MASS RAPID TRANSIT (MRT)

advertisement
DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS
UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA (UTHM)
MPC 10303
CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY
CASE STUDY MRT CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
GROUP MEMBERS
Name
Matric No.
Yusuf Hussein Osman
HP170037
Yahya Mohsen Yahya Al-Tawil
GP170161
Mohammed Faez Salem Baqader
GP180007
Mohammad Khir Ismaail Triter
GP180012
Yaser Abdulwahab Ali Alsaeedi
HP170102
Abdulwali Muse Mohamed
GP180108
Lecturer’s Name: DR. HAMIDUN MOHD NOH
Date: 30/12/2018
Table of Contents
1.0
Introduction ............................................................................................................. 1
2.0
Background of MRT ............................................................................................... 1
3.0
Advantages of Technology Implementation in Tunnel Construction ..................... 2
4.0
Challenges of Technology of Implementation in Tunnel Construction .................. 5
4.1
Why Tunneling .................................................................................................... 6
4.2
Why Go Underground ......................................................................................... 7
4.3
Malaysia’s Tunneling Technology Challenges of MRT ................................... 7
4.4
Karstic Limestone ................................................................................................ 9
4.5
Kenny Hills........................................................................................................ 10
4.6
Granite ............................................................................................................... 10
5.0
5.1
Case Studies .......................................................................................................... 11
Comparison of Taipei MRT and Kaohsiung MRT ........................................... 11
5.2
Door Warning Lights in Taipei MRT Construction and Warning Sirens in
Kaohsiung Construction ............................................................................................... 12
5.3
Safety Facilities ................................................................................................. 12
5.4
The Convenience of Handrails .......................................................................... 12
5.5
Definition of Interface ....................................................................................... 13
5.6
The Analysis of Construction Interface Management ....................................... 14
6.0
Discussion of case study among construction parties ........................................... 15
6.1
Suggestions for the critical interface problems ................................................. 16
6.2
MRT - More Convenience or Waste ................................................................. 18
7.0
Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 19
8.0
Reference............................................................................................................... 21
9.0
Appendix ............................................................................................................... 22
9.1
Appendix A: Photos of M RT .......................................................................... 22
9.2
Appendix B: Drawing of M RT ....................................................................... 25
1
1.0
Introduction
The KVMRT is part of the Greater Kuala Lumpur and Klang Valley (GKV) initiatives
under the Economic Transformation Programme that are targeted to contribute RM190
billion in gross national income (GNI) over the next 10 years and create over 300,000
jobs. The KVMRT project is one of the Entry Point Projects (EPP) aimed at transforming
the Greater Klang Valley into the world’s top 20 most liveable metropolis by 2020.
Spanning 141km, the KVMRT’s three lines are expected to serve areas within a radius of
20km from city centre.
The 51km line will comprise an underground line of 9.5km and a total of 31 stations, of
which seven will be underground. It is expected to serve an estimated population of 1.2
million. Each train serving the line will have four coaches with a total capacity of 1,200
passengers. It is expected to ferry approximately 400,000 passengers daily. The trains are
expected to run at an interval of 3.5 minutes. The first line, the Sungai Buloh-Kajang
(SBK) Line, which will begin from Sungai Buloh through the city centre and ending in
Kajang, will be fully operational from July 2017.
“The SBK Line will be completed in two phases. The first, from Sungai Buloh to
Semantan, is scheduled to be up and running by the end of 2016, while phase two from
Semantan and Kajang (will start running) from July 2017,” said Amir. “So far, everything
is on track.”
2.0
Background of MRT
The MRT Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line is the first of the three planned Klang Valley Mass
Rapid Transit lines to be constructed, with estimated contract value of MYR36 billion.
The line starts from Sungai Buloh which is located to the north-west of Kuala Lumpur,
runs through the city centre of Kuala Lumpur, and ends in Kajang, a fast developing town
located to the south-east of Kuala Lumpur. The line serves a corridor with an estimated
population of 1.2 million people.
2
Phase One of the MRT Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line from Sungai Buloh to Semantan had
become operational at the end of 2016 while Phase Two from Semantan to Kajang will
become operational by July 2017, allowing trains to serve the entire line. Part of Phase
one, between Sungai Buloh and Semantan, commenced service in December 2016.
Announced in 2006, the line was initially planned as a LRT at 43 km in length, linking
the densely populated areas of Damansara in the northwest and Cheras in the southeast,
through the central business district of Kuala Lumpur city. The government then decided
to extend the alignment at both ends to Sungai Buloh and Kajang respectively, adding
8 km to the line for a total of 51 km. In addition, the line was changed to an MRT system,
with higher capacity trains. The line operated by a subsidiary of Prasarana
Malaysia Berhad, Rapid Rail Sdn Bhd.
3.0
Advantages of Technology Implementation in Tunnel Construction
“AS Malaysia's single largest infrastructure project, the Klang Valley MRT has truly
captured the imagination of the people. The vision of seamless interconnectivity with the
many train lines within the city, will soon become a reality. People from far ends of the
Klang Valley will be able to make appointments in the city and have the certainty of
making it on time, come rain or sunshine” Tan Sri Sidek Hassan (Chairman) said that. The
MRT will bring many benefits. At its very core, the MRT promises to get people to their
destinations with greater efficiency, reliability and much less stress. But it will bring much
more than that. Its multiplier effect will be seen in construction, jobs generation, reducing
pollution and in increased economic activities particularly along the alignment. The
eventual winners will be the people, with Kuala Lumpur becoming even more liveable
and Malaysia more competitive.
(a)
Tunnel boring machine (TBM)
On the SMART project, while the low density bentonite slurry based face support did
work while traversing minor fissures and filled cavities encountered in the karst, there
were incidences of surprise sinkholes and blowouts, and there had to be a much more
sophisticated slurry machine to deal with this problem in MRT tunnel. (TBM), is a
3
machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil
and rock strata. They may also be used for microtunneling. The TBM used as an
alternative to drilling and blasting (D&B) methods in rock and conventional "hand
mining" in soil (Tunnel, 2017). TBMs have the advantages of:

