Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1 HW Human A & P

Human A & P “Did You Get It?” and Blue Check Marks
1. Why would you have a hard time learning and understanding physiology if you
did not also understand anatomy?
Anatomy and physiology are always related. The parts of your body form a
well-organized unit (anatomy) and each of those parts has a job to do to
make the body operate as a whole (physiology). Structure determines
what functions take place.
2. Kidney function, bone growth, and beating of the heart are all topics of anatomy.
True or False?
That statement is false, they are physiology topics.
3. At which level of structural organization is the stomach? At which level is a
glucose molecule?
The stomach is at the organ level. Glucose is at the chemical level.
4. Which organ system includes the trachea, lungs, nasal cavity, and bronchi?
They are all a part of the respiratory system
5. In addition to being able to metabolize, grow, digest food, and excrete wastes,
what other functions must an organism perform if it is to survive?
Human beings also need to maintain one's boundaries, move, respond to
environmental changes, and reproduce themselves.
6. Oxygen is a survival need. Why is it so important?
The chemical reactions that occur in the body and release food energy
require oxygen.
7. When we say that the body demonstrates homeostasis, do we mean that
conditions in the body are unchanging? Explain your answer
No. It indicates a dynamic state of equilibrium or a balanace in which
internal conditions change and vary but always within relatively narrow
8. When we begin to become dehydrated, we usually get thirsty, which causes us to
drink liquids. Is the thist sensation part of a negative or a positive feedback
control system? Defend your choice.
It is part of the negative feedback system. Thirst causes us to drink fluids
(the response), which in turn causes the thirst sensation to go away.
Positive feedback mechanisms are not nearly as common as thirst. Also, if
it was a positive feedback mechanism, would become even more thirsty
(the stimulus for drinking would increase).
9. What is the anatomical position, and why is it important that an anatomy student
understand it?
The anatomical position is the standard position of the body. It is a
reference point in descriptions of the body and its structures.
The body is erect, feet are parallel, arms hang at the sides, and palms
face forward.
It's important to understand it because most descriptions of the body using
anatomical terminology refer to body regions as if the body is in this
specific position.
10. The axillary and the acromial areas are both in the general area of the shoulder.
To what specific body area does each of these terms apply?
The axillary region is the armpit and the acromial region is the top of the
11. If you wanted to separate the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity of a
cadaver, which type of section would you make?
You would make a transverse section/ cross section.
12. Of the spinal cord, small intestine, uterus, and heart, which are in the dorsal body
Only the spinal cord is in the dorsal body cavity
13. Joe went to the emergency room, where he complained of severe pains in the
lower right quadrant of his abdomen. What might be his problem?
He might have appendicitis.
14. Define anatomy and physiology
Anatomy: the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts
and their relationships to one another.
Physiology: the study of how the body and its parts work or function.
15. Explain how anatomy and physiology are related.
Anatomy studies the structure and shape of the body and physiology is
the study of how the body works and functions. So one covers the the
parts of the body and the other describes how those parts work.
16. Name the six levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and
explain how they are related.
The six levels of structural organization are chemical, cellular, tissue,
organ, organ system, and organismal.
17. Name the organ systems in the body, and briefly state the major functions of
each system
integumentary system:
provides a protective barrier for the body, contains sensory receptors for
pain, touch, temperature
organs found: skin, hair, nails, glands, nerves
skeletal system:
protects major organs, provides levers and support for body movement
organs found: bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments
muscular system:
moves bones and maintains posture
organs found: smooth muscular tissue, skeletal tissue, cardiac muscle
nervous system:
controls cell function with electrical signals
organs found: brain, spinal cord, nerves
endocrine system:
controls cell function with hormones
organs found: pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovary, testis
cardiovascular system:
transports nutrients, chemical messengers, gases and wastes in blood
organs found: heart, blood vessels
lymphatic system:
returns fluid to cardiovascular system, detects, filters, and eliminates
disease causing organisms.
organs found: red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes
respiratory system:
adds oxygen to the blood and removes carbon dioxide from blood.
