famous scientist

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Danciu Dorin
U.S.A.M.V.
Specializarea I.M.A.P.A.
Grupa 8215
Anul II
Famous Scientists
Albert Einstein
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Albert Einstein (/ˈaɪnstaɪn/;[3]
German: [ˈalbɛɐ̯t ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] (
listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April
1955) was a German-born
theoretical physicist. He
developed the general theory of
relativity, one of the two pillars of
modern physics (alongside
quantum mechanics).
Einstein is best known in popular
culture for his mass–energy
equivalence formula E = mc2
(which has been dubbed "the
world's most famous equation").
Einstein's intellectual
achievements and originality have
made the word "Einstein"
synonymous with "genius".
Isaac Newton
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Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 –
20 March 1726) was an English physicist
and mathematician.
Newton's Principia formulated the laws of
motion and universal gravitation, which
dominated scientists' view of the physical
universe for the next three centuries.
Newton built the first practical reflecting
telescope and developed a theory of
colour based on the observation that a
prism decomposes white light into the
many colours of the visible spectrum.
Marie Curie
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Marie Skłodowska Curie (7
November 1867 – 4 July 1934), born
Maria Salomea Skłodowska, was a
Polish and naturalized-French
physicist and chemist who conducted
pioneering research on radioactivity.
She was the first woman to win a
Nobel Prize, the first person and only
woman to win twice, the only person
to win twice in multiple sciences.
Her achievements included the
development of the theory of
radioactivity (a term that she coined),
techniques for isolating radioactive
isotopes, and the discovery of two
elements, polonium and radium.
Stephen Hawking
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Stephen William Hawking (8
January 1942) is an English
theoretical physicist, cosmologist,
author and Director of Research
at the Centre for Theoretical
Cosmology within the University
of Cambridge.
His scientific works include a
collaboration with Roger Penrose
on gravitational singularity
theorems in the framework of
general relativity, and the
theoretical prediction that black
holes emit radiation, often called
Hawking radiation.
Archimedes
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Archimedes of Syracuse (c. 287 BC – c. 212 BC) was an Ancient Greek
mathematician, physicist, engineer,
inventor, and astronomer.
In the 3rd Century BC, Archimedes:
• invented the sciences of mechanics and
hydrostatics.
• discovered the laws of levers and
pulleys, which allow us to move heavy
objects using small forces.
• invented one of the most fundamental
concepts of physics – the center of
gravity.
• calculated pi to the most precise value
known. His upper limit for pi was the
fraction 22⁄7. This value was still in use in
the late 20th century, until electronic
calculators finally laid it to rest.
• discovered and mathematically proved
the formulas for the volume and surface
area of a sphere.
Nikola Tesla
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Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856 – 7
January 1943) was a Serbian
American physicist, inventor,
electrical engineer, mechanical
engineer and futurist best known
for his contributions to the design
of the modern alternating current
(AC) electricity supply system.
His work fell into relative obscurity
after his death, but in 1960 the
General Conference on Weights
and Measures named the SI unit
of magnetic flux density the tesla
in his honor.
Thomas Edison
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Thomas Alva Edison (February 11,
1847 – October 18, 1931) was an
American inventor and businessman.
He developed many devices that
greatly influenced life around the world,
including the phonograph, the motion
picture camera, and the long-lasting,
practical electric light bulb.
He also invented
the electric chair,
in order to prove
that alternative
current is also
harmul, not only
benefic.
Alfred Nobel
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Alfred Bernhard Nobel (21 October 1833
– 10 December 1896) was a Swedish
chemist, engineer, innovator, and
armaments manufacturer.
He was the inventor of dynamite. Nobel
also owned Bofors, which he had
redirected from its previous role as
primarily an iron and steel producer to a
major manufacturer of cannon and other
armaments. Nobel held 355 different
patents, dynamite being the most famous.
His fortune was used posthumously to
institute the Nobel Prizes. The synthetic
element nobelium was named after him.
His name also survives in modern-day
companies such as Dynamit Nobel and
AkzoNobel, which are descendants of
mergers with companies Nobel himself
established.
Alessandro Volta
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Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio
Anastasio Volta (18 February
1745 – 5 March 1827) was an
Italian physicist, chemist, and a
pioneer of electricity and power,
who is credited as the inventor of
the electrical battery and the
discoverer of methane.
With this invention Volta proved
that electricity could be generated
chemically and debased the
prevalent theory that electricity
was generated solely by living
beings. Volta's invention sparked a
great amount of scientific
excitement and led others to
conduct similar experiments which
eventually led to the development
of the field of electrochemistry.
Benjamin Franklin
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Benjamin Franklin (1706 January
6, 1705 – April 17, 1790) was one
of the Founding Fathers of the
United States.
Franklin's discoveries resulted
from his investigations of electricity.
Franklin proposed that "vitreous"
and "resinous" electricity were not
different types of "electrical fluid"
(as electricity was called then), but
the same electrical fluid under
different pressures. He was the first
to label them as positive and
negative respectively, and he was
the first to discover the principle of
conservation of charge.
Blaise Pascal
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Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 –
19 August 1662) was a French
mathematician, physicist,
inventor, writer and Christian
philosopher.
• Pascal's earliest work was in
the natural and applied
sciences where he made
important contributions to the
study of fluids, and clarified the
concepts of pressure and
vacuum by generalizing the
work of Evangelista Torricelli.
James Watson
• James Dewey Watson (born
April 6, 1928) is an American
molecular biologist, geneticist
and zoologist, best known as
one of the co-discoverers of the
structure of DNA in 1953 with
Francis Crick. Watson, Crick,
and Maurice Wilkins were
awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in
Physiology or Medicine "for their
discoveries concerning the
molecular structure of nucleic
acids and its significance for
information transfer in living
material“.
Michael Faraday
• Michael Faraday (22 September
1791 – 25 August 1867) was an
English scientist who contributed to
the fields of electromagnetism and
electrochemistry. His main
discoveries include those of
electromagnetic induction,
diamagnetism and electrolysis.
• It was by his research on the
magnetic field around a conductor
carrying a direct current that
Faraday established the basis for
the concept of the electromagnetic
field in physics.
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