ch 8

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International Economics, 10e (Krugman/Obstfeld/Melitz)
Chapter 8 Firms in the Global Economy: Export Decisions, Outsourcing, and
Multinational Enterprises
1) A monopolistic firm
A) will never sell a product whose demand is inelastic at the quantity sold.
B) can sell as much as it wants for any price it determines in the market.
C) cannot determine the price, which is determined by consumer demand.
D) cannot sell additional quantity unless it raises the price on each unit.
E) will always earn a profit in the long run.
2) Monopolistic competition is associated with
A) product differentiation.
B) price-taking behavior.
C) explicit consideration at the firm level of the strategic impact of other firms' pricing decisions.
D) high profit margins in the long run.
E) increasing returns to scale.
3) Modeling trade in imperfectly competitive industries is problematic because
A) there is no single generally accepted model of behavior by imperfectly competitive firms.
B) there are no models of imperfectly competitive behavior.
C) it is difficult to find an imperfectly competitive firm in the real world.
D) collusion among imperfectly competitive firms makes usable data rare.
E) there is only a single model of imperfect competition (monopoly) but imperfect competition
can take many forms in the real world.
4) The simultaneous export and import of widgets by the United States is an example of
A) intra-industry trade.
B) increasing returns to scale.
C) imperfect competition.
D) inter-industry trade.
E) the effect of a monopoly on international trade.
5) When a country both exports and imports a type of commodity, the country is engaged
in
A) intra-industry trade.
B) increasing returns to scale.
C) imperfect competition.
D) inter-industry trade.
E) an attempt to monopolize the relevant industry.
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6) If there are a large number of firms in a monopolistically competitive industry
A) long-run profit will be equal to zero.
B) the country in which the firms are located can be expected to export the goods they produce.
C) there will be barriers to entry that prevent addition firms from entering the industry.
D) the firms will converge production on a standardized product.
E) there will be a small number of firms that are very large and the rest will be very small.
7) It is possible that trade based on external scale economies may leave a country worse off
than it would have been without trade. Explain how this could happen.
8) If a firm increases its output in the ________ and unit costs ________, then the firm is
experiencing ________ of scale.
A) long-run; decrease; economies
B) short-run; decrease; economies
C) long-run; decrease; diseconomies
D) short-run; decrease; diseconomies
E) long-run; increase; economies
9) If a firm increases its output in the ________ and unit costs ________, then the firm is
experiencing ________ of scale.
A) long-run; increase; diseconomies
B) short-run; decrease; economies
C) long-run; decrease; diseconomies
D) short-run; decrease; diseconomies
E) long-run; increase; economies
10) If a firm that uses a production process that yields economies of scale charges a price
equal to ________, then profit will be ________.
A) marginal cost; negative
B) marginal revenue; maximized
C) marginal cost; maximized
D) marginal revenue; positive
E) marginal cost; positive
11) Firms that produce ________ products must be ________ competitive.
A) differentiated; imperfectly
B) differentiated; perfectly
C) standardized; imperfectly
D) standardized; perfectly
E) exported; imperfectly
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12) Imperfectly competitive firms have a demand curve that ________ and a marginal
revenue curve that ________ and is ________ the demand curve.
A) slopes downward; slopes downward; below
B) is horizontal; is horizontal; the same as
C) slopes downward; is horizontal; above
D) is horizontal; slopes downward; below
E) slopes downward; slopes downward; the same as
13) An imperfectly competitive firm has the following demand curve: Q = 100 - 2P. What is
marginal revenue equal to when P = 30?
14) An imperfectly competitive firm has the following demand curve: Q = 100 - 2P. What is
marginal revenue equal to when P = 40?
15) An imperfectly competitive firm has the following total cost curve: C = 100 + 4Q. What
is marginal cost equal to when Q = 10?
16) An imperfectly competitive firm has the following total cost curve: C = 100 + 4Q. What
is total cost equal to when Q = 10?
17) An imperfectly competitive firm has the following total cost curve: C = 100 + 4Q. What
is average total cost equal to when Q = 10?
18) An imperfectly competitive firm has the following total cost curve: C = 100 + 4Q. What
is average fixed cost equal to when Q = 10?
19) Under oligopoly, firms' pricing policies are ________ and, under monopolistic
competition, they are ________.
