Human A & P “Did You Get It?” and Blue Check Marks DID YOU GET IT? QUESTIONS: 1. Why would you have a hard time learning and understanding physiology if you did not also understand anatomy? Anatomy and physiology are always related. The parts of your body form a well-organized unit (anatomy) and each of those parts has a job to do to make the body operate as a whole (physiology). Structure determines what functions take place. 2. Kidney function, bone growth, and beating of the heart are all topics of anatomy. True or False? That statement is false, they are physiology topics. 3. At which level of structural organization is the stomach? At which level is a glucose molecule? The stomach is at the organ level. Glucose is at the chemical level. 4. Which organ system includes the trachea, lungs, nasal cavity, and bronchi? They are all a part of the respiratory system 5. In addition to being able to metabolize, grow, digest food, and excrete wastes, what other functions must an organism perform if it is to survive? Human beings also need to maintain one's boundaries, move, respond to environmental changes, and reproduce themselves. 6. Oxygen is a survival need. Why is it so important? The chemical reactions that occur in the body and release food energy require oxygen. 7. When we say that the body demonstrates homeostasis, do we mean that conditions in the body are unchanging? Explain your answer No. It indicates a dynamic state of equilibrium or a balanace in which internal conditions change and vary but always within relatively narrow limits. 8. When we begin to become dehydrated, we usually get thirsty, which causes us to drink liquids. Is the thist sensation part of a negative or a positive feedback control system? Defend your choice. It is part of the negative feedback system. Thirst causes us to drink fluids (the response), which in turn causes the thirst sensation to go away. Positive feedback mechanisms are not nearly as common as thirst. Also, if it was a positive feedback mechanism, would become even more thirsty (the stimulus for drinking would increase). 9. What is the anatomical position, and why is it important that an anatomy student understand it? The anatomical position is the standard position of the body. It is a reference point in descriptions of the body and its structures. The body is erect, feet are parallel, arms hang at the sides, and palms face forward. It's important to understand it because most descriptions of the body using anatomical terminology refer to body regions as if the body is in this specific position. 10. The axillary and the acromial areas are both in the general area of the shoulder. To what specific body area does each of these terms apply? The axillary region is the armpit and the acromial region is the top of the shoulder. 11. If you wanted to separate the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity of a cadaver, which type of section would you make? You would make a transverse section/ cross section. 12. Of the spinal cord, small intestine, uterus, and heart, which are in the dorsal body cavity? Only the spinal cord is in the dorsal body cavity 13. Joe went to the emergency room, where he complained of severe pains in the lower right quadrant of his abdomen. What might be his problem? He might have appendicitis. BLUE CHECK MARK QUESTIONS: 14. Define anatomy and physiology Anatomy: the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relationships to one another. Physiology: the study of how the body and its parts work or function. 15. Explain how anatomy and physiology are related. Anatomy studies the structure and shape of the body and physiology is the study of how the body works and functions. So one covers the the parts of the body and the other describes how those parts work. 16. Name the six levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain how they are related. The six levels of structural organization are chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organismal. 17. Name the organ systems in the body, and briefly state the major functions of each system integumentary system: provides a protective barrier for the body, contains sensory receptors for pain, touch, temperature organs found: skin, hair, nails, glands, nerves skeletal system: protects major organs, provides levers and support for body movement organs found: bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments muscular system: moves bones and maintains posture organs found: smooth muscular tissue, skeletal tissue, cardiac muscle nervous system: controls cell function with electrical signals organs found: brain, spinal cord, nerves endocrine system: controls cell function with hormones organs found: pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovary, testis cardiovascular system: transports nutrients, chemical messengers, gases and wastes in blood organs found: heart, blood vessels lymphatic system: returns fluid to cardiovascular system, detects, filters, and eliminates disease causing organisms. organs found: red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes respiratory system: adds oxygen to the blood and removes carbon dioxide from blood. organs found: nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs, bronchus digestive system: breaks down food into units that can be absorbed by the body organs found: oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, large/small intestine, rectum, anus urinary system: removes wastes, maintains body fluid volume, pH and electrolyte levels. organs found: kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra reproductive system: produces gametes, female organs provide environment for development of fetus organs found: (male) prostate gland, penis, testis, scrotum, ductus deferens (female) mammary glands, ovary, uterus, vagina, uterine tube 18. Identify and classify by organ system all organs discussed. The organ systems and all organs included in them are as follows: Integument System: Skin Skeletal System: Cartilages, Joint, Bones Muscular System: Skeletal Muscles Nervous System: Brain, Sensory receptor, Spinal cord, Nerves Endocrine System: Pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, testis (male), ovary (female) Cardiovascular system: heart, blood vessels Lymphatic system: thoracic duct, lymph notes, lymphatic vessels Respiratory system: Nasal cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchus, Lungs Digestive system: oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus Urinary System: Kidney, Ureter, Urinary bladder, Urethra Male Reproductive System: Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, vas deferens, testis, scrotum Female reproductive system: Mammary glands (in breasts), Uterine tube, Ovary, Uterus, Vagina 19. List eight functions that humans must perform to maintain life. Maintain their boundaries, move, respond to environmental changes, take in and digest nutrients, carry our metabolism, dispose of wastes, reproduce themselves, and grow. 20. List the five survival needs of the human body Nutrients, Oxygen, Normal body temperature, atmospheric pressure, and water 21. Define Homeostasis and explain its importance Homeostasis describes the body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing. It is important because the body demonstrates homeostasis when its needs are adequately being met and it is functioning smoothly. 22. Define negative feedback, and describe its role in maintaining homeostasis and normal body function. Negative feedback is the net effect of the response to the stimulus is to shut off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity. Helps the body maintain homeostasis by balancing the body. Ex: regulating heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, etc. 23. Verbally describe or demonstrate the anatomical position. The Body is erect with feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing upward. The thumbs are outward. 24. Use proper anatomical terminology to describe body directions, surfaces, and body planes. Superior (cranial or cephalad) Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above EX. the forehead is superior to the nose intermediate Between a more medial and a more lateral structure. Ex: The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder. central located in the center of a thing or place (brain or spinal cord) Dorsal (posterior) Toward or at the backside of the body; behind Ex: The heart is posterior to the breastbone Lateral Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of. Ex: The arms are lateral to the chest. Proximal Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Ex: the elbow is proximal to the wrist (meaning that the elbow is closer to the shoulder or attachment point of the arm than the wrist is.) Distal farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Ex: the knee is distal to the thigh Superficial (external) Toward or at the body surface. Ex: The skin is superficial to the skeleton peripheral marginal; outer Inferior (caudal) Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below. Ex: The navel is inferior to the chin. Ventral (anterior) toward or at the front of the body; in front of ex: the breastbone is anterior to the spine Medial toward the midline of the body; on the inner side of Ex: the heart is medial to the arm Deep (internal) away from the body surface; more internal ex. Lungs are deep to the rib cage 25. Locate the major body cavities and list the chief organs in each cavity. The major body cavities and list the chief organs in each cavity are as follows: Cranial cavity The brain Vertebral canal/spinal cavity Spinal cord. Thoracic cavity Lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus. Abdominal cavity Stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, small and large intestines, and kidneys. Pelvic cavity The terminal end of large intestines, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs. Mediastinum-lungs aren't inside of it. The region in the thoracic cavity between the lungs, separating the thorax into 2 compartments that contain the right and left lungs. In it are the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus Pleural cavity- right and left each one contains one lung. Pericardial cavity contains the heart. Axial portion Includes the head, neck, and trunk of the body. appendicular portion the upper and lower limbs.