organs found: nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs, bronchus
digestive system:
breaks down food into units that can be absorbed by the body
organs found: oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, large/small intestine,
rectum, anus
urinary system:
removes wastes, maintains body fluid volume, pH and electrolyte levels.
organs found: kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
reproductive system:
produces gametes, female organs provide environment for development
of fetus
organs found: (male) prostate gland, penis, testis, scrotum, ductus
deferens (female) mammary glands, ovary, uterus, vagina, uterine tube
18. Identify and classify by organ system all organs discussed.
The organ systems and all organs included in them are as follows:
Integument System: Skin
Skeletal System: Cartilages, Joint, Bones
Muscular System: Skeletal Muscles
Nervous System: Brain, Sensory receptor, Spinal cord, Nerves
Endocrine System: Pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus
gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, testis (male), ovary (female)
Cardiovascular system: heart, blood vessels
Lymphatic system: thoracic duct, lymph notes, lymphatic vessels
Respiratory system: Nasal cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchus,
Digestive system: oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large
intestine, rectum, anus
Urinary System: Kidney, Ureter, Urinary bladder, Urethra
Male Reproductive System: Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, vas
deferens, testis, scrotum
Female reproductive system: Mammary glands (in breasts), Uterine tube,
Ovary, Uterus, Vagina
19. List eight functions that humans must perform to maintain life.
Maintain their boundaries, move, respond to environmental changes, take
in and digest nutrients, carry our metabolism, dispose of wastes,
reproduce themselves, and grow.
20. List the five survival needs of the human body
Nutrients, Oxygen, Normal body temperature, atmospheric pressure, and
21. Define Homeostasis and explain its importance
Homeostasis describes the body's ability to maintain relatively stable
internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously
It is important because the body demonstrates homeostasis when its
needs are adequately being met and it is functioning smoothly.
22. Define negative feedback, and describe its role in maintaining homeostasis and
normal body function.
Negative feedback is the net effect of the response to the stimulus is to
shut off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity.
Helps the body maintain homeostasis by balancing the body. Ex:
regulating heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, etc.
23. Verbally describe or demonstrate the anatomical position.
The Body is erect with feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with
the palms facing upward. The thumbs are outward.
24. Use proper anatomical terminology to describe body directions, surfaces, and
body planes.
(cranial or cephalad)
Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
EX. the forehead is superior to the nose
Between a more medial and a more lateral structure.
Ex: The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder.
located in the center of a thing or place
(brain or spinal cord)
Toward or at the backside of the body; behind
Ex: The heart is posterior to the breastbone
Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of.
Ex: The arms are lateral to the chest.
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to
the body trunk
Ex: the elbow is proximal to the wrist (meaning that the elbow is closer to
the shoulder or attachment point of the arm than the wrist is.)
farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to
the body trunk
Ex: the knee is distal to the thigh
Toward or at the body surface.
Ex: The skin is superficial to the skeleton
marginal; outer
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the
body; below.
Ex: The navel is inferior to the chin.
toward or at the front of the body; in front of
ex: the breastbone is anterior to the spine
toward the midline of the body; on the inner side of
Ex: the heart is medial to the arm
away from the body surface; more internal
ex. Lungs are deep to the rib cage
25. Locate the major body cavities and list the chief organs in each cavity.
The major body cavities and list the chief organs in each cavity are as
Cranial cavity
The brain
Vertebral canal/spinal cavity
Spinal cord.
Thoracic cavity
Lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus.
Abdominal cavity
Stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, small and large intestines, and
Pelvic cavity
The terminal end of large intestines, urinary bladder, internal reproductive
Mediastinum-lungs aren't inside of it.
The region in the thoracic cavity between the lungs, separating the thorax
into 2 compartments that contain the right and left lungs. In it are the
heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus
Pleural cavity- right and left
each one contains one lung.
Pericardial cavity
contains the heart.
Axial portion
Includes the head, neck, and trunk of the body.
appendicular portion
the upper and lower limbs.