Cellular Energy study guide

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CELLULAR ENERGY
Study Guide
Photosynthesis
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A process that results in 38 ATP molecules and gives
off water and carbon dioxide.
In order to influence the rate of a photosynthetic
reaction, one of the substances included in the
reaction would have to be changed (water, carbon
dioxide, light)
The oxygen that is released during photosynthesis
originally came from the water the roots absorbed.
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During the light independent reactions of
photosynthesis, carbon containing molecules that will
eventually become glucose are produced from carbon
dioxide.
In an ATP molecule, the last bond between the last two
phosphate groups must be broken to make ADP
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When that last phosphate group is removed, energy is
released from ATP
Photosynthesis uses sunlight to convert water and carbon
dioxide into sugars and starches
ATP is the main energy transfer molecule for the cell.
Comparing ATP to ADP, ATP has more potential energy
because of that final phosphate bond.
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The formula for photosynthesis is:
12H2O + 6CO2 + light energy
C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
Respiration
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The ultimate goal of cellular respiration in
organisms like humans is to use the carbon to make
sugars.
The ultimate original source of energy for all living
things on Earth is the sun.
Photosynthesis and respiration are alike in that
BOTH involve energy conversions.
Cellular respiration is important to all living things
because it changes potential energy into energy for
work.
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The Kreb’s Cycle (citric acid cycle) takes place in the
mitochondria.
The first step in the break down of glucose is
glycolysis .
The process of cellular respiration breaks down
food molecules to release stored energy.
Aerobic respiration produces more ATP than
anaerobic respiration (38 ATP to 2 ATP)
When cells break down food molecules, energy is
temporarily stored in ATP molecules.
Muscle cells will perform lactic acid fermentation
when there is not enough oxygen in the muscle cells.
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Bacteria that survive in the presence of oxygen are
described as aerobic.
The correct sequence of events in cellular respiration is:
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Glycolysis
Kreb’s Cycle
Electron Transport Chain
During cellular respiration, oxygen, water, and ATP is
released.
Cellular respiration is called an aerobic process
because it requires oxygen.
During lactic acid fermentation, milk is converted to
yogurt.
We learned about 2 types of fermentation:
Lactic acid in animals
 Alcohol fermentation in plants
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Macromolecules
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Polymers of nucleic acids include nucleotides
Examples of carbohydrates we studied were
glucose and glycogen.
All organic molecules contain the element carbon.
1 example of a nucleic acid is DNA
Amino acids are monomers of proteins (in other
words, amino acids make a chain that make
proteins!)
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Fatty acids combine to make a lipid macromolecule.
The small molecules which bind together to form
large macromolecules are called monomers.
During our lab, we discovered the macromolecule
that stores the most energy are carbohydrates like
the orange.
Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids.
The process of removing water to form polymers is
known as dehydration synthesis.
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The main function of a lipid is to store energy.
Bonds are broken in polymers by the process of a
hydrolysis.
Enzymes
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When glucose attaches to an enzyme, the bond
allows the glucose to separate. The product is 2
smaller sugars.
Enzymes lower the required activation energy for a
chemical reaction to occur.
Enzymes are biological catalysts that are specific
because of their shape.
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