BIO 175 Lecture Exam 3 Study Guide

BIO 175 General Microbiology
Lecture Exam 3 Study Guide
 What does symbiosis mean? What are the 3 types of symbiotic relationships?
 Distinguish between resident and transient microbiota
 What are opportunistic pathogens?
 What is a reservoir? What are the 3 types of reservoirs?
 Distinguish between contamination and infection
 What are the 4 portals of entry? What is the most common site of entry?
 What does it mean for an organism to be avirulent? (be able to discuss role of adhesion factors)
 Distinguish between infection and disease
 What does morbidity refer to?
 Define signs, symptoms, and syndrome
 What is a subclinical infection?
 What is etiology?
 Distinguish between pathogenicity and virulence
 What are the main types of virulence factors?
 Be able to briefly describe the 5 stages of infectious diseases
 What are the 3 groups for transmission of infectious diseases?
 Distinguish between the following: acute vs. chronic disease, communicable vs. contagious
 Distinguish between incidence and prevalence
 Define endemic, epidemic, and pandemic
 What are nosocomial infections?
 What are the 3 types of nosocomial infections?
 What are the subdivisions of epidemiology?
 Distinguish between innate and adaptive immunity
 What makes up the body’s first line of defense?
 What makes skin an effective barrier?
 How do mucous membranes protect against microorganisms?
 Describe the function of the lacrimal apparatus
 What is the role of microbial antagonism is protecting the body?
 What are antimicrobial peptides?
 What makes up the body’s second line of defense?
 What are granulocytes? What are the 3 types of granulocytes and their functions?
 What are agranulocytes? What are the 2 types of agranulocytes and their functions?
 Be able to describe what happens during phagocytosis
 Briefly describe natural killer lymphocytes
 Briefly describe the role of each of the following: toll-like receptors, interferons, complement,
inflammation, and fever
 What is a pyrogen?
 What are the five attributes of adaptive immunity?
 What are the two types of adaptive immunity?
 Be able to describe the organization of the lymphatic system using the following terminology:
lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymphoid organs
BIO 175 General Microbiology
Lecture Exam 3 Study Guide
What are antigens? Briefly describe the three types.
What is an epitope?
What is the major histocompatability complex (MHC)?
What is antigen processing? Contrast antigen processing for MHC class I and MHC class II.
What class of MHC activates cytotoxic T cells? Helper T cells?
Where are T cells created? Where do they mature? Where are they primarily located?
What is a TCR? What is its function?
Briefly describe the three types of T cells
What is the process of clonal deletion?
Where are B cells created and where are they found in the body?
What is a BCR? What are antibodies and how are they different than the BCR?
Be able to briefly describe the functions of antibodies
What are the five classes of antibodies? What is the role of each?
What is the outcome of B cell clonal deletion? How is this different than clonal deletion with T
What are cytokines? Be able to describe the different types of cytokines.
What is the cell-mediated immune response?
What happens after a cytotoxic T cell is activated?
What are the two ways in which cytotoxic T cells kill targets?
What are memory T cells?
What is the antibody immune response?
What happens when helper T cells are activated?
What are plasma cells?
Compare/contrast the primary and secondary immune response
Distinguish between naturally acquired and artificially acquired immunity
 Distinguish between active and passive immunization
 What are the five types of active immunization?
 How are vaccines manufactured?
 What are some of the potential problems associated with immunizations?
 What is passive immunotherapy? What are the limitations and how are they overcome?
 Define serology
 What is an agglutination test?
 What happens in a viral neutralization test?
 How does a viral hemagglutination inhibition test work?
 How do labeled antibody tests work?
 Briefly describe fluorescent antibody tests, ELISAs, and immunoblots
 What is point of care testing?
 Be able to briefly describe immunochromatography and give an example
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