1. Tectonic Processes and Hazards

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Edexcel AS and A Level Geography Scheme of Work
Area of study 1: Dynamic Landscapes
Topic 1: Tectonic Processes and Hazards
Introduction
Our specifications offer an issues-based approach to studying geography, enabling students to explore and evaluate contemporary geographical questions and
issues such as the consequences of globalisation, responses to hazards, water insecurity and climate change. The specification content gives students the
opportunity to develop an in-depth understanding of physical and human geography, the complexity of people and environment questions and issues, and to
become critical, reflective and independent learners.
AS and A Level qualifications that are co-teachable
Centres co-teaching AS and A Level can deliver Area of study 1: Dynamic Landscapes and Area of study 2: Dynamic Places in the first year, allowing students
to be entered for the AS at the end of year 12.
Confidence in geographical skills and fieldwork
Content is framed by enquiry questions that encourage an investigative and evaluative approach to learning. We have signposted where and how geographical
skills and fieldwork should be embedded in teaching. Our A Level assessment will integrate the assessment of geographical skills with knowledge and
understanding.
Holistic understanding of geography
This specification will encourage students to make links between different geographical themes, ideas and concepts through synoptic themes embedded in the
compulsory content.
Overview of Area of study 1: Dynamic Landscapes

Dynamic Landscapes is examined on Paper 1 and is worth 50% of the marks at AS Level and 30% of the marks at A Level. The paper is
marked out of 90

All students are required to study Topic 1: Tectonic Processes and Hazards, and either Topic 2A: Glaciated Landscapes and Change or Topic
2B: Coastal Landscapes and Change

You need to allow roughly 44 hours to teach Area of Study 1; 18 hours to teach Topic 1 and 20 hours to teach Topic 2, with 6 hours of
fieldwork lessons and, in addition, one day of fieldwork. The suggested hours of teaching should be sufficient to teach students the required
content and skills for this topic. The allocation of hours does not take into account individual schools’ approaches to delivering the course,
revision, school mocks, topic tests or assessment feedback.
The sample assessment materials can be used for question practice to enable students to build up their confidence and skills as part of their revision
and exam practice.
Scheme of Work for Area of study 1: Dynamic Landscapes, Topic 1: Tectonic Processes and
Hazards
Tectonic hazards – earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and secondary hazards such as tsunamis – represent a significant risk in some parts of the
world. This is especially the case where active tectonic plate boundaries interact with areas of high population density and low levels of development.
Resilience in these places can be low, and the interaction of physical systems with vulnerable populations can result in major disasters. An in-depth
understanding of the causes of tectonic hazards is key to both increasing the degree to which they can be managed, and putting in place successful
responses that can mitigate social and economic impacts and allow humans to adapt to hazard occurrence.
Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Teaching resources and synoptic links
Enquiry question 1: Why are some locations more at risk from tectonic hazards?
Lesson 1
Key idea
(1 hour)
1.1 The global
distribution of
tectonic hazards
can be explained
by plate boundary
and other tectonic
processes.
Suggested
learning
objectives
Understand the
global distribution
of tectonic
hazards.
Understand
different plate
boundaries and
what causes them.
1.1a The global
distribution and causes of
earthquakes, volcanic
eruptions and tsunamis.
1.1b The distribution of
plate boundaries
resulting from divergent,
convergent and
conservative plate
movements (oceanic,
continental and combined
situations).
1.1c The causes of intraplate earthquakes, and
volcanoes associated
with hot spots from
mantle plumes.
Key words
Subduction
Mantle plume
Intra-plate
2
Global
distribution maps
Localised
examples
(1) Analysis of
hazard
distribution
patterns on
world and
regional scale
maps.
Starter
Students write down 3–5 facts that they know about
volcanoes and 3–5 facts about earthquakes. This could be
used as a building block for teachers to develop students’
understanding and to get an appreciation of where
students are in terms of understanding.