A) interdependent; independent
B) independent; interdependent
C) cooperative; uncooperative
D) uncooperative; cooperative
E) profit maximizing; revenue maximizing
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20) Under the model of monopolistic competition, a(an) ________ in the number of firms in
the industry will cause ________ to ________.
A) increase; average price; decrease
B) increase; average price; increase
C) increase; average cost; decrease
D) decrease; markup; decrease
E) increase; marginal cost; decrease
21) Under the model of monopolistic competition, a(an) ________ in the number of firms in
the industry will cause ________ to ________.
A) increase; markup; decrease
B) increase; average price; increase
C) increase; average cost; decrease
D) decrease; markup; decrease
E) increase; marginal cost; decrease
22) Intra-industry trade is most common in the trade patterns of
A) the industrial countries of Western Europe.
B) the developing countries of Asia and Africa.
C) raw material producers.
D) China with the rest of the world.
E) labor-intensive products.
23) If the market for products produced by firms in a monopolistically competitive
industry becomes ________, then there will be ________ firms and each firm will produce
________ output and charge a ________ price.
A) larger; more; more; lower
B) larger; fewer; more; lower
C) larger; fewer; more; higher
D) larger; more; more; higher
E) larger; more; less; higher
23) International trade based on external scale economies in both countries is likely to be
carried out by
A) a relatively large number of price competing firms.
B) a relatively small number of price competing firms.
C) a relatively small number of imperfect competitors.
D) monopolists in each country.
E) a large number of oligopolists in each country.
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24) International trade based solely on internal scale economies in both countries is likely
to be carried out by
A) monopolists in each country.
B) a relatively large number of price competing firms.
C) a relatively small number of price competing firms.
D) a relatively small number of imperfect competitors.
E) a large number of oligopolists in each country.
25) A monopoly firm engaged in international trade will
A) equate marginal costs with marginal revenues in both domestic and foreign markets.
B) equate average to local costs.
C) equate marginal costs with foreign marginal revenues.
D) equate marginal costs with the highest price the market will bear.
E) equate marginal costs with the relative world prices.
26) A monopoly firm will maximize profits by producing where
A) marginal revenue is the same in domestic and foreign markets.
B) prices are the same in domestic and foreign markets.
C) marginal revenue is higher in foreign markets.
D) marginal revenue is higher in the domestic market.
E) total revenue from domestic and foreign sales is maximized.
27) A firm in long-run equilibrium under monopolistic competition will earn
A) zero economic profits because of free entry.
B) positive monopoly profits because each sells a differentiated product.
C) positive oligopoly profits because each firm sells a differentiated product.
D) negative economic profits because it has economies of scale.
E) positive economic profit if it engages in international trade.
28) An industry is characterized by scale economies, and exists in two countries. Should
these two countries engage in trade such that the combined market is supplied by one
country's industry, then
A) consumers in both countries would have more varieties and lower prices.
B) consumers in both countries would have higher prices and fewer varieties.
C) consumers in the importing country only would have higher prices and fewer varieties.
D) consumers in the exporting country only would have higher prices and fewer varieties.
E) consumers in both countries would have fewer varieties at lower prices.
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29) An industry is characterized by scale economies and exists in two countries. In order
for consumers of its products to enjoy both lower prices and more variety of choice
A) the two countries must engage in international trade with each other.
B) each country's marginal cost must equal that of the other country.
C) the marginal cost of this industry must equal marginal revenue in the other.
D) the monopoly must lower prices in order to sell more.
E) they must combine to become a multinational corporation.
30) A product is produced in a monopolistically competitive industry with scale economies.
If this industry exists in two countries, and these two countries engage in trade with each
other, then we would expect
A) each country will export different varieties of the product to the other.
B) the country in which the price of the product is lower will export the product.
C) the country with a relative abundance of the factor of production in which production of the
product is intensive will export this product.
D) neither country will export this product since there is no comparative advantage.
E) the countries will trade only with other nations they are not in competition with.
31) Two countries engaged in trade in products with no scale economies, produced under
conditions of perfect competition, are likely to be engaged in
A) inter-industry trade.
B) monopolistic competition.
C) intra-industry trade.
D) Heckscher-Ohlin trade.
