Life Science Study Guide for CA#4 Heredity Date received ____________________ Essential Vocabulary ● Heredity ● Gene ● Allele ● Homozygous ● Heterozygous ● Genotype ● ● ● ● ● Date of assessment ____________________ Phenotype Dominant Recessive Incomplete dominance Codominance ● ● ● ● Punnett Square Pedigree Probability Ratio SC.7.L.16.1: Understand and explain that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits that this hereditary information (DNA) contains genes located in the chromosomes of each cell, and that heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another. DOK 3 Textbook reference: Unit 6: Lesson 4 Heredity & Unit 7: Lesson 1 DNA Structure and Function ● Be able to describe and/or explain that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits. ● Be able to identify and/or explain that hereditary information (DNA) contains genes located in the chromosomes of each cell and/or that heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another. ● Be able to determine how a person inherits a trait. ● Be able to explain how a dominant allele contributes to the phenotype if one or two copies are present in the genotype compared to how a recessive allele contributes to the phenotype only when two copies of it are present. ● Be able to explain how dominant and recessive genes are passed from one generation to the next. ● Be able to explain how letters represents dominant and recessive traits. (BB, Bb or bb) ● Be able to explain the difference between a phenotype and a genotype. ● Be able to understand how the the sex of an individual is determined (XX, XY) SC.7.L.16.2 Determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations using Punnett squares and pedigrees. Textbook reference: Unit 6: Lesson 5 Punnett Squares and Pedigrees ● Be able to use Punnett squares to determine genotypic and phenotypic probabilities. ● Be able to explain what the letters on the outside and inside of the punnett square represent. ● Using a Punnett Square be able to cross two heterozygous individual and determine the percentage of dominant and recessive phenotypes. ● By analyzing the offsprings of several generations, be able to determine the possible genotypes of the parents. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Given a scenario, determine the percentage of offspring that would have a specific phenotype. (Bb X bb, BB X bb, BbX Bb) Items addressing Punnett squares or pedigrees will only assess dominant and recessive traits. Be able to use Pedigrees to determine genotypic and phenotypic probabilities. After analyzing an inheritance pattern in a pedigree, be able to determine an specific individuals genotype. Items addressing pedigrees are limited to assessing the probability of a genotype or phenotype of a single individual. Items may require the identification of parental genotypes that result in certain genotypic or phenotypic probabilities in offspring. Items will not assess incomplete dominance, sex-linked traits, polygenic traits, multiple alleles, or codominance. Items addressing Punnett squares are limited to the P and F1 generations. Genotype and phenotype probabilities will only be in percents. SC.7.N.2.1- Identify an instance from the history of science in which scientific knowledge has changed when new evidence or new interpretations are encountered. DOK 1 ● Be able to identify instances in the history of science in which scientific knowledge has changed as a result of new evidence. ● Items will not require identification of the scientist(s) and/or details associated with a particular event/discovery. SC.7.N.3.2- Identify the benefits and limitations of the use of scientific models DOK 2 ● Be able to identify the benefits and/or limitations of the use of scientific models. ● Items addressing scientific theories and/or laws are limited to those found in the middle school science benchmarks SC.7.N.1.3- Distinguish between an experiment (which must involve the identification and control of variables) and other forms of scientific investigation and explain that not all scientific knowledge is derived from experimentation. DOK 2 ● Given a scenario, determine if the scenario is an controlled experiment or a observational study. ● Scenarios in items will be limited to those familiar to a middle-school student rather than global situations.