(2)
Interpreting
world maps.
Elicit what students understand about tectonics and plate
boundaries via discussion and pointed questions.
Alternatively, this could be done via picture analysis on
PowerPoint.
Main
Using PowerPoint and resources on plate boundaries and
explanations of how and why plates move, look at global
distribution of geophysical hazard maps.
Look at case studies or get students to act out plate
boundaries in groups. Description of plate boundary
hazards and potential threats.
Describe distributions of various boundaries.
Plenary
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Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Teaching resources and synoptic links
Students fill in a table of each plate boundary where they
draw a block diagram of it, write down the main hazards
and give examples where possible.
Convection
Seismic
Slab pull
Students may wish to research a given plate boundary as
part of their homework, for example:
Constructive – Iceland, East African Rift Valley
Destructive – Philippines, Mexico
Collision – Himalayas
Conservative – California, Haiti, Christchurch (New
Zealand)
Hotspots – Hawaiian Islands
Resources could include:
http://www.unisdr.org/eng/library/lib-terminologyeng%20home.htm - hazard key terms glossary
https://www.usgs.gov/ - United States Geological
Survey
Geo-Active Online
www.edb.gov.hk – has an excellent case study of the
Tohoku earthquake and tsunami for teachers.
Lesson 2
Key idea
1 hour
1.2 There are
theoretical
frameworks that
attempt to explain
plate movements.
Suggested
learning
objectives
Understand the
development and
1.2a The theory of plate
tectonics and its key
elements (the earth’s
internal structure, mantle
convection,
palaeomagnetism and
sea floor spreading,
subduction and slab
pull).
Global
distribution maps
Internal tectonic
structures maps
(2) Use of
block diagrams
to identify key
features of
different plate
boundary
settings.
1.2b The operation of
these processes at
different plate margins
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Starter
In pairs or small groups, students write down key
terms used in the previous lesson that they then
ask their partner to define. If each student writes
at least three to five, this should take 5–10
minutes.
Main
Teacher hands out on small pieces of paper a
tectonic history of events and important people –
3
Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
evidence for
tectonic theory.
(destructive,
constructive, collision
and transform).
Understanding the
key processes at
different plate
boundaries.
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Teaching resources and synoptic links
for instance Wegener, Hess, and Hutton. Students
read these and put them into a timeline along the
desk.
Teacher goes through the timeline of
development of tectonic theory and maps of
Pangaea and movement of plate boundaries over
geological timescales. (Several videos of this
available online.)
Key words
Palaeomagnetism
Sea floor spreading
Basalt
In-depth look at the science behind movement.
(Potential discussion of the Wilson Cycle to help
explain movement of continents – Tethys Sea
may make alternative case study.)
Andesite
Rhyolite
Processes involved at each individual boundary
shown through explanation and PowerPoint.
Plenary
Finally, a discussion-based agreement about
whether or not the continents will eventually
come together. Students should be able to
support their points with evidence from what they
have learnt.
Homework could be essay-based or exam
question-based.
Lesson 3
Key idea
(1 hour)
1.2 There are
theoretical
frameworks that
attempt to explain
plate movements.
1.3 Physical
4
1.2c Physical processes
impact on the magnitude
and type of volcanic
eruption, and earthquake
magnitude and focal
depth (Benioff zone).
Global and
continental
1.3a Earthquake waves
(P, S and L waves) cause
crustal fracturing, ground
Global and
continental
Starter
Split students into groups; one group to consider
shockwaves from earthquakes, another to think
about secondary impacts from earthquakes,
another (potentially the higher ability students) to
think about volcano explosivity and a final group
to think about volcano secondary impacts.
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Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
processes explain
the causes of
tectonic hazards.
shaking and secondary
hazards (liquefaction and
landslides).
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Key words
Suggested
learning
objectives
Understand that
physical processes
can determine the
magnitude and
type of volcanic
eruption.
