Earth Science & Chemistry Study Guide

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MIDTERM 2018 Study Guide
1. Label the Bohr model of atom below using the terms Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons. Draw a circle
around the Nucleus and label it as well.
Based on the number of subatomic particles, what element is this? ______________________
2. Use a Periodic Table to determine the element name, chemical symbol, and number of protons, neutrons,
and valence electrons for each element below:
ELEMENT
ELEMENT
PROTONS
NEUTRONS
VALENCE
NAME
SYMBOL
ELECTRONS
Boron
30
Ca
5
8
3. __________________________ electrons can be lost, gained, or shared by atoms during bonding.
4.
[ Groups / Periods ] along the vertical
columns.
These elements have the same number of
electrons in their outer shell and have similar
properties.
[ Groups / Periods ] along the horizontal
rows.
These elements have the same number of
electron shells.
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4. Atoms of metals tend to [ gain / lose ] electrons to form [ positive / negative ] ions.
5. Determine the type of bond
Metal
Nonmetal
Nonmetal
Nonmetal
(circle one)
[ Covalent Bond / Ionic Bond ]
[ Covalent Bond / Ionic Bond ]
6. Use the terms Element Symbol, Element Name, Atomic Number, and Atomic Mass to label the element
box below
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____________________________________
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____________________________________
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____________________________________
6. Determine the charges for the three main subatomic particles of an atom
SUBATOMIC PARTICLE
CHARGE
Positive Charge
Negative Charge
No Charge (Neutral)
7. Determine the maximum number of electrons that can fit in the first three energy shells
Can hold up to ______ electrons
Can hold up to ______ electrons
Can hold up to ______ electrons
8. Label the diagram below with the terms Lava and Magma
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9. Label the plate boundary types in the table below
10. Use the characteristics in the table below to identify the different types of crust
_________________________________________ Crust
●
●
●
●
●
Thinner crust
Heavier
More dense
Sinks under other type
Younger
__________________________________________ Crust
●
●
●
●
●
Thicker crust
Lighter
Less dense
Rides above other type
Older
Use the diagram of Sea-Floor spreading to answer questions 11-20
11. What does the dashed line in the center represent? _____________________________________
12. Why are the mirrored bands symmetrical (same on both sides)?
________________________________________________________________________________
13. What type of boundary is this? _____________________________________________________
14. Is this oceanic or continental crust (think about where this occurring)? ______________________
15. Which rock is the oldest? (letter) ________
16. What did Alfred Wegener hypothesize? What evidence did he use to support his hypothesis?
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17. Complete the table below by adding the land and ocean-floor features
Boundary Type
Plate Interacting
Land Feature(s)
Ocean-Floor Feature(s)
Convergent
Oceanic-Oceanic
Convergent
Oceanic-Continental
Convergent
Continental-Continental
Divergent
Oceanic-Oceanic
Divergent
Continental-Continental
N/A
Transform
Continental-Continental
N/A
N/A
N/A
18. Identify the Boundary Type and Plate Interaction
Boundary: __________________________________
Plate Interaction:
_____________________-_____________________
Boundary: __________________________________
Plate Interaction:
_____________________-_____________________
Boundary: __________________________________
Plate Interaction:
_____________________-_____________________
Boundary: __________________________________
Plate Interaction:
_____________________-_____________________
1. Seismologists know that whenever _____________ is built up along a fault, an earthquake is likely to
occur.
2. Wave speed is equal to _____________________________.
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3. The seismic waves that produce the most severe ground shaking and cause the most damage are called
____________________________.
4. [True / False] All waves are able to carry matter from one place to another.
5. Transverse, longitudinal, and electromagnetic are all types of ___________.
6. Between which two types of waves is visible light located on the EM spectrum?
7. [True / False] Seismic waves are a type of mechanical waves.
8. What is the unit for wave frequency?
9. In regards to the EM spectrum, when the wavelength increases, the frequency ____________________.
10. Which seismic wave travels as a longitudinal wave?
11. Visible light are EM waves which can be detected by the _________________.
12. Two bodies of rock on either side of a fault may be under great stress, but the force of
____________________ keeps them from slipping. However, if the stress becomes too great, an earthquake
can occur.
13. The Richter scale used to measure the ________________ of an earthquake.
14. If a transverse wave is mechanical, the particles in the medium will move ________________________ to
the propagation of the wave.
15. When looking at a transverse wave, the distance from crest to crest or trough to trough is known as the
___________________.
16. Which seismic waves propagate outward from the earthquake's focus the fastest?
17. Which EM wave has the longest wavelength?
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18. The point beneath the Earth's surface, along a fault, where rocks first break and move during an
earthquake is called _________________________.
19. The shorter the distance from an earthquake's epicenter, the ________________ between P and S wave
arrival. The further the distance, the ____________________ between P and S wave arrival.
20. A ____________________ is a large water wave produced by an earthquake on the sea-floor.
21. Which seismic wave travels as a transverse wave?
22. The amplitude of a transverse wave is the distance from __________________ to crest.
23. Love and Rayleigh waves are both surface waves, while P and S waves are _______________ waves.
24. To locate the epicenter of an earthquake, a minimum of _______ seismic wave detection stations are
required.
25. The point on the surface of the Earth directly above the focus of the earthquake is known as the
________________________.
26. The ____________________________, which measures the intensity of an earthquake, would most likely
be used to describe how much damage was done to homes and other buildings.
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27. Unlike transverse waves, longitudinal waves will cause particles in the medium to move
____________________ to the propagation of the wave.
28. Which EM wave has the highest frequency?
29. A _______________ is a rhythmic disturbance that carries energy from one place to another.
30. The most likely place for an earthquake to occur is at a __________________________________.
WORD BANK
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secondary
True
perpendicular
focus
Primary
frequency times wavelength
friction
human eye
Hertz (Hz)
at a plate boundary
waves
4. False
5. waves
6. ultraviolet and infrared light
7. True
8. Hertz (Hz)
9. decreases
10. Primary
11. human eye
12. friction
13. magnitude
14. perpendicular
15. wavelength
16. P-waves
17. radio waves
18. focus
19. less time, more time
20. tsunami
21. secondary
22. equilibrium
23. body
24. 3
25. epicenter
26. Mercalli scale
27. parallel
28. gamma rays
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P-waves
decreases
wave
equilibrium
wavelength
3
tsunami
magnitude
radio waves
body
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Mercalli scale
less time, more time
stress
gamma rays
waves
parallel
surface waves
ultraviolet and infrared light
False
epicenter
1. stress
2. frequency
times
wavelength
3. Surface
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29. wave
30. at a plate boundary
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