CHAPTER 2 PAST YEAR FOODMIC

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 a.
Pseudomonas
 b.
Staphylococcus
 c.
Salmonella
 d.
Shigella
 e.
Escherichia
 f.
Bacillus
 I.
Molds is a type of non-motile, multicellular, eukaryotic fungi.
 II.
It is composed of large numbers of filaments called hyphae.
 III.
The hyphae are aggregated and called mycelium.
 IV.
The hyphae are divided into compartments separated by compartment
separated by cross walls known as septa.
 V.
Some mold has hyphae that has no cross wall present (nonseptate/coenocytic)
 VI.
Reproduction of molds occurs from spore formation.
 I.
It is gram-negative bacteria.
 II.
It is aerobic and facultative anaerobes bacteria.
 III.
It is a rod-shaped bacterium.
 IV.
It is a bacterium that can ferment lactose with acid and gas production.
 V.
Coliform are bacteria that live in the intestines of warm-blooded animals
such as humans and farm animals.
 VI.
Fecal coliform bacteria are a kind of coliform associated with human or
animal waste.
 Aspergillus
-used in the production of some fermented foods
-A. Oryzae used in production of sake
 Penicillium
-most commonly used in cheese and microbiotic production
-P. roquefortii most commonly used to make Roquefort cheese
 Saccharomyces
-used widely in the production of bread and wine
- Most commonly used spcies is saccharomyces cerevisiae
MARCH 2016, QUESTION 2 (C)
MARCH 2016, QUESTION 2 (C)
C . 1) gram positive, anaerobe or facultative anaerobe
non spore forming and motile
2) B. stearothermophilus
B. cereus
 Mold : spore forming, non motile multicellular eukaryotre
 Yeast: unicellular, motile , eukaryote
 Bacteria : motile or non motile eukaryote with membrane bound organelles.
Mould
Yeast
Bacteria
- Aspergillus: produces mould -Saccharomyces: causes milk
-vibrio: causes cholera
- Rhizopus: produces mould on -rhodotorula: causes
-bacillus: causes can food
spoilage
- Mucor: causes vegetable
-lactobacillus: causes wine and
beer spoilage
on fruit
bread
spoilage
spoilage
discoloration in meat
-candida: causes rancidity in
dairy products
- Fusarium : causes spoilage in -torolupsis: causes milk
-Escherichia: causes stomach
and digestional problems
- Neurospora :produces
-shigella : causes food spoilage
in canned food
barley and grains
harmful mycotoxins
spoilage
-debaryamoyces: produces
killer toxins in food
I.
Mold : spore forming, non motile multicellular eukaryotre
II.
Yeast: unicellular, motile , eukaryote
III.
Bacteria : motile or non motile eukaryote with membrane bound organelles.
 Lactose fermenting bacteria commonly used in food for producing probiotics. They
are rod shaped facultative anaerobes/microaerophiles. Used in the production of
various food products such as yoghurt and cultured milk. Has advantageous and
disadvantageous species such as L. acidophilus which is used in making probiotics
and L. casei which causes wine and beer spoilage.
 i) Black Mould : Rhizopus
 Ii) Cheese production : Penicillium
 Iii) Yeast , bread and wine : Sacchromyces
 Iv) Pigment Forming yeast : Rhodutorula
 V) Cholera : Vibrio
 Vi) Probiotics : Lactobaciillus
 D.i) Coccus, gram-positive, facultative anaerobe.
ii) Advantageous species : S. thermophillus : used in cheese making and yogurt.
Disadvantageous species : S. pyogenes : found in raw milk (cause human septic sore throat
and scarlet fever).
 A type of non-motile multicellular eukaryotic fungi.
 Compose of large numbers of filaments called hyphae.
 The hyphae are aggregated and called mycelium.
 Mycelium is considered a single organism.
 Types of sexual spores:
a) Zygospores – sexual spores formed after the fusion of hyphae of different mating
types (negative and positive).
b) Ascospores – sexual spores formed in a sac-like structure called an ascus.
c) Basidiospores – sexual spores formed externally on a base pedestal called a
basidium.
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