Benioff zone
Primary and secondary
waves
Liquefaction
Be able to describe
the importance of
the Benioff zone in
determining the
outcome of an
earthquake.
Explain the
difference between
S and P waves and
the hazards they
create.
Teaching resources and synoptic links
Main
Teacher to run through the importance of gas
content within volcanoes and discuss the
importance of boundary type in deciding the
magnitude of eruption or earthquake, and why
the science isn’t exact and theory and reality are
often blurred (silica content in some volcanoes in
Iceland, for example).
If available, use rock samples and loupes to investigate
types of rock that are emitted from volcanoes, and
interpretation of these (basalt, andesite, rhyolite).
Another technique could be the use of a ‘Slinky’ to show
how S and P waves are created.
Exemplification of how geology of the land creates
liquefaction (Christchurch, New Zealand and areas of
California), while in some areas landslides are more
common (California and Nepal).
Plenary
Ask students: what human element could make people
more vulnerable to hazards such as landslides and
liquefaction?
Resources
https://www.iris.edu/hq/ – Incorporated Research
Institutions for Seismology
https://www.usgs.gov/ – Table of eruptive behaviour
(USGS)
http://www.bgs.ac.uk/ – British Geological Survey has
excellent resources available for teacher and student.
Various videos available online.
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5
Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Teaching resources and synoptic links
Lesson 4
Key idea
1.3 Physical
Processes explain
the causes of
tectonic hazards.
1.3b Volcanoes cause
lava flows, pyroclastic
flows, ash falls, gas
eruptions, and secondary
hazards (lahars,
jökulhlaup).
Case study
exemplification
(3) Analysis of
tsunami timetravel maps to
aid prediction.
Starter
Students to work in pairs and consider all hazards
that volcanoes produce.
1 hour
Suggested
learning
objectives
Many secondary
hazards are
produced from
tectonic events
and many of these
can have deadly
consequences.
Describe how an
earthquake can
generate a
tsunami and the
speed at which it
travels outwards
from the
epicentre.
1.3c Tsunamis can be
caused by sub-marine
earthquakes at
subduction zones as a
result of sea-bed and
water column
displacement.
Key words
Water displacement
Column
Oblique reverse faults
Pyroclastic flows
Jökulhlaups
Global and local
Main
Introduction through case-study exemplification
of events that have had devastating secondary
impacts in the past (historically from Pompeii
onwards). Examples could come from
Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, and Mexico or Mount St
Helens for pyroclastic flows, Lake Nyos
(Cameroon) or Japan’s Mount Ontake 2014.
Tsunamis could be introduced with video footage
from the Boxing Day or Japanese events.
Students could draw up a timeline from
earthquake to wave hitting land. Look at the
ideas of wavelength and water displacement.
Plenary
Research the implications and devastation caused by an
event or research other tsunamis or secondary hazards.
Alternatively, draw up a table within which each hazard is
explained and exemplified.
Resources
http://www.noaa.gov/ – has many resources and videos
(YouTube based) on tsunami – e.g. 10 years on from
Sumatra
https://www.usgs.gov/
http://www.tsunami-alarm-system.com/ – tsunami-based
website
http://geology.com/articles/east-africa-rift.shtml – good
website for information on the EARV
6
© Pearson Education Ltd 2016. Copying permitted for purchasing institution only. This material is not copyright free.
Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Teaching resources and synoptic links
Enquiry question 2: Why do some tectonic hazards develop into disasters?
Lesson 5
1 hour
Key idea
1.4 Disaster
occurrence can be
explained by the
relationship
between hazards,
vulnerability,
resilience and
disaster.
Suggested
learning
objectives
Explain what is
meant by a natural
hazard and
disaster.
Evaluate how
important
resilience and risk
are in determining
the outcome of a
hazard.
1.4a Definition of a
natural hazard and a
disaster, the importance
of vulnerability and a
community’s threshold
for resilience, the hazard
risk equation.
