Chapter 9 Part 1&2 Vocabulary (section 1-11) Name_________________________________ Objectives: 1) Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. 2) Name the three general function so the nervous system. 3) Describe the relationships between the divisions of the nervous system. 4) Distinguish between sensory receptors and effectors. 5) Identify and determine the function of the different neuroglial cells. 6) Draw a neuron and label all of the parts. 7) Define and identify the terms myelin sheath, Schwann cell, synaptic knob, and Node of Ranvier. 8) Explain how information passes from one neuron to another. 9) Describe the characteristics of a resting membrane. 10) Describe the events that occur during nervous impulses. 11) Distinguish between the actions of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. 12) List some typical diseases/disorders that result from neurotransmitter imbalances. 13) Compare the ways that impulses are processed. 14) Describe how nerve fibers in peripheral nerves are classified. 15) Describe the function of each part of a reflex arc, and name two reflex examples. Word Neurons Nerve impulses Nerves Neuroglial cells Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Sensory Receptors Integrative function Motor function effectors Meaning Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System meyelin Myelin sheath Neurofibrils Nodes of Ranvier White matter Gray matter Sensory neurons Interneurons Motor neurons Synapse (synaptic cleft) Presynaptic neuron Postsynaptic neuron Neurotransmitters Synaptic knobs Synaptic vesicles Figure 5 (pg 217): Label the following parts: dendrite, nucleus, cell body, myelin, axon, Schwann cell, node of Ranvier, neurofibrils, and myelin sheath. Chapter 9 Part 1 &2 Reading Guide (section 1-11) After reading pages 212-228 answer the following questions. 1) The general function of neurons is to __________________, whereas the general functions of neuroglial cells are to _____________________. 2) Match the neuron part on the left to its description to the right. a. Dendrite 1. a cell process that sends information b. Axon 2. the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus c. Cell Body 3. one of the usually several cell processes that receive information 4. the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. 3) Explain the relationship between 4) List the general functions of the nervous system. 5) Match the types of neuroglial cells on the left to their functions on the right. a. ependymal cells 1. form a myelin sheath around peripheral nerves b. oligodendrocytes 2. phagocytize cellular debris and bacteria c. astrocytes 3. d. Schwann cells 4. form scar tissue and regulate ion and nutrients conc. in the CNS e. microglial cells 5. form a myelin sheath around neurons in the CNS line inner parts of ventricles and spinal cord 6) Describe three structures found in neurons that are also in other cell types. 7) Describe two structures that are unique to neurons. 8) Distinguish between myelinated and unmyelinated axons. 9) Explain the path of information from one neuron to another. 10) Explain how a membrane becomes polarized. 11) Define resting potential. 12) List the events that occur during an action potential. 13) Choose the correct sequence of events along an axon: (pg 224) a. Resting potentials are propogated along a stimulated axon, causing an overall action potential. b. A threshold stimulus opens K+ channels and the ions diffuse in, depolarizing the cell membrane. Then Na+ channels open, Na+ exits, and the cell membrane repolarizes, generating an action potential that stimulates the adjacent cell membrane, forming the nerve impulse. c. A threshold stimulus opens Na+ channels and the ions diffuse in, depolarizing the cell membrane. Then K+ channels open, K+ exits, and the cell membrane repolarizes, generating an action potential that stimulates the adjacent cell membrane, forming the nerve impulse. d. A threshold stimulus opens Na+ channels and the ions diffuse in, depolarizing the cell membrane. Then K+ channels open, K+ exits, and the cell membrane repolarizes, generating a nerve impulse that stimulates the adjacent cell membrane, forming the action potential. e. Action potentials occur at different points along an axon, then join to generate a nerve impulse. 14) What is the difference between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in their actions? 15) Explain what happens to neurotransmitters after they are released. 16) Explain how sensory, motor and mixed nerves differ. 17) Distinguish between a reflex arc and a reflex. 18) List three body functions that reflexes control.