part 1.

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Prepared By: Mostafa Alaa Eldeen
Leadership Chapter
 Leadership:
 Leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve goals.
.. ‫ا ﺧ ﻳﻦ ﺘ ﻘﻴﻖ ا اف‬
‫ﻴﺔ ا ﺘﺄﺛ‬
5
‫ا ﻘﻴ دﻩ ﻲ‬
Managers versus leaders
 Managers: A manager is an organizational member who integrates and coordinates work activities so
that they are completed efficiently and effectively with and through people.
people
‫ا ﻨ ﻳ ﺑ ﻔ ءﻩ‬
‫ا ﺧ ﻳﻦ ﺸ ن ﺷﻐ ﻳ‬
‫ا ﺧ ﻳﻦ وﺑﻴﻨ ﻖ ﺷﻐ‬
‫ﺷﻐ‬
‫ا ﻨﻈ ا ﺑﻴﺘ‬
‫ﺒ رﻩ ﻦ ﺷﺨ‬
‫ا ﻳ‬
.. ‫وﻓ ﻴ‬
 Are appointed to the position. ‫ﻇﻴﻔ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺘ ﺗ ﻴﻴﻨ‬
 Can influence people only to the extent of formal authority of their position.
‫ﺘ ا ﻴ ا ﺑﺘ ﻨ ﺑ ﺒﺐ ﻨ ﺒ‬
‫ﺘ ﺜ‬
‫ﻩ اﺸ‬
‫ي ﺗﺄﺛ ﻩ ا ﻨ س ا‬
 Don`t necessarily have the skills and capabilities to be leaders.
. ‫ﻴ ﺸ ن ﻳﺒ ﻗ ﺋ‬
‫ﻳ ﺘ ا ﻘ رات وا رات ا‬
 Leaders: A leader:is
is someone who can influence others and has managerial authority.
authority
‫ا ﺧ ﻳﻦ و ﻳ ﻗ رات ادا ﻳ‬
‫ﻦ ﻳﺄﺛ‬
‫ ﺒ رﻩ ﻦ ﺷﺨ‬: ‫ا ﻘ ﺋ‬
 Are appointed or emerge from within a workgroup
workgroup.
. ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ا ﻔ ﺗ ا ﻘﻴ دﻳ‬
‫ﻦ ﻳﺘ ﺗ ﻴﻴﻨ او اﻧ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﻧ ﺑ اي ﺠ‬
 Can influence other people beyond the managerial authority.
، ‫ا ﻨ س ﻦ ﺧ ل ﺘ وﻗ راﺗ ا دا ﻳ‬
‫ﻴﻘ ر اﻧ ﻳﺄﺛ‬
 Don`t necessarily have the skills and capabilities to be managers.
،‫ﻳ‬
‫اﻧ ﻗ ﺋ اﻧ ﺑ ﻩ ﻳﺒ‬
‫ﺶ ﺷ ط ﺑ ﻀ ورﻩ‬
 Test yourself
1)Leadership
Leadership is __________________.
A)the process of influencing a group toward the achievement of goals
B)a group that achieves goals
C)the function of influencing a group towards the achievement of goals
D)directing a group towards the achievement of goals
[1]
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Part 1
Prepared By: Mostafa Alaa Eldeen
Leadership Chapter
5
Leadership Theories
 (1)Treat theories:
‫ﻧﻈ ﻳﺔ ا‬
 Traits:- are personal characteristics of the individual including:
(1)height , (2)intelligence , (3)verbal fluency ( ‫)ا ﻗ ا ﻔﻈﻴ‬,(4)Confidence
(5)problem solving, (6)stress tolerance( ‫ا‬
),(7)education, (8)soci
(8)social status
(9)need for achievement, (10)Responsibility and popularity.
 According to this theory of leadership, those who become leaders must process a special
set of traits which distinguish them from followers.