1.4b The Pressure and
Release model (PAR) and
the complex interrelationships between the
hazard and its wider
context.
Consideration of
two countries
from different
levels of
development, for
example Haiti
and New
Zealand.
Key words
Mega-disaster
Socio-economic
Spatial predictability
Dynamic pressures
Resilience
There are distinct
reasons why some
countries suffer
more impacts than
others (PAR
model).
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Starter
Students try to define the difference between a
natural hazard and a natural disaster.
What makes one place suffer more than another?
Main
Teacher goes through the main parts of hazard,
resilience and vulnerability with key definitions.
The video
http://www.insidedisaster.com/experience/
offers three experiences of the Haiti earthquake.
Teacher could have prepared questions that
students need to answer while watching the
video. (This could be done in IT lab with students
split into three groups.) Then, with the use of
Venn diagram perhaps to have students add in
what they feel make up parts of each (an empty
Degg’s Model might work for this).
The PAR model and its constituent parts to be
explained. After seeing the video, students could
fill in empty ones to consider why Haiti suffered
so badly from the earthquake in 2010. If time
allows, this could be compared with Christchurch
2010, which suffered less.
Plenary
Teacher shows pie chart available from previous
specification on number of deaths, people
affected and economic costs within different
7
Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Teaching resources and synoptic links
countries. Students should try to list the main
reasons for the effects.
Resources
http://www.disasterassessment.org/section.asp?id=
20 – list of different disaster-management types
Lesson 6
1 hour
Key idea
1.4 Disaster
occurrence can be
explained by the
relationship
between hazards,
vulnerability,
resilience and
disaster.
1.5 Tectonic
hazard profiles are
important to an
understanding of
contrasting hazard
impacts,
vulnerability and
resilience.
Suggested
learning
objectives
Describe why some
countries suffer
more than others.
Explain and
contrast the
impacts of tectonic
8
1.4c The social and
economic impacts of
tectonic hazards
(volcanic eruptions,
earthquakes and
tsunamis) on the people,
economy and
environment of
contrasting locations in
the developed, emerging
and developing world.
1.5a The magnitude and
intensity of tectonic
hazards is measured
using different scales
(Mercalli, Moment
Magnitude Scale (MMS)
and Volcanic Explosivity
Index (VEI)).
Key words
Distinct case
studies from
different levels of
development
Starter
Students consider whether the PAR model
explains why Haiti suffered so badly, or whether
any other factors contributed to the disaster.
Main
Teacher to review learning from last lesson to
make sure the PAR model is understood.
Then three separate earthquake case studies
might be handed out; good examples might be
Northridge California, Sichuan and Haiti; to be
compared in terms of social and economic
impacts.
Students might decide individually why these had
the outcomes they did, and evaluate them in
terms of the economic and social impacts.
Teacher may wish at this point to introduce the
different scales of measurement for earthquakes
and volcanoes (Richter, MMS, Mercalli and VEI).
Community adaptation
Vulnerability
Mercalli
Moment magnitude
Plenary
Students rank the different scales, drawing out the
positives and negatives of each one and deciding which one
is best. Can the class can agree on which one is most
suitable?
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Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Teaching resources and synoptic links
(4) Use of
correlation
techniques to
analyse links
between
magnitude of
events, deaths
and damage.
Starter
Students consider how they would manage a
hazard, what factors they would need to take into
account (the idea being that they will discuss
some of the parts of the hazard profile), linking
these to specific hazards. This could develop into
a ranking exercise where the significance of these
factors could be considered and then whether or
not this would change, depending on the hazard
type.
hazards on
countries at
different levels of
development.
Understand the
need for different
scales to measure
both seismic and
volcanic hazards.
Lesson 7
1 hour
Key idea
1.5 Tectonic
hazard profiles are
important to an
understanding of
contrasting hazard
impacts,
vulnerability and
resilience.
