CELLULAR ENERGY Study Guide Photosynthesis A process that results in 38 ATP molecules and gives off water and carbon dioxide. In order to influence the rate of a photosynthetic reaction, one of the substances included in the reaction would have to be changed (water, carbon dioxide, light) The oxygen that is released during photosynthesis originally came from the water the roots absorbed. During the light independent reactions of photosynthesis, carbon containing molecules that will eventually become glucose are produced from carbon dioxide. In an ATP molecule, the last bond between the last two phosphate groups must be broken to make ADP When that last phosphate group is removed, energy is released from ATP Photosynthesis uses sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and starches ATP is the main energy transfer molecule for the cell. Comparing ATP to ADP, ATP has more potential energy because of that final phosphate bond. The formula for photosynthesis is: 12H2O + 6CO2 + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O Respiration The ultimate goal of cellular respiration in organisms like humans is to use the carbon to make sugars. The ultimate original source of energy for all living things on Earth is the sun. Photosynthesis and respiration are alike in that BOTH involve energy conversions. Cellular respiration is important to all living things because it changes potential energy into energy for work. The Kreb’s Cycle (citric acid cycle) takes place in the mitochondria. The first step in the break down of glucose is glycolysis . The process of cellular respiration breaks down food molecules to release stored energy. Aerobic respiration produces more ATP than anaerobic respiration (38 ATP to 2 ATP) When cells break down food molecules, energy is temporarily stored in ATP molecules. Muscle cells will perform lactic acid fermentation when there is not enough oxygen in the muscle cells. Bacteria that survive in the presence of oxygen are described as aerobic. The correct sequence of events in cellular respiration is: Glycolysis Kreb’s Cycle Electron Transport Chain During cellular respiration, oxygen, water, and ATP is released. Cellular respiration is called an aerobic process because it requires oxygen. During lactic acid fermentation, milk is converted to yogurt. We learned about 2 types of fermentation: Lactic acid in animals Alcohol fermentation in plants Macromolecules Polymers of nucleic acids include nucleotides Examples of carbohydrates we studied were glucose and glycogen. All organic molecules contain the element carbon. 1 example of a nucleic acid is DNA Amino acids are monomers of proteins (in other words, amino acids make a chain that make proteins!) Fatty acids combine to make a lipid macromolecule. The small molecules which bind together to form large macromolecules are called monomers. During our lab, we discovered the macromolecule that stores the most energy are carbohydrates like the orange. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids. The process of removing water to form polymers is known as dehydration synthesis. The main function of a lipid is to store energy. Bonds are broken in polymers by the process of a hydrolysis. Enzymes When glucose attaches to an enzyme, the bond allows the glucose to separate. The product is 2 smaller sugars. Enzymes lower the required activation energy for a chemical reaction to occur. Enzymes are biological catalysts that are specific because of their shape.