Basic Facts
• Tuberculosis (TB) is a common
and deadly infectious disease caused
by mycobacteria, mainly
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
• Over 9 million new cases and 2
million deaths per year worldwide
• 1/3rd of the world’s population is
infected with M.tuberculosis
Common Causes
• Mycobacterium tuberculosis
• Highly aerobic
• Infects lungs
• Divides every 15-20 hours
• Very resistant to many disinfectants, acid, alkali, drying, etc.
• Contagious, spread through air by inhalation of airborne
bacteria from infected
• Easier to contract with weak immune system
Common Symptoms
Cough (2-3 weeks or more)
Coughing up blood
Chest pains
Night Sweats
Feeling weak and tired
Losing weight without trying
Decreased or no appetite
Classification of Tuberculosis
Depending on the time of infection and types of response, TB may be
classified as;
• Primary Tuberculosis
• It is initiated after first contact with tubercle bacilli
• Secondary Tuberculosis
• Mainly occurs due to Reactivation of Latent infection
• May also due to Exogenous reinfection
• Leads to – Cavitation's of Lungs, Enlargement of Lymph nodes, expectoration of
Bacteria laden sputum
Laboratory Diagnosis
• Test may include
• Chest X-ray
show air fluid levels as infection progresses
• Physical Examination
dullness to chest percussion, increased vocal fremitus
• Tuberculin Skin Test
positive reaction to intradermal injection of tuberculin
• Microbiological detect of smears and cultures
• Blood test
elevation in white blood cells (WBCs) count with
lymphocyte predominance.
• Positive Skin Test, Negative X-Ray:
• Antibiotic: Isoniazid
• Positive Skin Test, Positive X-Ray:
• Antibiotic: Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide
• Prevention
• BCG Vaccine
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