Biology 20 Final Review Checklist

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Biology 20
Final Review
The Biosphere (Chapters 1-3, Nelson Biology)
Topics to study:
 Ecology; be able to define it and state why it is important
 Biological Levels of Organization (Biosphere > Cell)
 Climate change
 Ozone
 Biotic vs. Abiotic
 Equations for Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
 Earth’s Energy Sources
 Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs
 Solar Radiation
 Thermodynamics (Laws and applications)
 (Most important!) Diagrams, Explanations, Human Influence On, and
Possible Solutions of:
o Hydrologic Cycle
o Carbon Cycle
o Nitrogen Cycle
o Phosphorus Cycle
Ecology & Evolution (Chapters 4-5, Nelson Biology)
Topics to Study:
 Niche vs. habitat
 Food Chains, Food Webs
o Terminology
o Be able to interpret each
o How does energy transfer through each
 Pyramids
o Numbers, Biomass, Energy
o Interference (Human & Natural)
 Pesticides
 Forest fires
 Tidal waves
 Endangered species
 Etc.
 Biomes!
o Focus on the GENERAL biotic and abiotic characteristics
 Location
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 Precipitation
 Temperature
 Animals
 Plant life
Terrestrial Ecosystems
o Types
o Factors affecting terrestrial ecosystems
o succession
o Forest layers
Aquatic Ecosystems
o Factors affecting terrestrial ecosystems
o Seasonal turnover
o Zones of a lake based on light penetration
o Zones of a lake based on thermal stratification (heat layers)
o Succession/Eutrophication
Large and small scale changes on ecosystems
Limits on Populations and Communities
o Biotic potential
o Limiting factors
o Carrying capacity
o Limits of tolerance
 Evolution
o Evidence for evolution
 Fossils
 Biogeography
 Comparative anatomy
 Embryology
o Lamarck (acquired characteristics)!!!!!!!!!!!
o Darwin (natural selection)!!!!!!!!!!!!!
 Overproduction
 Struggle for Existence
 Variation
 Survival of the Fittest
 Origin of New Species
o Types of Adaptations
 Structural
 Physiological
 Behavioural
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Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration (Chapters 6 – 7, Nelson Biology)
Topics to study:
 Photosynthesis
 Structure of the chloroplast
 Nature of light
 Absorption/ reflection of light by pigments
 Light-dependant Reaction
 Reactants
 Products
 Where it occurs
 Calvin Cycle/Carbon Fixation/Dark Reaction/Light-Independent
Reaction
 Reactants
 Products
 Where it occurs
 Role of ATP and NADPH
 Cellular Respiration
 Structure of the mitochondrion
 Oxidation-reduction reaction
 Relationship between ATP and ADP
 Aerobic vs. Anaerobic respiration
 Glycolysis
 Reactants
 Products
 Where it occurs
 Pyruvate Oxidation
 Reactants
 Products
 Where it occurs
 Kreb’s Cycle
 Reactants
 Products
 Where it occurs
 Electron Transport Chain
 Reactants
 Products
 Where it occurs
o Role of NAD and FAD
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Nutrition & Digestion (Chapter 8, Nelson Biology)
Topics to study:
 Digestive System
o Parts of the digestive system, function of each
o Path of food from mouth to anus
o Peristalsis
o Digestive enzymes, what they break down, where they are produced
o Breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, proteins
o Tests for nutrients
Respiration (Chapter 9, Nelson Biology)
Topics to study:
 Respiratory System
o Parts of the respiratory system, their functions
o How pleural pressure changes (diaphragm, ribs/intercostal muscles)
o Regulation of breathing, medulla oblongata, chemoreceptors
o Respiratory disorders (bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, etc.)
o Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure (gas exchange)
Muscles (Section 9.4, Nelson Biology)
Topics to study:
o Types of muscles
o Skeletal Muscle Structure
o Types of microfilaments; actin and myosin
o Muscle Fatigue
o Muscle Contraction
o Fast and Slow Twitch muscles Fibres
Circulation (Chapter 10, Nelson Biology)
Topics to study:
 Circulatory System
o Different types of blood vessels!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
o Structure of the heart!!!!!!!!!!!!
o Path of blood flow through the heart and to/from the lungs!!!!!!!!!!!
o Atherosclerosis, Angina, Heart murmur
o Control of heart rate, electrocardiograph
o Cardiac output
o Blood Pressure (diastole, systole), regulation of blood pressure, role
of baroreceptors
o Capillary fluid exchange
o Lymphatic system
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Blood & Immunity (Chapter 11, Nelson Biology)
Topics to study:
o Components of blood, (plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes,
platelets)!!!!!!!!!!
o Blood-clotting reaction; thrombus, embolus
o Blood groups (antigen, antibodies, who can donate to
whom)!!!!!!!!!!!!!
o Rhesus factor, erythroblastosis fetalis
o Immune response (T cells, B cells)
o Memory of the immune system
o Autoimmune disease
o Allergies
o Transplants
o Poisons and toxins
Excretion (Chapter 12, Nelson Biology)
Topics to study:
 Excretory System
o Parts of the excretory system
o Structure of the nephron!!!!!!!!!!!!!
o Urine formation (filtration, reabsorption, secretion)!!!!!!!!!!!!!
o How the body balances water levels (ADH)
o How the kidneys can regulate blood pressure
o Kidney disease (diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, Bright’s disease,
Kidney stones)
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