7 Biology 1 9 07 Digestive System 2 Macromolecules

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Nutrition:
Where do we get our nutrients?
MacroMolecules, Vitamins and Minerals
Engage
Is there a
better
solution???
If there was a magic pill obesity would not
be at epidemic proportions in the US.
Our body needs essential nutrients for
growth, health and overall well being. We
cannot be sedentary and deny our body
these essentials and be healthy.
You need to be aware of the vital
nutrients, vitamins and minerals available
in everyday foods.
Explore
Exploration 1
Identifying Organic Compounds Lab

You will test common foods for the presence of carbohydrates,
lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
Exploration 2
Food Labels

You will view various food labels and analyze the nutritional value of
various food items.
Exploration 2
Calorimetry Lab

By burning a piece of food, you will determine the amount of
chemical energy (calories) that are present within the tested foods.
You will study various foods with different proportions of protein, fat,
and carbohydrates to see how much energy (calories) they release.
Explain
What are the four main types of
macromolecules?
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
4. Nucleic Acids
Concept Map
Section 38-1
Nutrients
include
Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
include
are made of
are made using
include
include
Simple
Complex
such as
such as
Amino
acids
Fatty Acids
Sugars
Starches
Calcium
Glycerol
Fat-soluble
Watersoluble
Iron
MacroMolecules
Large organic molecules
Monomers (small molecules)
Polymers (large molecules)
Macromolecules
Carbohydrates (sugars)
Lipids(fats)
Proteins
Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA)
Carbohydrates
(Sugars)
Organic compounds with a 1:2:1 ratio
between Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
( CH2O)
Monosaccharides (simple sugars) C6H12O6
glucose, deoxyribose, and ribose sugar
Disaccharides (double sugars)
sucrose and lactose
Polysaccharides (complex sugars) starch,
cellulose, and glycogen
Carbohydrate Functions
Quick energy foods.
Storage- starch=Plants, glycogen=Animals
Structure (cellulose-Plants and chitin-Fungi)
__?_____ - Bacteria
Carbohydrate Digestion
Monomers-small molecules that can be linked to make
larger molecules
Monosaccharide (single sugar)
Disaccharide (double sugar)
MALTASE, LACTASE, SUCRASE

Enzymes that digest Disaccharides
Lipids
Molecules that store the most energy for
living systems
Made of C, H, O
Insoluble in water – Hydrophobic
Types of Lipids
Triglyceride – 3 Fatty Acids
bonded to a Glycerol
Unsaturated: Double bonds
between some of the carbons
Liquid at room temperature
Found mostly in plants
Saturated: No double bonds
between the carbons
Solid at room temperature
Found mostly in animals.
Steroids, Phospholipids
Steroids


Cholesterol
Hormones
Phospholipids




Two fatty acids and a
phosphate group
Fatty acids are
hydrophobic
Phosphate group is
hydrophilic
Major component of cell
membrane
Lipid Functions
Key importance in cell membrane
High Energy food
Protects vital organs
Insulates the body
Stores food for later use
Fat (Lipid) Digestion
Bile from gall bladder emulsifies fat.
LIPASE- enzymes that digests lipids
Protein Function
Most Abundant-50% of Dry Wt
Essential to Life
Build structure
Movement: Makes up muscle tissue
(ex. actin and myosin).
Transport:Carries oxygen in an organism
(ex. hemoglobin).
Immunity: Helps fight off foreign invaders
(ex. antibodies).
Enzymes: Speed up chemical reactions
(ex. amylase and trypsin).
Protein (Structure)
Large Complex Polymer
C, H, O, N, sometimes S
Monomer is – amino acids


20 different
Most structural variation
Each amino acid contains





an amino group (NH2)
Central Carbon (C)
H
Carboxyl group (COOH)
Unique “R” group
Proteins
Polymer: Polypeptide
Monomers (A.A.) linked by dehydration
synthesis
Covalent bonding links (Peptide Bond)
Four Shapes




Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Quaternary
Primary: Chain
Secondary (Sheets, Pleated)
Tertiary: Globular (3-D)
Quaternary: 2 or more; globular
(3-D)
Nucleic Acids
Made up of smaller units
called nucleotides (sugar,
phosphate and base)


DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
RNA (Ribonucleic acid)
Nucleic Acid Comparison
DNA
Double Helix ( twisted
ladder)
Contains the bases A,
T, C, & G
Contains the code for
the bodies proteins
RNA
Single strand
Contains the bases A,
U, C, & G
Carries the code for a
protein, and transfers
amino acids to the
ribosomes.
Nutrients – Seven Important
1. Water
1. Body needs water because
1. Most of the body processes either
need or take place in a water
environment
2. Loose water in your sweat, urine, and
exhalation
3. Need to drink at least a liter a day –
keep healthy
4. Not enough - dehydration
2. Carbohydrates
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Main source of energy for the body
1gram = 4 Kcal.
Monosaccarides (Simple carbs) found
in fruits, honey, and sugar cane
Polysaccarides (Complex carbs) found
in starches such as grains & potatoes
Polysaccarides are digested into
monosaccarides.
3. Fats
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Body cannot produce all you need
Fat is broken down into glycerol and
fatty acids.
1 gram = 9 Kcal.
Essential fatty acids found in vegetable
oils
Help body absorb certain vitamins
Used to produce
1.
Cell membranes
2.
Myelin sheaths
3.
Hormones
4. Proteins
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Supply raw materials for growth and repair
The building block of protein are amino
acids.
1gram = 4 Kcal.
Enzymes
Regulatory & transport functions
1. Insulin
2. hemoglobin
Body only makes 12
1. Must include the other 8 from your diet
5. Nucleic Acids
Obtain nitrogen from
protein sources.
Body makes and
recycles the
necessary
components to
produce nitrogenous
bases that will form:
DNA & RNA
6. Vitamins
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Organic molecules that help regulate
body processes
Often work with enzymes
Most must be obtained from food
Vitamin deficiencies and overdose have
serious consequences
There are 2 types of Vitamins:
1. Fat Soluble (Can Overdose)
2. Water Soluble
Types of Vitamins
Vitamin
Sources
Function
A (retinol)
Yellow, orange, and dark green
vegetables; dairy products
Important for growth of skin
cells; important for night vision
D (calciferol)
Fish oils, eggs; made by skin
when exposed to sunlight;
added to dairy products
Promotes bone growth;
increases calcium and
phosphorus absorption
E (tocopherol)
Green leafy vegetables, seeds,
vegetable oils
Antioxidant; prevents cellular
damage
K
Green leafy vegetables; made
by bacteria that live in human
intestine
Needed for normal blood
clotting
B1 (thiamine)
Whole grains, pork, legumes,
milk
Normal metabolism of
carbohydrates
B2 (riboflavin)
Dairy products, meats,
vegetables, whole-grain cereal
Normal growth; part of electron
transport chain; energy
metabolism
Types of Vitamins
Vitamin
Sources
Function
Niacin
Liver, milk, whole grains, nuts,
meats, legumes
Important in energy metabolism
B6 (pyridoxine)
Whole grains, meats,
vegetables
Important for amino acid
metabolism
Pantothenic acid
Meats, dairy, whole grains
Needed for energy metabolism
Folic acid
Legumes, nuts, green leafy
vegetables, oranges, broccoli,
peas, fortified bread and cereal
Coenzyme involved in nucleic
acid metabolism; prevents
neural-tube defects in
developing fetuses
B12
(cyanocobalamin)
Meats, eggs, dairy products,
enriched cereals
Coenzyme in nucleic acid
metabolism; maturation of red
blood cells
Types of Vitamins
Vitamin
Sources
Function
C (ascorbic acid)
Citrus fruits, tomatoes, red or
green peppers, broccoli,
cabbage, strawberries
Maintenance of cartilage and
bone; antioxidant; improves iron
absorption; important for healthy
gums, tissue repair, and wound
healing
Biotin
Legumes, vegetables, meat
Coenzyme in synthesis of fat;
glycogen formation; amino acid
metabolism
Choline
Egg yolk, liver, grains, legumes
Required for phospholipids and
neurotransmitters
7. Minerals
1.
2.
3.
Inorganic nutrients
Needed in small amounts
By eating a variety of foods
you can meet your daily
requirements
Types of Minerals
Mineral
Calcium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sources
Diary products; salmon; sardines;
kale; tofu; collard greens; legumes
Dairy products; meats; poultry; grains
Meats; dairy products; many
fruits and vegetables; grains
Function
Bone and tooth formation; blood clotting;
nerve and muscle function
Bone and tooth formation; acid-base balance
Acid-base balance; body water balance;
nerve function
Chlorine
Table salt; processed foods
Acid-base balance; formation of gastric juice
Sodium
Table salt; processed foods
Acid-base balance; body water balance;
nerve function
Magnesium
Whole grains; green leafy vegetables
Activation of enzymes in protein synthesis
Iron
Meats; eggs; legumes; whole grains;
green leafy vegetables; dried fruit
Component of hemoglobin and of electron
carriers used in energy metabolism
Fluorine
Fluoridated drinking water; tea;
seafood
Maintenance of tooth structure; maintenance
of bone structure
Iodine
Seafood; dairy products; iodized salt
Component of thyroid hormones
Zinc
Meats; seafood; grains
Component of certain digestive enzymes
Food Guide Pyramid
Section 38-1
Fats, Oils, and Sweets (use sparingly)
Soft drinks, candy, ice cream, mayonnaise, and
other foods in this group have relatively few
valuable nutrients.
Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group
(2-3 Servings)
Milk and other dairy products are rich in
proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and
minerals.
Vegetable Group
(3-5 servings)
Vegetables are a low-fat
source of carbohydrates,
fiber, vitamins, and minerals.
Fats
Sugars
Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs,
and Nut Group
(2-3 servings)
These foods are high in protein.
They also supply vitamins and minerals.
Fruit Group
(2-4 servings)
Fruits are good sources of
carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins
and water.
Bread, Cereal, Rice
and Pasta Group
(6-11 servings)
The foods at the base of the
pyramid are rich in complex
carbohydrates and also
provide proteins, fiber,
vitamins, and some
minerals.
Elaborate
Investigating Carbohydrates, Lipids,
Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

Students will investigate the structure and
formation of each type of macromolecule using a
hands on manipulative.
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