Suggested
learning
objectives
Appreciate that
hazard profiles are
a good way to help
in preparing for
hazards.
Be able to draw up
and assess the
impacts of
contrasting
hazards.
1.5b Comparing the
characteristics of
earthquakes, volcanoes
and tsunamis
(magnitude, speed of
onset and areal extent,
duration, frequency,
spatial predictability)
through hazard profiles.
1.5c Profiles of
earthquake, volcano and
tsunami events, showing
the severity of social and
economic impact in
developed, emerging and
developing countries.
Key words
Hazard profiles
Mitigation
Understand that
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Main
Using blank hazard profiles, students draw up
profiles for their case studies and compare them
(e.g. Tohoku earthquake and tsunami v Haiti, or
Eyjafjallajökull v Christchurch). Such comparisons
are not easily drawn and students must evaluate
the impacts against the profiles; anomalies could
be discussed.
Students could also review level of development
as a key factor in developing hazard-management
techniques and why the impacts are often much
harsher. (A good example might be comparing
Christchurch v Haiti.)
9
Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
level of
development often
underpins the level
of disaster impact.
Lesson 8
1 hour
Key idea
1.6 Development
and governance
are important in
understanding
disaster impact
and vulnerability
and resilience.
Suggested
learning
objectives
To understand and
explain why the
impacts vary in
different countries
for different
reasons relating to
the physical and
human geography
of the area.
To describe the
reasons for these
events to cause
loss of life or
financial hardship.
Plenary
Create three positives and three negatives of
hazard profiles.
1.6a Inequality of access
to education, housing,
healthcare and income
opportunities can
influence vulnerability
and resilience.
1.6b Governance (P:
local and national
government) and
geographical factors
(population density,
isolation and
accessibility, degree of
urbanisation) influence
vulnerability and a
community’s resilience.
1.6c Contrasting hazard
events in developed,
emerging and developing
countries to show the
interaction of physical
factors and the
significance of context in
influencing the scale of
disaster.
Key words
Multiple-hazard zones
Focal depth
10
Teaching resources and synoptic links
Development of
contrasting case
studies from
countries at
various levels of
development
(5) Statistical
analysis of
contrasting
events of
similar
magnitude to
compare
deaths and
damage.
Starter
Given a simplified table of social and economic
impacts of three un-named countries, students
should try to decide a) what the hazard might be,
b) what level of development the country is at, c)
what the country (or place) is.
Main
Presentation on three contrasting case studies
from countries at various levels of development,
for example China, Haiti, Japan. Could be used to
look at the ways these countries try to manage
hazards and the problems they face.
Students could draw up case study summaries
that allow them to compare the before, during
and after effects of these hazards (this may take
more than one lesson). There are many choices of
case studies to use here, but modern ones would
be best.
Students could carry out a Spearman’s Rank
correlation on the relationship between
magnitude and number of fatalities: for instance
the greater the magnitude of the earthquake, the
greater the impact in terms of number of
fatalities, or a null hypothesis that there is no
significant relationship between the number of
fatalities and the magnitude of an earthquake.
© Pearson Education Ltd 2016. Copying permitted for purchasing institution only. This material is not copyright free.
Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Teaching resources and synoptic links
Data can be found using the USGS website:
Spearman’s Rank
correlation
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqarchiv
es/year/byyear.php
Plenary
Using examples, explain why the impacts of
earthquakes are often seen to be unequal and
unfair. (8)
Resources
http://www.em-dat.net/ - the CRED database of
natural hazard trends
https://www.usgs.gov/ - United States Geological
Survey
Enquiry question 3: How successful is the management of tectonic hazards and disasters?
Lesson 9
1 hour
Key idea
1.7 Understanding
the complex trends
and patterns for
tectonic disasters
helps explain
differential
impacts.