،
‫ﻦﻏ‬
‫ة ا ﻔ ت ﻴﻨ ﺗ‬
‫ﻴﺒﻘ ا ﻗ ﺋ ﻳﻦ زم ﻳﺘ ﻓ ﻓﻴ‬
‫ ا ﻨ س ا‬، ‫ﺒﻘ ﺬﻩ ا ﻨﻈ ﻳ‬
 Later research on trait theories identified seven traits associated with successful
leadership: ‫ا ث ا ﻳﺜ دت ﺒ ﻔ ت ا ﻴ ﺘ ﻓ ﻩ ا ﻘﻴ دﻩ ا ﻨ ﺟ‬
1) Drive (energy and readiness)
2) the desire to lead, ‫ا ﻏﺒ ا ﻘﻴ دﻩ‬
3) honesty and integrity ‫ﻧ وا ﻘ‬
4)self-confidence, ‫ا ﺜﻘ ﺑ ﻨﻔ‬
‫ا‬
5) intelligence, ‫ا ﺬ ء‬
6) job-relevant
relevant knowledge, ‫ﻓ ا ﺘ ﻘ ﺑ ﻇﻴﻔ‬
‫ا‬
7) and extraversion (Oriented towards the out world) ‫ا ﻧﺒ ط او ا ﻧﻔﺘ ح‬
 Problems with traits
raits theories:theories:
 It is difficult to determine if traits make the leader or the opportunity for leadership
produces traits.
‫ﻩ ا ﺘﺠ رب‬
‫ﻴﻴ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺠﻴﺐ ﻳ ﺗ ي ا ﻘ ﺋ ﺑﻴﺒ ﻗ ﺋ ﺑ ﻔ ﻩ ا ﺘ ﺒ و ﺘ ﺑ‬
‫ا ﻨ ﺶ رﻓ‬
‫دي ﺑﺘﻘ‬
‫ﻦا ﺧ ا‬
... ‫وا ﻗ ت و زم ض ﺑ ﺾ ا ﺘﺠ رب ﺸ ن ﻳ ﺘﺸﻒ اﻧ ﻗ ﺋ‬
For example, do dominate individuals tend to become leaders, or do employees become more
dominate after they occupy leadership rules.
! ‫ا ﺗﺒﺔ ا ﻘ ﺋ ﻴ ﻴ وا‬
‫ﺑﻴﺒ‬
‫ﻴ ﺗ و ﻳ ﺗ يﺑ‬
‫ا ﻇﻴﻔﺔ ا ﻘ ﺋ ﺑﻨ ء‬
‫ﻴ ﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﺘ‬
‫ﺒﻴ ا ﺜ ل ﻳ ﺗ ي ا ﻇﻔ ا‬
!
‫ا ﺑﺘﺠﻴﺐ ا ﻘﻴ دﻩ و ا ﻘﻴ دﻩ ا ﺑﺘﺠﻴﺐ ا‬
‫ﺑﻴﻴﺞ ا ول ؟! ا‬
‫ﻳ‬
 The most critical problem of trait approach to leadership is its failure to take into account
the situations in which leadership occurs.
occurs
، ‫ﻴ ﻗﻴ دﻳ‬
‫ﻦﺗ ﺜ‬
‫ا ﻴﺐ ﻧﻘ ي ﻨﻈ ﻳ دي ﻓﺸ اﻧ ﺗ ﺧ ا ﺘﺒ ر ا اﻗﻒ ا ﺒ ﻴ ا ﻦ ﺧ‬
 It seems reasonable to say the top executives and first level supervisors might require
different traits to be successful.
successful
[2]
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Part 1
Prepared By: Mostafa Alaa Eldeen
Leadership Chapter
5
 Test yourself
2)Despite the best efforts of researchers, it proved impossible to identify one
set of traits that would always differentiate leaders from non
non-leaders
A)true
B)False
 Behavioral theories to leadership ‫ﻴ‬
‫ا ﻨﻈ ﻳ ت ا‬
Divided into two studies :
1)University of IOWA
2) University of Michigan
1)University of IOWA studies identified two leadership
styles: Autocratic style.( ‫ا وﺗ ﻗ ا ﻲ)ا ﺘﺒ‬
 Democratic style.‫ﻲ‬
‫اﻨ ا ﻳ ﻗ ا ﻲ‬
‫اﻨ‬
 Firstly, Autocratic style
 The autocratic leader keeps most of the authority on his hands, dictate work methods and
demands that followers comply with those demands.
