a. Pseudomonas b. Staphylococcus c. Salmonella d. Shigella e. Escherichia f. Bacillus I. Molds is a type of non-motile, multicellular, eukaryotic fungi. II. It is composed of large numbers of filaments called hyphae. III. The hyphae are aggregated and called mycelium. IV. The hyphae are divided into compartments separated by compartment separated by cross walls known as septa. V. Some mold has hyphae that has no cross wall present (nonseptate/coenocytic) VI. Reproduction of molds occurs from spore formation. I. It is gram-negative bacteria. II. It is aerobic and facultative anaerobes bacteria. III. It is a rod-shaped bacterium. IV. It is a bacterium that can ferment lactose with acid and gas production. V. Coliform are bacteria that live in the intestines of warm-blooded animals such as humans and farm animals. VI. Fecal coliform bacteria are a kind of coliform associated with human or animal waste. Aspergillus -used in the production of some fermented foods -A. Oryzae used in production of sake Penicillium -most commonly used in cheese and microbiotic production -P. roquefortii most commonly used to make Roquefort cheese Saccharomyces -used widely in the production of bread and wine - Most commonly used spcies is saccharomyces cerevisiae MARCH 2016, QUESTION 2 (C) MARCH 2016, QUESTION 2 (C) C . 1) gram positive, anaerobe or facultative anaerobe non spore forming and motile 2) B. stearothermophilus B. cereus Mold : spore forming, non motile multicellular eukaryotre Yeast: unicellular, motile , eukaryote Bacteria : motile or non motile eukaryote with membrane bound organelles. Mould Yeast Bacteria - Aspergillus: produces mould -Saccharomyces: causes milk -vibrio: causes cholera - Rhizopus: produces mould on -rhodotorula: causes -bacillus: causes can food spoilage - Mucor: causes vegetable -lactobacillus: causes wine and beer spoilage on fruit bread spoilage spoilage discoloration in meat -candida: causes rancidity in dairy products - Fusarium : causes spoilage in -torolupsis: causes milk -Escherichia: causes stomach and digestional problems - Neurospora :produces -shigella : causes food spoilage in canned food barley and grains harmful mycotoxins spoilage -debaryamoyces: produces killer toxins in food I. Mold : spore forming, non motile multicellular eukaryotre II. Yeast: unicellular, motile , eukaryote III. Bacteria : motile or non motile eukaryote with membrane bound organelles. Lactose fermenting bacteria commonly used in food for producing probiotics. They are rod shaped facultative anaerobes/microaerophiles. Used in the production of various food products such as yoghurt and cultured milk. Has advantageous and disadvantageous species such as L. acidophilus which is used in making probiotics and L. casei which causes wine and beer spoilage. i) Black Mould : Rhizopus Ii) Cheese production : Penicillium Iii) Yeast , bread and wine : Sacchromyces Iv) Pigment Forming yeast : Rhodutorula V) Cholera : Vibrio Vi) Probiotics : Lactobaciillus D.i) Coccus, gram-positive, facultative anaerobe. ii) Advantageous species : S. thermophillus : used in cheese making and yogurt. Disadvantageous species : S. pyogenes : found in raw milk (cause human septic sore throat and scarlet fever). A type of non-motile multicellular eukaryotic fungi. Compose of large numbers of filaments called hyphae. The hyphae are aggregated and called mycelium. Mycelium is considered a single organism. Types of sexual spores: a) Zygospores – sexual spores formed after the fusion of hyphae of different mating types (negative and positive). b) Ascospores – sexual spores formed in a sac-like structure called an ascus. c) Basidiospores – sexual spores formed externally on a base pedestal called a basidium.