Limiting the disturbance to the surrounding ground and producing a smooth tunnel
wall. This significantly reduces the cost of lining the tunnel, and makes them
suitable to use in heavily urbanized areas.

The Variable Density TBM allows for the density of the slurry which it uses to be
thickened, which allows for better control of the slurry face pressure when
excavating through karstic limestone, thus minimizing the risk of slurry blow-outs
and sinkhole formation.

The success of the Variable Density TBM – five were used to excavate the tunnels
for the MRT Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line - was proven as it resulted in a 95%
reduction in the incidence of sinkhole formation when compared with tunnelling
for the SMART Tunnel under the same geological conditions
Figure 1: TBM Machine
(b)
Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SFRC)
Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete precast segment was used in this project tunneling work.
SERC widely used as the fiber reinforcement is inessential for integrity, quality,
production and safety. The quality requirement of the SFRC precast segment has increased
as part of the design life on the tunnel itself (Razak & Ismail, 2015).
4

Cracks on the SFRC precast segment has been recorded as the lowest defects on
the tunnel lining, affected only on 44 segments out of 17,280 segments install for
section 1 tunnel.

Although it is the lowest numbers of defect recorded, cracks on the precast
segment are considered a major type of defects and required a high attention the
rectification works.
(c)
Temporary earth retaining system
The selection of retaining wall has considered the workability and suitability of subsoil
and rock conditions. Secant pile wall was selected as the earth retaining wall supported
by temporary ground anchors (Kuan-seng, 2013). The advantages of the selected wall
type are

water-tightness to prevent groundwater drawdown at the retained side;

The ability to vary the pile lengths to suit the irregular limestone bedrock
profiles.
(d)
SMART Tunnel Lining Work
After the surrounding soil is improved with the spray of the cement material, the tunnel
lining is installed in place. Ring joints and parallel joints are used as the support when the
tunnel lining work progresses (Refer to Figure 3). The tunnel lining are sealed with
neoprene band which circulates into groove during the manufacturing and installation of
the linings. The sealing of tunnel lining takes place by placing two segments and pressing
the seal profiles together. The necessary force is applied to the ring joints by the tunnelling
jacks of the shield and it is estimated that approximately 5600 tonnes of force is applied.
(e)
Ventilation System
There are four ventilation shafts that split the tunnel into three major divisions. There are
located approximately 1km intervals.

The powerful ventilation suction fans will constantly renew the air and
maintain the air quality within the motorway.

The lowest channel where the stormwater are diverted during normal storm
does not equipped with any electrical devices. In case of the major storm
5
where the three decks of the tunnel are closed the mechanical ventilation will
automatically shut down in order to make way for the flooding of the tunnel.
(f)
Flood Warning System
MRT apply flood warning system which is very important as this is the only early warning
system that can detect the rise of the river level during heavy thunderstorm. The system
was designed by the Department of Sanitation and Irrigation of Malaysia, to minor all the
rivers throughout the country. The main focus in this section was given to the design for
rivers surrounding Klang Valley.

The information system plays the major role the get the information from all
the station situated along the river side,

Process the information and channel the information to the authority further
immediate response.

