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Evolution Thinket Key
The Pterosaur, bird and bat wings are analogous because the wings evolved in different ways in each organism. However they
are homologous as forelimbs because the limbs served as a forearm, not a wing, in the last common ancestor of tetrapods.
Selective breeding is the breeding of organisms with desirable traits. Natural selection is the process in nature by which only the
organisms best adapted to their environment survive and give their genes to their offspring while those less adapted are eliminated
Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in some way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of drugs to cure or prevent
infections. The bacteria that survive, continue to multiply and cause harm. The faster they reproduce, the more quickly their
population may become resistant to new antibiotics.
Survival of the fittest means that those organisms that are best adapted to their environment will live long enough to reproduce and give
their good genes to their offspring. Beavers with large incisor teeth are probably better adapted to cutting down trees and creating
useable dams for shelter. Those with small teeth are not best suited to the environment and will not live as long to pass their traits to
future generations.
Modern day whales are carnivorous mammals. They are believed to have evolved from tiger like creatures that lived near the ocean and
hunted fish. Over millions of years this creature evolved into an organism that could swim with webbed feet, the head became
elongated, the nostrils fused and moved to the top of the head, and the hind legs became absent while the tail had a fin for propelling
the organism through water.
Mimicry: When an organism copies or mimics the form of something else in order to blend in to its environment. Examples include: a
stick bug on a branch. a viceroy butterfly pretending to be a noxious monarch. Concealing Camouflage: A type of camouflage in which an
organism blends in with its background in order to conceal itself from predators and prey. Examples include: arctic hare and ptarmigan
change their colors with the seasons – white in winter, brown in spring/summer. A green frog on a lily pad. A deer hiding in the
underbrush of a forest. Disruptive Coloration: When an organism’s color is broken up with a pattern like stripes or spots so it confuses or
conceals when alone or in a group. Examples include: A herd of zebra confusing predators with their stripes. Leopards, tigers, jaguars
have spots and stripes that mimic shadows so they blend in to the forest and grasslands.
Evolution is a theory that has been tested by empirical proof and due to the large amount of evidence, scientists conclude that Evolution
occurred in the past and continues to take place today. We can observe different embryos during various stages of development to see if
there are similarities which can show relationships. We can also compare the DNA to note how many base pairs match up. The more
bases that match, the more similar two organisms are to one another. Fossils provide evidence that organisms of today originated from a
common ancestor. A missing link is a transitional fossil that exhibits traits common to both an ancestral group and its descendants. Ex:
the discovery of the Archaeopteryx bridged the gap between the dinosaur and present day birds, like chickens. Radioactive dating of
fossils and rock in which they are found can determine the times in which various organisms lived, providing further proof that they
could be related. Comparing anatomical structures is further proof of Evolution. A homologous structure is a trait two organisms share
and have inherited from a common ancestor. (i.e. wrist bones in humans and dogs). Vestigial structures are remnant organs that no
longer serve a purpose for the organism. As populations change due to natural selection the structures became obsolete. (i.e. hind limbs
in whales). Analogous structures are similar traits that are found in species not closely related. Because the species live in similar
environments, they fill similar niches and these traits arise as a result of natural selection. (i.e. both bats and birds have wings to fly)
Vestigial structures are remnant organs that no longer serve a purpose for the organism. As populations change due to natural selection
the structures became obsolete. Examples include hind limbs in snakes, back legs in whales, coccyx and wisdom teeth in people.
Genetic variation and mutation of a species can be beneficial if the behavioral or physical characteristic helps to increase the chance of
surviving in a changing environment, also known as an adaptation. Those that are not well-adapted to their environment do not
reproduce as often or live as long. An organism that survives but cannot reproduce or one that reproduces but does not survive a long
time is deemed unfit.
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