Basic Facts

• • Tuberculosis (TB) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

• Over 9 million new cases and 2 million deaths per year worldwide 1/3rd of the world’s population is infected with M.tuberculosis

Common Causes

• • • Mycobacterium tuberculosis • Highly aerobic • • Infects lungs Divides every 15-20 hours • Very resistant to many disinfectants, acid, alkali, drying, etc.

Contagious, spread through air by inhalation of airborne bacteria from infected Easier to contract with weak immune system

Common Symptoms

• • • • • • • • Cough (2-3 weeks or more) Coughing up blood Chest pains Fever Night Sweats Feeling weak and tired Losing weight without trying Decreased or no appetite

Classification of Tuberculosis

• • Depending on the time of infection and types of response, TB may be classified as; Primary Tuberculosis • It is initiated after first contact with tubercle bacilli Secondary Tuberculosis • • • Mainly occurs due to Reactivation of Latent infection May also due to Exogenous reinfection Leads to – Cavitation's of Lungs, Enlargement of Lymph nodes, expectoration of Bacteria laden sputum

Laboratory Diagnosis

• Test may include • Chest X-ray • show air fluid levels as infection progresses • Physical Examination • dullness to chest percussion, increased vocal fremitus • Tuberculin Skin Test • positive reaction to intradermal injection of tuberculin • • Microbiological detect of smears and cultures Blood test • elevation in white blood cells (WBCs) count with lymphocyte predominance.


• Positive Skin Test, Negative X-Ray: • Antibiotic: Isoniazid • Positive Skin Test, Positive X-Ray: • Antibiotic: Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide • Prevention • BCG Vaccine


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