‫ﻩ و ﺑﻴﺒﻘ ا ﺰ ﻳﻨﻔﺬوا‬
‫اﺘﺑ ا‬
‫اﻳ ﻩ و ا ﺑﻴﻔ ض ﻳﻘﺔ ا ﺸﻐ‬
‫ا ﻘ ﺋ ا وﺗ ﻗ ا ﻲ ﺑﻴﺨ ﺟﺰء ﺒ ﻦ ا‬
‫ا وا دي ا ﺘﺜ ﻷوا ﻩ‬
 He is comfortable making the decisions and telling others what to do.
do
، ‫اﻧ ﻳ ا ا ﻘ ار دﻩ‬
‫وﺑﻴﺨ ا ﺧ ﻳﻦ او ﺑﻴﺄ‬
‫ﺗ‬
‫ﺑﻴ ﺧ ا ﻘ ار وﻧﻔ ﻴﺘ‬
 Secondly,Democratic Style
 The democratic leadership encourages participation in decision making and frequently asks
the question,“ how are we going to solve this problem “
"‫ﺆال" ازاي ا ﺸ دي ؟‬
‫ا ذ ا ﻘ ار وداﺋ ﺑ ﺘ ار ﺘ ل ﻧﻔ‬
‫ا ﻘﻴ دﻩ ا ﻳ ﻗ ا ﻴ ا ﻩ ﺑﺘﺸﺠ ا ﺸ ر‬
 He encourages team work with minimal supervision.
supervision
، ‫ﺖ اﺷ اف ﻗ ﻴ ﺶ ﺜﻒ‬
‫ا‬
‫ﺑﺘﺸﺠ ا‬
Research findings: mixed results
 No specific style was consistently better for producing better performance
 Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader
[3]
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Part 1
Prepared By: Mostafa Alaa Eldeen
Leadership Chapter
5
2)University of Michigan studies:studies:
 The university of Michigan studies were designed to identify leadership styles that lead to
increased workgroup performance of group members.
 These studies identified two distinct leader styles:styles:
 Employee oriented and,
 Production oriented (job centered).
 Firstly, Employee oriented leadership style:
 Refers to those leader`s behaviors that are highly supportive (creating and encouraging)
( ‫و ﺸﺠ‬
‫ﺗﺸ ا ا ﻳ ﻳﻦ ا ﺑﻴﺒﻘ ا ﺸﺠ ﺑﺸ ﺒ ) ﺒ‬
 These leaders maximize performance by understanding the human sides of their
subordinate`s problems and also focus
focus on the building of effective work groups with
established goals for the groups.
groups
‫ﻓ‬
‫ﺑﻨ ء ﺟ ت‬
‫واﻳﻀ ﻦ ﺧ ل ﺗ‬
‫ا اﻧﺐ ا ﻧ ﻧﻴ و ﺸ‬
‫ﻦﺧ لﻓ‬
‫ا ﻳ ﻳﻦ دول ﺑﻴ ﻈ ا وﻳﺰودوا ا داء ﺑﺘ‬
، ‫ﺑ اف ﻴﻨ‬
‫وﻧﺸ‬
 Secondly, Production oriented leadership style
 Refers to leader`s behavior that are highly directive such as giving orders and setting
schedules.
‫ﺗ ﺟﻴ ﻲ زي ا ء ا وا ووﺿ ﺟ اول وﺑ ا ﺞ‬
‫ك ا ﻘ اد ا ﺑﻴﺒ ا‬
‫ﺗﺸ ا‬
 Production oriented leaders tend to emphasize the technical or task aspect of the job and
are concerned mainly with accomplishing their group`s task , and regard group members as
a means to that end .
‫وﺑ ﺘ ا ﺑ ز‬
‫ا وب وا ام ا ﻀ ء ا وب ﺸ ن ا ﻴ ا‬
‫ا ﻘ ﺋ ا ﺑ ﺰ ا ﻧﺘ ج ﺑﻴ ﻴ ا اﺑ از ا ﻧﺐ ا ﺘﻘ‬
،
‫ﻨﺨ‬
 Supervisors devote most of their energy to making sure that subordinates were following
the specified procedures at the established rates.
. ‫ﺸ ن ﻳﺘﺄ وا ان ا ؤ ﻴ ﻳﺘﺒ ا ا ﺟ اءات ا ﺗ اﻧﺸ ء ﻦ ﻗﺒ ا ؤ ء‬
‫ا اﻏ ﺐ ﻗﺘ‬
‫ا اﻗﺒ او ا ﺸ ﻓ ﺑﻴ‬
Research findings
 The early results of this research concluded that employees oriented leaders are strongly
associated with high groups performance and high job specification.