Suggested
learning
objectives
Identify a range of
reasons why
disasters are
having larger
1.7a Tectonic disaster
trends since 1960
(number of deaths,
numbers affected, level
of economic damage) in
the context of overall
disaster trends. (6)
Research into the
accuracy and reliability of
the data to interpret
complex trends.
Case-study
related
(6)
Interrogation
of large data
sets to assess
data reliability
and to identify
and interpret
complex
trends.
1.7b Tectonic megadisasters can have
regional or even global
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Starter
Consider graphs of disasters since the 1960s from
EM-DAT in terms of numbers affected, deaths and
financial cost. Consider the reasons for these
changes.
Main
Use of the EMDAT database to critically examine
trends in reported hazards.
Geo-Factsheets may offer assistance on certain
hazards in terms of figures or case studies if
available.
Teacher may wish to consider research-based
tasks in terms of discussions as to whether data
11
Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
impacts.
significance in terms of
economic and human
impacts. (2004 Asian
tsunami, 2010
Eyjafjallajökull eruption
in Iceland (global
independence) and 2011
Japanese tsunami
(energy policy).)
Understand that
data is not always
reliable.
Evaluate two
different case
studies of megadisasters.
Key words
Rapid and slow onset
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Teaching resources and synoptic links
is reliable and from what sources (e.g. TV news
headlines, Guardian, Times, Facebook and
Twitter). Events of a disaster from first
information to end, as various news filters
through. It’s important that students recognise
that data comes in many formats and they should
be able to interpret different sets to form a
conclusion.
Through presentation and analysis, teacher may
discuss mega-disasters and their global and
regional impacts. Examples include those
mentioned.
Hydro-meteorological
Plenary
Students design a case study summary sheet that
includes before, during and after, and which can be
filled in throughout the course to develop a more
synoptic approach to their work. These may need to
be designed by the teacher (the previous GEO4
tectonics specification had some that were
downloadable from http://newedexcelgeog.ning.com/ ).
These are ideal to develop learning and can be used
as homework.
Resources
http://www.em-dat.net/ – the CRED database of
natural hazard trends
https://www.usgs.gov/ – United States Geological
Survey
www.worldmapper.com – Distribution mapping
website
www.bbc.co.uk – good for news on specific
12
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Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Teaching resources and synoptic links
events
Lesson
10
1 hour
Key idea
1.7 Understanding
the complex trends
and patterns for
tectonic disasters
helps explain
differential
impacts.
1.7c The concept of a
multiple-hazard zone and
how linked
hydrometeorological
hazards sometimes
contribute to a tectonic
disaster (the
Philippines).
Philippines
Main
Case study analysis of a disaster hotspot such as
the Philippines. Possibly students may produce a
factsheet on the Philippines hazard distributions,
risk and level of vulnerability, combining PAR
model, hazard profiling and risk equation within
their work.
Suggested
learning
objectives
Describe and
explain the
complex patterns
of tectonic hazards
and contrast the
differential
impacts.
Plenary
How could the Philippines reduce its hazard risk?
Evaluate the
trends in tectonic
disasters.
Resources
Geography Review articles on Philippines
Assess why some
countries suffer
from multiple
hazards and
appreciate the
impacts this can
have on a country.
Lesson
11
1 hour
Key idea
1.8 Theoretical
frameworks can be
used to understand
Starter
Given a specific hydrometeorological hazard such
as a storm, strong winds and intense cold,
students have to decide how these hazards would
impact on a geophysical event and whether it
would increase the intensity, or impact on
immediate search and rescue.
1.8a Prediction and
forecasting (P: role of
scientists) accuracy
depend on the type and
Case-study based
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Starter
In pairs, students write down all the ways as they
can think of in which governments and scientists
13
Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
the predication,
impact and
management of
tectonic hazards.
location of the tectonic
hazard.
Suggested
learning
objectives
Explain why
predicting a
tectonic hazard is
not an exact
science.
