Nutrition: Where do we get our nutrients? MacroMolecules, Vitamins and Minerals Engage Is there a better solution??? If there was a magic pill obesity would not be at epidemic proportions in the US. Our body needs essential nutrients for growth, health and overall well being. We cannot be sedentary and deny our body these essentials and be healthy. You need to be aware of the vital nutrients, vitamins and minerals available in everyday foods. Explore Exploration 1 Identifying Organic Compounds Lab You will test common foods for the presence of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids Exploration 2 Food Labels You will view various food labels and analyze the nutritional value of various food items. Exploration 2 Calorimetry Lab By burning a piece of food, you will determine the amount of chemical energy (calories) that are present within the tested foods. You will study various foods with different proportions of protein, fat, and carbohydrates to see how much energy (calories) they release. Explain What are the four main types of macromolecules? 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Concept Map Section 38-1 Nutrients include Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals include are made of are made using include include Simple Complex such as such as Amino acids Fatty Acids Sugars Starches Calcium Glycerol Fat-soluble Watersoluble Iron MacroMolecules Large organic molecules Monomers (small molecules) Polymers (large molecules) Macromolecules Carbohydrates (sugars) Lipids(fats) Proteins Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA) Carbohydrates (Sugars) Organic compounds with a 1:2:1 ratio between Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. ( CH2O) Monosaccharides (simple sugars) C6H12O6 glucose, deoxyribose, and ribose sugar Disaccharides (double sugars) sucrose and lactose Polysaccharides (complex sugars) starch, cellulose, and glycogen Carbohydrate Functions Quick energy foods. Storage- starch=Plants, glycogen=Animals Structure (cellulose-Plants and chitin-Fungi) __?_____ - Bacteria Carbohydrate Digestion Monomers-small molecules that can be linked to make larger molecules Monosaccharide (single sugar) Disaccharide (double sugar) MALTASE, LACTASE, SUCRASE Enzymes that digest Disaccharides Lipids Molecules that store the most energy for living systems Made of C, H, O Insoluble in water – Hydrophobic Types of Lipids Triglyceride – 3 Fatty Acids bonded to a Glycerol Unsaturated: Double bonds between some of the carbons Liquid at room temperature Found mostly in plants Saturated: No double bonds between the carbons Solid at room temperature Found mostly in animals. Steroids, Phospholipids Steroids Cholesterol Hormones Phospholipids Two fatty acids and a phosphate group Fatty acids are hydrophobic Phosphate group is hydrophilic Major component of cell membrane Lipid Functions Key importance in cell membrane High Energy food Protects vital organs Insulates the body Stores food for later use Fat (Lipid) Digestion Bile from gall bladder emulsifies fat. LIPASE- enzymes that digests lipids Protein Function Most Abundant-50% of Dry Wt Essential to Life Build structure Movement: Makes up muscle tissue (ex. actin and myosin). Transport:Carries oxygen in an organism (ex. hemoglobin). Immunity: Helps fight off foreign invaders (ex. antibodies). Enzymes: Speed up chemical reactions (ex. amylase and trypsin). Protein (Structure) Large Complex Polymer C, H, O, N, sometimes S Monomer is – amino acids 20 different Most structural variation Each amino acid contains an amino group (NH2) Central Carbon (C) H Carboxyl group (COOH) Unique “R” group Proteins Polymer: Polypeptide Monomers (A.A.) linked by dehydration synthesis Covalent bonding links (Peptide Bond) Four Shapes Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary Primary: Chain Secondary (Sheets, Pleated) Tertiary: Globular (3-D) Quaternary: 2 or more; globular (3-D) Nucleic Acids Made up of smaller units called nucleotides (sugar, phosphate and base) DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (Ribonucleic acid) Nucleic Acid Comparison DNA Double Helix ( twisted ladder) Contains the bases A, T, C, & G Contains the code for the bodies proteins RNA Single strand Contains the bases A, U, C, & G Carries the code for a protein, and transfers amino acids to the ribosomes. Nutrients – Seven Important 1. Water 1. Body needs water because 1. Most of the body processes either need or take place in a water environment 2. Loose water in your sweat, urine, and exhalation 3. Need to drink at least a liter a day – keep healthy 4. Not enough - dehydration 2. Carbohydrates 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Main source of energy for the body 1gram = 4 Kcal. Monosaccarides (Simple carbs) found in fruits, honey, and sugar cane Polysaccarides (Complex carbs) found in starches such as grains & potatoes Polysaccarides are digested into monosaccarides. 3. Fats 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Body cannot produce all you need Fat is broken down into glycerol and fatty acids. 