‫اداء‬
‫تا‬
‫ا ﺠ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺒ‬
‫ﺒ وﺟ د‬
‫ل ﺑﺸ‬
‫ﺑﻴ ﺟ ا ا‬
‫ا ﻨﺘ ﺋﺞ ا ﻇ ت ﻦ ا ﺒ ﺚ دﻩ ﺑﺘ ﺿ ان ا ﻘ دﻩ ا‬
.. ‫ﺟ ا‬
‫ﻴ‬
‫و ل ﻴ و ﻳ ا‬
 However, as Michigan studies progressed, the researchers began to understand that the
effectiveness of leadership styles was somehow related to situation.
situation
! ‫ا ﻗﻒ ﻧﻔ‬
‫ﺑ ﻏ ﻦ ذ ا ﺒ ﺜ ﺑ أوا اﻧ ﻳﻔ ا ان ﻓ ﻴﺔ ا ب ا ﻘﻴ دﻩ ﺑﻴ ﺘ‬
 A leader might need to be an employee oriented in one situation and task oriented in
another situation.
task ‫ ﺑ ﺾ ا ﺠ ت وا اﻗﻒ وﺑ ﺾ ا اﻗﻒ ا ﺘ ﻧﻴ زم ﻳ ﺒﻖ ا ـ‬Employee oriented‫ا ﻇﻒ ا ﻴ ﻧ زم ﻳ ﺒﻖ ﻧﻈ م ا ـ‬
،
‫ﺒﻴﺒﻘ ش ﺑﺸﺨ ﻴ وا ﻩ‬
‫ﻳ‬oriented
[4]
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Part 1
‫ﻳ‬
Prepared By: Mostafa Alaa Eldeen
Leadership Chapter
5
 hence, to decide what behaviors (employee-oriented
oriented or task oriented) are most likely to be
effective
e , we must learn more about the situation in which leadership occurs.
! ‫ﺟ ا ا ﻗﻒ ا اﻧﺖ ﻓﻴ‬
‫ﺸ ن ﺗﺸ ف ﺘ ﺒﻖ اي ﻧﻈ م دول زم ﺗﺒ دارس ﻳ و رف‬
 Test yourself
3.According to the University of Michigan studies, leaders who are production
oriented are described as emphasizing interpersonal relationships and as taking
a personal interest in the needs of their followers
A)true
B)False
Test yourself answers
1:a
2:a
3:b
‫ادارة اﯾﮫ اﻟﻠﻲ ﺗﺘﺮﻛﻦ ﻟﻠﯿﻠﺔ اﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎن‬
! ‫ﯾﺎﺳﺎﻣﯿﮫ‬
، ‫اﻻداره ﻻزم ﺗﺘﺰاﻛﺮ دﻟﻮﻗﺘﻲ ﯾﺎﺳﺎﻣﯿﮫ‬
[5]
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Part 1
Prepared By: Mostafa Alaa Eldeen
Leadership Chapter
5
MCQ
1) Ideally, all managers should be leaders
A)True
B)False
2) all managers must be leaders
A)True
B)False
3) Despite the best efforts of researchers, it proved impossible to identify one set of traits
that would always differentiate leaders from non-leaders.
non
A)True
B)False
4.Trait
.Trait theories most accurately predict ________.
A) distinguishing features of an effective leader
B) differences between an effective and an ineffective leader
C) success of a leader
D) roles to be played by the leader
E) emergence of a leader
5. The two dimensions of leadership behavior identified in the University of Michigan
studies are ________.
A) absolute leadership and contingency leadership
B) transformational leaders and authentic leaders
C)) initiating structure and consideration
D) initiation and completion
E) employee-oriented
oriented leaders and production-oriented
production
leaders
6. Thee University of Michigan studies define a(n) ________ leader as one who takes a
personal interest in the needs of his/her subordinates.
A) contingency
B) task-oriented
C) production-oriented
D) structure initiating
E) employee-oriented
7. If a leader's main concern is accomplishing his/her group's tasks, the University of
Michigan studies label this leader ________.
A) employee-oriented
B) high in consideration
C) relationship-oriented
D) low in initiating structure
E) production-oriented
[6]
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Part 1
Prepared By: Mostafa Alaa Eldeen
Leadership Chapter
Answer: E
8.Norman
.Norman has been working in the sales division for a large manufacturing company for
four months. In this short period of time, Norman has learned that Mr. Hill, his manager,
keeps increasing monthly targets significantly, and though each time the target appears
unrealistic, Norman has been able to achieve them throughout the last four months. Mr.
Lee's approach of leading his employees to work more efficiently by setting successively
higher targets is an example of his ________ leadership.
A) employee-oriented
B) consideration-based
C) person-oriented
D) support-oriented
E) production-oriented
[7]
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Part 1
5
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