1.8b The importance of
different stages in the
hazard management
cycle (response,
recovery, mitigation,
preparedness). (P: role of
emergency planners)
1 hour
14
Teaching resources and synoptic links
can predict tectonic hazards.
Main
Consider case studies such as California and
Japan as two areas where science and
government work together to produce disastermanagement plans. Contrast these with Haiti and
Nepal, looking at the problems that helped make
for more disastrous impacts.
Debate-based analysis as students take the roles
of planners, scientists and governments in
different societies to help decide on the policies
that can be used.
Describe and
explain the
importance of
different hazardmanagement
strategies.
Key idea
1.8 Theoretical
frameworks can be
used to understand
the predication,
impact and
Integrated
skills
Students could use the disaster management
cycle and apply it to the case studies. They could
act as planners, using hazard profiles, datasets
and other research to decide how an area should
protect itself.
Evaluate the
different
techniques used
and their
usefulness in
prediction.
Lesson
12
Place
exemplification
Plenary
Question: Why does planning not always work?
Resources
http://www.unisdr.org/ – use of the International Strategy
for Disaster Reduction and the Hyogo Framework
Excellent article on prediction in Geography Review on
Soufrière Hills, Montserrat
1.8c Use of Park’s Model
to compare the response
curve of hazard events,
comparing areas at
different stages of
development.
Starter
Give students a table listing individuals, local
government and national and international
organisations, students think of at least three
different responses each group can come up with
once a hazard has struck.
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Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
management of
tectonic hazards.
Teaching resources and synoptic links
Main
Introduction to Park’s Model and exemplification
of two distinct case studies (e.g. Haiti and
Christchurch or the two recent tsunamis). Review
the reasons why the disasters had various
outcomes, consider the reasons for this and
evaluate the potential problems this might bring
for the long-term development of countries.
Suggested
learning
objectives
Assess the
importance of
Park’s Model in
helping to examine
the impacts and
quality of response
to a hazard.
Plenary
Draw Park’s Models for two different countries, annotating
it to show reasons.
Resources
Blank Park’s Model
Lesson
13
1 hour
Key idea
1.9 Tectonic
hazard impacts can
be managed by a
variety of
mitigation and
adaptation
strategies, which
vary in their
effectiveness.
Suggested
learning
objectives
Explain the
importance of
modification as a
strategy.
1.9a Strategies to
modify the event include
land-use zoning, hazardresistant design and
engineering defences, as
well as diversion of lava
flows. (P: role of planners,
engineers) (7)
1.9b Strategies to
modify vulnerability and
resilience include hi-tech
monitoring, prediction,
education, community
preparedness and
adaptation. (F: models
forecasting disaster
impacts with and without
modification)
For example:
California
Iceland
Japan
Philippines
(7) Use of
Geographic
Information
Systems (GIS)
to identify
hazard risk
zones and
degree of risk
related to
physical and
human
geographical
features.
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Starter
Given a list of management types, both mitigation
and adaptation, students select three of these for
a particular case study and justify why they have
done so. The cost and level of development of the
case studies used MUST be taken into account.
Main
Planning to reduce risk and modify vulnerability
takes time and money. Students could use
several different resources including GIS maps (or
even create their own using GEGraph, for
example).
Use case study information and examples to
create a range of different scenarios for different
planners.
Investigate the role of hazard modelling and
15
Lessons
Learning
objectives
Assess the role of
different players in
hazard preparation
and response.
Explain the
difference between
mitigation and
adaptation.
Lesson
14
1 hour
Key idea
1.9 Tectonic
hazard impacts can
be managed by a
variety of
mitigation and
adaptation
strategies, which
vary in their
effectiveness.
Suggested
learning
objectives
Explain the variety
of different
techniques to
reduce
vulnerability to
hazards.
Describe different
techniques for
countries at
different levels of
development.
