure 2
(3)
(b)
One of the compounds in Figure 2 shows high electrical conductivity under
appropriate conditions. Identify the compound, by name or formula, and state one
condition under which it shows high electrical conductivity.
Name or formula of compound ........................................................................
Condition ..........................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)
22.
(a)
State what is meant by the term polar bond.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(b)
Sulphuric acid is a liquid that can be represented by the formula drawn below.
O
O
H
O
H
S
O
Given that the electronegativity values for hydrogen, sulphur and oxygen are 2.1, 2.5 and
3.5 respectively, clearly indicate the polarity of each bond present in the formula given.
(2)
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(c)
Suggest the strongest type of intermolecular force present in pure sulphuric acid.
Briefly explain how this type of intermolecular force arises.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 5 marks)
23.
(a)
Sketch the shapes of each of the following molecules, showing any lone pairs of electrons.
In each case, state the bond angle(s) present in the molecule and name the shape.
Molecule
Sketch of shape
Bond angle(s)
Name of shape
BF3
NF3
ClF3
(9)
(b)
State the types of intermolecular force which exist, in the liquid state, between pairs of BF3
molecules and between pairs of NF3 molecules.
BF3 ..............................................................................................................................
NF3 ..............................................................................................................................
(3)
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18
(c)
Name the type of bond which you would expect to be formed between a molecule of BF3
and a molecule of NF3. Explain how this bond is able to form.
Name of bond ............................................................................................................
Explanation ...............................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 15 marks)
24.
Sketch a diagram to show the shape of a molecule of NH3 and indicate on your
diagram how this molecule is attracted to another NH3 molecule in liquid ammonia.
(3)
(Total 3 marks)
25.
(a)
Define the term electronegativity.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)
(b)
State and explain the trend in electronegativity of the elements across Period 3 from
sodium to chlorine.
Trend. ........................................................................................................................
Explanation. ..............................................................................................................
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(3)
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19
(c)
State the bond type in sodium oxide and the bond type in sulphur dioxide. In each case,
explain the link between the bond type and the electronegativity of the elements involved.
Bond type in sodium oxide. .......................................................................................
Explanation. .............................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
Bond type in sulphur dioxide. ..................................................................................
Explanation. .............................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 9 marks)
26.
(a)
Co-ordinate bonding can be described as dative covalency. In this context, what is the
meaning of each of the terms covalency and dative?
Covalency....................................................................................................................
Dative .........................................................................................................................
(2)
(b)
Write an equation for a reaction in which a co-ordinate bond is formed.
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(c)
Why is sodium chloride ionic rather than covalent?
.....................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(d)
Why is aluminium chloride covalent rather than ionic?
.....................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(e)
Why is molten sodium chloride a good conductor of electricity?
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(1)
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20
(f)
Explain, in terms of covalent bonding, why the element iodine exists as simple molecules
whereas the element carbon does not.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(3)
(Total 12 marks)
27.
(a)
Describe the nature and strength of the bonding in solid calcium oxide.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
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(3)
(b)
Use the kinetic theory to describe the changes that take place as calcium oxide is
heated from 25°C to a temperature above its melting point.
.........................................................................................................................
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(3)
(c)
State two properties of calcium oxide that depend on its bonding.
.........................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 8 marks)
28.
What is a covalent bond?
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 1 mark)
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21
29.
(a)
Figure 1 shows some data concerned with halogens.
Element
Electronegativity
Boiling point of
hydride / K
Fluorine
4.0
293
Chlorine
3.0
188
Bromine
2.8
206
Iodine
2.5
238
Figure 1
(i)
Define the term electronegativity.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(ii)
Explain the trend in boiling points from hydrogen chloride to hydrogen iodide.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(iii)
Explain why hydrogen fluoride does not fit this trend.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(b)
The oxygen atoms in the sulphate ion surround the sulphur in a regular tetrahedral shape.
(i)
Write the formula of the ion.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(ii)
State the O–S–O. bond angle.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)
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22
30.
(a)
State the type of bonding in a crystal of potassium bromide.
Type of bonding..........................................................................................................
(1)
(b)
Sketch a diagram to show the shape of a BrF3 molecule. Show on your sketch any
lone pairs of electrons in the outermost shell of bromine and name the shape.
Sketch
Name of shape...................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 4 marks)
31.
(a)
(i)
State one feature which molecules must have in order for hydrogen bonding to occur
between them.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(ii)
Give the name of the type of intermolecular bonding present in hydrogen sulphide,
H2S, and explain why hydrogen bonding does not occur.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(iii)
Account for the much lower boiling point of hydrogen sulphide (–61 °C) compared
with that of water(100 °C).
...........................................................................................................................
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(2)
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(b)
Protein molecules are composed of sequences of amino acid molecules that have joined
together, with the elimination of water, to form long chains. Part of a protein chain is
represented by the graphical formula given below.
R
O
C
C
H
R
O
N
C
C
H
H
R
O
N
C
C
H
H
R
N
C
H
H
Explain the formation of hydrogen bonding between protein molecules.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
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(4)
(Total 9 marks)
32.
(a)
Describe the bonding found in metals.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(b)
Use data from table above and your knowledge of the bonding in these metals to explain
why the melting point of magnesium is higher than that of sodium.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(3)
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24
(c)
State and explain the similarities and differences in electrical conductivity of sodium,
graphite and diamond.