1 gram = 9 Kcal. Essential fatty acids found in vegetable oils Help body absorb certain vitamins Used to produce 1. Cell membranes 2. Myelin sheaths 3. Hormones 4. Proteins 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Supply raw materials for growth and repair The building block of protein are amino acids. 1gram = 4 Kcal. Enzymes Regulatory & transport functions 1. Insulin 2. hemoglobin Body only makes 12 1. Must include the other 8 from your diet 5. Nucleic Acids Obtain nitrogen from protein sources. Body makes and recycles the necessary components to produce nitrogenous bases that will form: DNA & RNA 6. Vitamins 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Organic molecules that help regulate body processes Often work with enzymes Most must be obtained from food Vitamin deficiencies and overdose have serious consequences There are 2 types of Vitamins: 1. Fat Soluble (Can Overdose) 2. Water Soluble Types of Vitamins Vitamin Sources Function A (retinol) Yellow, orange, and dark green vegetables; dairy products Important for growth of skin cells; important for night vision D (calciferol) Fish oils, eggs; made by skin when exposed to sunlight; added to dairy products Promotes bone growth; increases calcium and phosphorus absorption E (tocopherol) Green leafy vegetables, seeds, vegetable oils Antioxidant; prevents cellular damage K Green leafy vegetables; made by bacteria that live in human intestine Needed for normal blood clotting B1 (thiamine) Whole grains, pork, legumes, milk Normal metabolism of carbohydrates B2 (riboflavin) Dairy products, meats, vegetables, whole-grain cereal Normal growth; part of electron transport chain; energy metabolism Types of Vitamins Vitamin Sources Function Niacin Liver, milk, whole grains, nuts, meats, legumes Important in energy metabolism B6 (pyridoxine) Whole grains, meats, vegetables Important for amino acid metabolism Pantothenic acid Meats, dairy, whole grains Needed for energy metabolism Folic acid Legumes, nuts, green leafy vegetables, oranges, broccoli, peas, fortified bread and cereal Coenzyme involved in nucleic acid metabolism; prevents neural-tube defects in developing fetuses B12 (cyanocobalamin) Meats, eggs, dairy products, enriched cereals Coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism; maturation of red blood cells Types of Vitamins Vitamin Sources Function C (ascorbic acid) Citrus fruits, tomatoes, red or green peppers, broccoli, cabbage, strawberries Maintenance of cartilage and bone; antioxidant; improves iron absorption; important for healthy gums, tissue repair, and wound healing Biotin Legumes, vegetables, meat Coenzyme in synthesis of fat; glycogen formation; amino acid metabolism Choline Egg yolk, liver, grains, legumes Required for phospholipids and neurotransmitters 7. Minerals 1. 2. 3. Inorganic nutrients Needed in small amounts By eating a variety of foods you can meet your daily requirements Types of Minerals Mineral Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sources Diary products; salmon; sardines; kale; tofu; collard greens; legumes Dairy products; meats; poultry; grains Meats; dairy products; many fruits and vegetables; grains Function Bone and tooth formation; blood clotting; nerve and muscle function Bone and tooth formation; acid-base balance Acid-base balance; body water balance; nerve function Chlorine Table salt; processed foods Acid-base balance; formation of gastric juice Sodium Table salt; processed foods Acid-base balance; body water balance; nerve function Magnesium Whole grains; green leafy vegetables Activation of enzymes in protein synthesis Iron Meats; eggs; legumes; whole grains; green leafy vegetables; dried fruit Component of hemoglobin and of electron carriers used in energy metabolism Fluorine Fluoridated drinking water; tea; seafood Maintenance of tooth structure; maintenance of bone structure Iodine Seafood; dairy products; iodized salt Component of thyroid hormones Zinc Meats; seafood; grains Component of certain digestive enzymes Food Guide Pyramid Section 38-1 Fats, Oils, and Sweets (use sparingly) Soft drinks, candy, ice cream, mayonnaise, and other foods in this group have relatively few valuable nutrients. Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group (2-3 Servings) Milk and other dairy products are rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. Vegetable Group (3-5 servings) Vegetables are a low-fat source of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Fats Sugars Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nut Group (2-3 servings) These foods are high in protein. They also supply vitamins and minerals. Fruit Group (2-4 servings) Fruits are good sources of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and water. Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta Group (6-11 servings) The foods at the base of the pyramid are rich in complex carbohydrates and also provide proteins, fiber, vitamins, and some minerals. Elaborate Investigating Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids Students will investigate the structure and formation of each type of macromolecule using a hands on manipulative.