E) oligopolistic competition
32) Two countries engaged in trade in products with scale economies, produced under
conditions of monopolistic competition, are likely to be engaged in
A) intra-industry trade.
B) price competition.
C) inter-industry trade.
D) Heckscher-Ohlinean trade.
E) immiserizing trade.
33) We often observe "pseudo-intra-industry trade" between the United States and Mexico.
Actually, such trade is consistent with
A) comparative advantage associated with Heckscher-Ohlin model.
B) oligopolistic markets.
C) optimal tariff issues.
D) the Ricardian model of trade.
E) the specific factors model of trade.
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34) Intra-industry trade will tend to dominate trade flows when which of the following
exists?
A) small differences between relative country factor availabilities
B) large differences between relative country factor availabilities
C) homogeneous products that cannot be differentiated
D) constant cost industries
E) uneven distribution of abundant resources between two countries
35) Trade without serious income distribution effects is most likely to happen
A) in sophisticated manufactures trade between rich countries.
B) in simple manufactures trade between developing countries.
C) in sophisticated manufactures trade between rich and poor countries.
D) in agricultural trade between rich countries.
E) in labor-intensive industries like clothing.
36) Imagine scale economies were not only external to firms, but were also external to
individual countries. That is, the larger the worldwide industry (regardless of where firms
or plants are located), the cheaper would be the per-unit cost of production. Describe what
world trade would look like in this case.
37) Refer to above figure. The monopolist can export as much as it likes of its steel at the
world price of $5/ton. How much steel will the monopolist sell, and at what price?
38) Refer to above figure. Given the opportunity to sell at world prices, the marginal
(opportunity) cost of selling a ton domestically is what?
39) Refer to above figure. While selling exports it would also maximize its domestic sales by
equating its marginal (opportunity) cost to its marginal revenue of $5. How much steel
would the firm sell domestically, and at what price?
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40) If the market for products produced by firms in a monopolistically competitive
industry becomes ________, then there will be ________ firms and each firm will produce
________ output and charge a ________ price.
A) smaller; fewer; less; higher
B) smaller; more; less; higher
C) smaller; more; less; lower
D) smaller; fewer; less; lower
E) smaller; fewer; more; higher
41) In an industry where firms experience internal scale economies, the long-run cost of
production will depend on
A) the size of the market.
B) the size of the labor force.
C) whether the country engages in intra-industry trade.
D) individual firms' fixed costs.
E) whether the country engages in inter-industry trade.
42) In the model of monopolistic competition, if firms have ________ average cost curves,
then opening trade will ________ the total number of firms and ________ the average
price.
A) downward sloping; decrease; decrease
B) downward sloping; decrease; increase
C) downward sloping; increase; decrease
D) upward sloping; decrease; increase
E) upward sloping; increase; decrease
43) In the model of monopolistic competition, if firms have ________ average cost curves,
then opening trade will cause ________ firms to ________ the industry.
A) different; less efficient; exit
B) different; more efficient; enter
C) symmetric; less efficient; exit
D) symmetric; more efficient; enter
E) symmetric; less efficient; enter
44) In the model of monopolistic competition, compared to a firm with a higher marginal
cost, a firm with a lower marginal cost will set a ________ price, produce ________ output,
and earn ________ profits.
A) lower; more; more
B) higher; more; more
C) lower; less; less
D) higher; less; less
E) higher; less; more
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45) In the model of monopolistic competition, compared to a firm with a lower marginal
cost, a firm with a higher marginal cost will set a ________ price, produce ________ output,
and earn ________ profits.
A) higher; less; less
B) lower; more; more
C) higher; more; more
D) lower; less; less
E) higher; less; more
46) In the model of monopolistic competition, an increase in industry output will cause
individual firms' demand curves to become ________, which will ________ demand for
higher-priced goods and ________ demand for lower-priced goods.
A) flatter; reduce; increase
B) steeper; reduce; increase
C) flatter; increase; reduce
D) steeper; increase; reduce
E) horizontal; reduce; reduce
47) In the model of monopolistic competition, an increase in industry output will ________
producers of ________ higher-priced goods and ________ producers of lower-priced goods.
A) harm; benefit
B) benefit; harm
C) harm; harm
D) benefit; benefit
E) benefit; have no effect on
48) In the model of monopolistic competition, an increase in industry output will ________
market shares and ________ profits of producers of higher-priced goods and will ________
market shares and ________ profits of producers of lower-priced goods.