16
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
Key words
Zonation
Land-use zoning
Modification
Retro-fitting
1.9c Strategies to modify
loss include emergency,
short- and longer-term
aid and insurance (P: role
of NGOs and insurers) and
the actions of affected
communities themselves
Key words
Hazard management
Modifying the loss
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Teaching resources and synoptic links
techniques that individuals, communities,
governments and IGOs can use to help reduce
risk.
Plenary
Presented with various mitigation and adaptation
strategies, students have to decide which one is
which.
Starter
Responses to hazards vary and are often based
on acceptance, adaptation or domination (Kates
Model). Given definitions of these, students
decide how they differ for different case studies
(at different levels of development). This could be
done in table form in pairs, or as a small group.
Main
Teacher to introduce the roles of different
stakeholders in disaster management, such as
planners, governments, local governments and
individuals. Students should list the kind of
techniques that each of these could use to reduce
the impact of disasters; they should also consider
the viability of some of the actions taken and why
some countries continue to rely on others rather
than invest in their own protection.
The Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan is
an excellent example of problems with an ageing
population that no one considered beforehand.
During the Indian Ocean tsunami only 7 out of
83,000 people died on Simeulue Island (100
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Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Teaching resources and synoptic links
miles from the epicentre), thanks to local
knowledge passed down over generations. In
Kashmir, houses built using traditional dhajji
dewari methods generally remained standing.
Plenary
Key terms test
Resources
http://www.http://www.slideshare.net/fozzie/ha
zard-perception-and-response-kates
http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/WCEE20
12_2691.pdf dhajji dewari housing
Lesson
15
1 hour
Key idea
Complete any
missing work.
Starter
Teacher could create a checklist of all information
from the specification that students should know;
students fill in their own copies.
Main
Completion of any work and structural review of
unit through highlights and questions.
In groups, students develop key questions they
feel they may need to review or key areas where
they feel less strong.
Groups could be separated and questions
generated by those who may not fully understand
an area and answered by other members of the
class, with the teacher facilitating where
necessary.
Key ideas could be concluded with the use of
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17
Lessons
Learning
objectives
Detailed content
(vocabulary, concepts,
processes, ideas,
synoptic themes, place
contexts)
Place
exemplification
Integrated
skills
Teaching resources and synoptic links
case-study information and further development
if necessary.
Plenary
Student- or teacher-developed quiz questions to
end unit and test students’ knowledge and
understanding.
Independent learning/homework
1.1
Homework
Students draw up and annotate all plate boundaries with given examples of each, along with any specific tectonic hazards
that occur.
1.2
Review, essay or
independent
research
For example:

revision for test based on key words and key ideas learnt so far

AS Level: ‘Outline the evidence that supports the theory of plate tectonics.’ (15)

A Level: ‘Assess the evidence that supports the theory of plate tectonics.’ (15)

students research tectonic history of the earth, using several resources, and produce an A4 or A3 poster that they are
able to discuss in class

a selection of short-answer questions.
Independent
learning

AS Level: ‘Create a table of all secondary hazards with exemplifications and causes.’

A Level: ‘Using named examples from the developed and the developing world, say to what extent secondary hazards
are more of a danger than primary ones.’
1.4
Group work
AS and A Level: ‘Create a presentation to give in class on a disaster, its causes and its impacts.’
1.5
Homework
Both AS and A Level students create an essay question and a mark scheme for hazard profiles which can be used as
homework, a starter activity or revision later in the year.
1.6
Revision
Students create short-answer questions worth 1–6 marks, up to the value of 20; they should have all resources and mark
schemes to be handed in. These are to be used for the homework the following week.
1.3
18
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1.7
Homework
Short-answer based questions that students wrote the previous week (taking the best questions from them all up to a value
of 20).
1.8
Homework

AS Level: ‘Describe how tectonic management and prediction can help in reducing the impacts of tectonic events.’

A Level: ‘To what extent is an understanding of tectonic processes key in determining our response to them?’
1.9
Revision
Revise for end-of-topic assessment.
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19
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