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Materials
Woods
Metals
Hardwoods
Softwoods
Manmade
From Deciduous
trees (trees that
lose their leaves
in the winter),
hardwearing,
expensive as
they take a long
time to grow.
From coniferous
trees (trees that
keep their leaves
all year around),
lower cost as
they grow all
year, often
farmed.
Ferrous
These are made
These are the
from layers of
most common
wood or wood
type of metals
particles glues and they contain
together.
iron, rusts
Plastics
Non- ferrous
Thermoset
Thermoplastics
These do not
These undergo a These can be
contain iron and chemical change heated and
tend to be more when they are
reheated as
expensive and
set and can not many times as
lighter. They do be remoulded, necessary. Used
not rust.
when heated for the majority
they char and of plastic parts as
burn
they are cheaper
Beech used for Pine is the most Blockboard is
Steel is used for Aluminium is the
tools and toys as common, used block of wood
cars, street
most common
it does not
for furniture and glued together.
furniture and
non-ferrous
splinter.
outside, but only Plywood is layers
building.
metal, it is
Oak used for if it is treated to of wood at 90
Stainless steel is usually recycled,
furniture and prevent moisture degrees to one
a type of steel has a low weight,
outdoors as it
damage.
another. MDF is with chrome that used for sporting
has good
Can have many small sawdust
prevents
goods, not
moisture
knots that affect glued together.
corrosion.
usually as strong
resistance.
its appearance.
Cast iron
as steel
ABS is the most
HIPS (high
common, it is
impact
used in car parts polystyrene) is
and electrical
used for
parts that when
packaging.
heated must not HPDE for tools as
deform.
it is more
Epoxy resin, used
durable.
with fibre glass Acrylic is shiny
or carbon fibre
but brittle
Cut: Tenon saw (straight lines), Bandsaw,
Coping saw (curves).
Smooth: rasp, glass paper
Finish: wet and dry, varnish, stain (protects
and adds a colour)
Adhesive: PVA glue, it soaks in a bonds.
Cut: Metal Bandsaw,
Hacksaw (small, hardened
teeth).
Smooth: File, emery cloth
Finish: wet and dry, polish
Fixing: Welding, riveting
Cut: Bandsaw, Hacksaw
(small, hardened teeth),
coping saw.
Smooth: File, emery cloth
Finish: wet and dry, polish
Adhesive: Tensol cement
Sustainability: Sourced from trees,
hardwoods often travel long distance and
can result in deforestation.
Sustainability: Normally
recycled to save costs,
extracting aluminium is
expensive and is linked to
hydro electric dams
Sustainability: most plastics
are still from fossil fuels (oil)
which is non renewable and
is connected with wider
environmental issues.
Coping
saw
Die
Tap
Used for
cutting
plastics
and woods
into curves
Creates
external
threads, as
with a bolt
Creates
internal
threads as
with a nut
Sustainable – consider this as how environmentally friendly is a product and can all the materials
that are used renewable.
Renewable – a material or product that can be replaced with out depleting the Earths resources
(grown).
Carbon Footprint – the amount of carbon dioxide produced when making, transporting, selling,
and using a product.
Veneer – a thin sheet of material.
PPE – personal protective equipment (goggles, aprons, steel toe cap boots, ear defenders, dust
mask).
Pilot hole – small hole drilled into a material, before drilling the hole.
CAD – computer Aided Design, using computers to help model or design components.
EPOS – electronic point of sale (checkouts), this allows
for storage of user data, stock control (allows JIT – just
in time, ordering and making, you only order when you
need it and you only make when you need it, this saves
space and financial outlay. And instant comparisons.
Dowel joint
Finger joint
Mortise and
Tenon
Finish
Stain
Wood, changes the colour and
protects against moisture, soaks
into the wood
Paint
Everything, protects and changes
colour
Varnish
Protects, forms a layer on the wood
Galvanising
Coating the metal in liquid zinc,
used for cars and street furniture
Electroplating
Coating a metal via electrolysis to
give it a harder, more attractive
coating
Technique
Type of component
Injection moulding, plastic is heated and
melted before, injecting it into a mould
Solid plastic components: lego bricks, cups,
most rigid plastic parts
Vacuum forming, a thin sheet of HIPS or
Polystyrene is heated and placed above a
former, the hot plastic is then forced onto
the mould by the air pressure.
Packaging, cases, plastic components made
from a thin sheet
Turning, using a lathe to spin a wooden or
metal blank, the blank is then cut into as it
turns using a stationary tool.
Round solid metal or wooden components,
bars, baseball bats, table legs.
Casting, pouring liquid metal into a mould
Large solid metal components, vices, engine
blocks, often heavy metal parts.
Washer
Pop Rivet
Snap Rivet
Nut
Philips
Screw
Flat Head
screw
Spreads
loads and
reduces
torque on
materials
Semipermanent
requires
access
from one
side
Semipermanent
fixing for
metals or
plastics
Temporary
fixing, nuts
with nylon
lock the
nut in
place
Screw with
cross
shaped
head
Screw with
a single
slot
Centre
punch
Used for
creating a
dent prior
to drilling
Engineers
square
Used for
marking
out right
angles
Marking
Gauge
Chuck and
chuck key
Hacksaw
Marks a
parallel
line to the
edge of a
piece of
timber
Holds a
drill bit
into a drill
Used for
tightening
chucks
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