A) reduce; reduce; increase; increase
B) increase; increase; reduce; reduce
C) increase; reduce; increase; reduce
D) reduce; increase; reduce; increase
E) reduce; increase; increase; reduce
49) In the model of monopolistic competition, trade costs between countries will cause
domestic and foreign markets to have ________ prices, ________ quantities sold, and
________ profit levels.
A) different; different; different
B) identical; different; different
C) different; different; identical
D) identical; different; identical
E) identical; identical; different
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50) In the model of monopolistic competition, trade costs between countries cause
A) marginal costs of exported goods to exceed the marginal costs of goods sold domestically.
B) marginal costs of goods sold domestically to exceed the marginal costs of exported goods.
C) all firms that can earn a profit on domestic sales to export their goods at lower prices.
D) all firms that can earn a profit on domestic sales to export their goods at higher prices.
E) countries to negotiate the elimination of trade costs by mutual subsidization of trade.
51) In the model of monopolistic competition, trade costs between countries cause
A) some firms that can earn a profit on domestic sales to refrain from exporting their goods.
B) prices of goods sold domestically to exceed the prices of exported goods.
C) marginal costs of goods sold domestically to exceed the marginal costs of exported goods.
D) all firms that can earn a profit on domestic sales to export their goods at higher prices.
E) countries to negotiate the elimination of trade costs by mutual subsidization of trade.
52) The most common form of price discrimination in international trade is
A) dumping.
B) non-tariff barriers.
C) Voluntary Export Restraints.
D) preferential trade arrangements.
E) product boycotts.
53) If an industry is imperfectly competitive, and markets are segmented then
A) a firm may find that it is profitable to engage in dumping.
B) a firm may find that international trade is unprofitable.
C) a firm may find that it should promote scale economies.
D) a firm may find that it has lost its comparative advantage.
E) a firm may find that it should become more specialized.
54) A corporation is considered a multinational ________ if ________.
A) parent; it owns more than 10% of a foreign firm
B) parent; more than 10% of its stock is held by a foreign company
C) child; more than 10% of its stock is held by a foreign company
D) child; more than 50% of its stock is held by a foreign company
E) monopolist; it owns more than 50% of a foreign firm
55) A corporation is considered a multinational ________ if ________.
A) affiliate; more than 10% of its stock is held by a foreign company
B) parent; more than 10% of its stock is held by a foreign company
C) child; more than 10% of its stock is held by a foreign company
D) child; more than 50% of its stock is held by a foreign company
E) monopolist; it owns more than 50% of a foreign firm
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56) When a multinational affiliate replicates production in a foreign country it is called
________ foreign direct investment.
A) horizontal
B) vertical
C) transitional
D) bisectional
E) direct
57) When a multinational affiliate replicates elements of a production process in a foreign
country it is called ________ foreign direct investment.
A) vertical
B) horizontal
C) transitional
D) bisectional
E) direct
58) What is the nature of the proximity-concentration tradeoff that firms have to deal with
then making decisions regarding foreign direct investment?
59) Foreign outsourcing is
A) the transfer of operations to foreign contractors.
B) an example of internalization.
C) an example of foreign direct investment.
D) currently illegal in the U.S.
E) the substitution of immigration for foreign direct investment.
60) A firm is more likely to engage in horizontal foreign direct investment if
A) trade costs are high and there are internal economies of scale.
B) trade costs are low and there are internal economies of scale.
C) trade costs are high and there are external economies of scale.
D) trade costs are low and there are external economies of scale.
E) trade costs are low and firms experience constant returns to scale in production.
61) A firm's foreign direct investment. decisions are, in the case of horizontal FDI, strongly
influenced by ________ and, in the case of vertical FDI, strongly influenced by ________.
A) trade costs; production costs
B) materials costs; labor costs
C) production costs; materials costs
D) production costs; trade costs
E) labor costs; trade costs
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62) What are the consequences of outsourcing production on the welfare of countries?
63) Product differentiation and internal economies of scale yield gains from trade in the
form of
A) lower production costs and a greater variety of goods.
B) higher profits and lower trade costs.
C) the proximity-concentration effect.
D) a proliferation of competitive firms.
E) the substitution of immigration for foreign direct investment.
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