.....................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................
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(4)
(Total 10 marks)
33.
The table below contains electronegativity values for the Period 3 elements, except chlorine.
Element
Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Electronegativity
0.9
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.5
(a)
Cl
Ar
no
value
How can electronegativity values be used to predict whether a given chloride is likely to be
ionic or covalent?
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(b)
State the type of bonding in sodium oxide.
....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 3 marks)
34.
The diagram below shows how a water molecule interacts with a hydrogen fluoride molecule.
H
O
δ+
δ–
H
F
H
(a)
What is the value of the bond angle in a single molecule of water?
....................................................................................................................................
(1)
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(b)
Explain your answer to part (a) by using the concept of electron pair repulsion.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(c)
Name the type of interaction between a water molecule and a hydrogen fluoride molecule
shown in the diagram above.
....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(d)
Explain the origin of the δ+ charge shown on the hydrogen atom in the diagram.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(e)
When water interacts with hydrogen fluoride, the value of the bond angle in water changes
slightly. Predict how the angle is different from that in a single molecule of water and
explain your answer.
Prediction ...................................................................................................................
Explanation ................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)
35.
(a)
State which one of the elements neon, sodium, magnesium, aluminium and silicon has
the lowest melting point and explain your answer in terms of the structure and bonding
present in that element.
Element with lowest melting point ..............................................................................
Explanation .................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
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(b)
State which one of the elements neon, sodium, magnesium, aluminium and silicon has the
highest melting point and explain your answer in terms of the structure and bonding present
in that element.
Element with highest melting point ............................................................................
Explanation .................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 6 marks)
36.
Diamond and graphite are both forms of carbon.
Diamond is able to scratch almost all other substances, whereas graphite may be used as a
lubricant. Diamond and graphite both have high melting points.
Explain each of these properties of diamond and graphite in terms of structure and bonding.
Give one other difference in the properties of diamond and graphite.
(Total 9 marks)
37.
Iodine and diamond are both crystalline solids at room temperature. Identify one similarity in the
bonding, and one difference in the structures, of these two solids.
Explain why these two solids have very different melting points.
(Total 6 marks)
38.
Phosphorus exists in several different forms, two of which are white phosphorus and red
phosphorus. White phosphorus consists of P4 molecules, and melts at 44°C. Red phosphorus is
macromolecular, and has a melting point above 550°C.
Explain what is meant by the term macromolecular. By considering the structure and bonding
present in these two forms of phosphorus, explain why their melting points are so different.
(Total 5 marks)
39.
(a)
Predict the shapes of the SF6 molecule and the AlCl 4– ion. Draw diagrams of these species
to show their three-dimensional shapes. Name the shapes and suggest values for the bond
angles. Explain your reasoning.
(8)
(b)
Perfume is a mixture of fragrant compounds dissolved in a volatile solvent.
When applied to the skin the solvent evaporates, causing the skin to cool for a short time.
After a while, the fragrance may be detected some distance away. Explain these
observations.
(4)
(Total 12 marks)
Mill Hill High School
27
40.
(a)
Iodine and graphite crystals both contain covalent bonds and yet the physical properties of
their crystals are very different.
For iodine and graphite, state and explain the differences in their melting points and in their
electrical conductivities.
(9)
(b)
Draw the shape of the BeCl2 molecule and explain why it has this shape.
(2)
(Total 11marks)
41.
(a)
The table below gives the melting point for each of the Period 3 elements Na – Ar.
Element
Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
Melting point / K
371
923
933
1680
317
392
172
84
In terms of structure and bonding, explain why silicon has a high melting point, and why
the melting point of sulphur is higher than that of phosphorus.
(7)
(b)
Draw a diagram to show the structure of sodium chloride. Explain, in terms of bonding,
why sodium chloride has a high melting point.
(4)
(Total 11 marks)
42.
Explain the meaning of the term periodicity as applied to the properties of rows of elements
in the Periodic Table. Describe and explain the trends in atomic radius, in electronegativity
and in conductivity for the elements sodium to argon.
(13)
(Total 13 marks)
43.
(a)
Describe the structure of, and bonding in, three different types of crystal. Illustrate your
answer with a specific example of each type of crystal and sketch labelled diagrams of the
structures. In each case, explain how the ability to conduct electricity is influenced by the
type of bonding.
(18)
(b)
Explain how the concept of bonding and lone (non-bonding) pairs of electrons can be used
to predict the shape of, and bond angles in, a molecule of sulphur tetrafluoride, SF4.
Illustrate your answer with a sketch of the structure.
(8)
(Total 26 marks)
44.
Sketch a graph to show how the melting points of the elements vary across Period 3 from sodium
to argon. Account for the shape of the graph in terms of the structure of, and the bonding in, the
elements.
(Total 21 marks)
Mill Hill High School
28
45.
(a)
With the aid of diagrams, describe the structure of, and bonding in, crystals of sodium
chloride, graphite and magnesium. In each case, explain how the melting point and the
ability to conduct electricity of these substances can be understood by a consideration of
the structure and bonding involved.
(23)
(b)
Explain how the electron-pair repulsion theory can be used to predict the shapes of the
molecules H2O and PF5. Illustrate your answer with diagrams of the molecules on which
the bond angles are shown.
(7)
(Total 30 marks)
Mill Hill High School
29
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