Telecommunication system such as the “short messaging service” are now
used as to spread out the flood warning as this services are very handy in the
21st century.
4.0
Challenges of Technology of Implementation in Tunnel Construction
Tunneling and underground space solutions in Malaysia have undergone a very successful
development in the last two decades, starting with the elaborate design of the well-known
SMART project in Kuala Lumpur 15 years ago. Recently the innovative Variable Density
tunnel boring machine for the MRT Klang Valley project won international awards and
respect from tunnelling professionals all over the world. Malaysia has come of age, as it
seems, in technical innovation for tunnelling solutions, and consequentially the
Tunnelling & Underground Space Technical Division of the Institution of Engineers
Malaysia (IEM) now has submitted its bid for Kuala Lumpur to host the ITA-AITES
World Tunnel Congress (WTC) 2020.
In Malaysia, tunnelling took on an important change in 2003 when there was an acute
need to address major flooding issues in the city of Kuala Lumpur. With the city densely
built up to the brims, the flood mitigation infrastructrure had to be taken underground via
6
tunnelling, and the geology in which the tunnel snakes through the city is made up of
extreme karst. Building on the experience gained and technological improvements in the
industry, the SMART (Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel) broke new ground not
only in the country but worldwide by combining the functions of stormwater drainage and
motorway tunnel. With 9.7 km length the SMART is one of the longest stormwater tunnels
in South East Asia. The large 13.2 m diameter tunnel was constructed using a slurry shield
TBM. Its construction posed a number of challenges, primarily related to the karstic
limestone formation through which the tunnel had to be driven. These challenges were
met and overcome by good engineering in design and construction.
4.1
Why Tunneling
Tunnels have been a hallmark of human civilisation since prehistory and though their
primary function is to create a direct route through an otherwise impassable medium, their
actual use has been extremely varied. From the labyrinthine network of the London Metro
and the New York subway system to the Cu Chi tunnels in Vietnam, tunnels are ubiquitous
in modern society.
Tunnels are as much a part of the landscape here in Malaysia as well, with examples
ranging from passages that cut through the mountainous interior of the peninsular to the
underground LRT network beneath Kuala Lumpur city. The SBK Line and SSP Line
underground alignments will have strategic stops at the busiest commercial, residential
and key employment areas in the heart of metropolitan Kuala Lumpur. With part of the
Klang Valley Mass Rapid Transit (KVMRT) alignments designed to traverse through
heavily built and populated residential districts, business centres, commercial centres and
key employment areas in the urban and suburban corridors of Klang Valley, MMC
Gamuda KVMRT (T) Sdn Bhd, faced with land constraints, had little alternative but to
take the alignments underground. Due to crucial reasons such as constructability, cost and
operational efficiency, the only solution was to go underground to avoid impediments to
the social and economic vibrancy of Kuala Lumpur city.
7
4.2
Why Go Underground
With part of the Klang Valley Mass Rapid Transit (KVMRT) Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line
(SBK Line) and the Sungai Buloh-Serdang-Putrajaya Line (SSP Line) designed to traverse
through heavily built and populated residential districts, business centres, commercial
centres and key employment areas in the urban and suburban corridors of Klang Valley,
some 9.5 km, for SBK Line, and 13.5 km for SSP Line, of the alignments were taken
underground. The tunnelling is primarily through three key geological formations, Kenny
Hill, KL Limestone and Granite, with most of the tunnel alignment sitting in the Grade V
karstic limestone, MMC Gamuda had proposed for this section a twin mode tunnel boring
machine (TBM) that would operate in both ‘slurry’ and ‘EPB’ modes, plus additionally
equipped with facility to use a higher density slurry. The VD TBM has been attracting
attention from industry specialists for its precise performance in tackling karstic
limestone. This machine is a direct evolution from MMC Gamuda’s tunnelling experience
on the dual purpose SMART tunnel project in Kuala Lumpur through similar karstic
limestone, but obviously without the variable density provision and as a result with less
control on ground loss.
4.3
Malaysia’s Tunneling Technology Challenges of MRT
Construction of the MRT in the Klang Valley is throwing up unusual obstacles that require
cutting-edge and customized methods and machinery, some that have not been used
anywhere else in the world. In Malaysia, tunneling took on an important change in 2003
when there was an acute need to address major flooding issues in the city of Kuala
Lumpur. With the city densely built up to the brims, the flood mitigation infrastructures
had to be taken underground via tunneling, and the geology in which the tunnel snakes
through the city is made up of extreme karst.
8
The MRT system best serves its function
by providing connectivity to the busiest
population pockets, but these pockets are
also extensively developed with narrow
corridors and dense structures. An aboveground route especially in the heart of KL
city for the MRT is simply unfeasible.
The most challenging task in the underground tunnelling works for the Klang Valley Mass
Rapid Transit (KVMRT) for SBK Line is the tough geological formations found
underneath Kuala Lumpur city. The underground alignment for the KVMRT SBK Line
navigated past two distinctly different geological settings, with the extreme karstic
limestone accounting for almost 50% of the underground alignment. Extreme karst is a
geological formation consisting of weakly soluble bedrock such as limestone eroded by
9
mildly acidic water over millions of years, leaving behind an elaborate labyrinth of
unstable caverns, cliffs and pinnacles in the depth of Kuala Lumpur city. For the the
Sungai Buloh-Serdang-Putrajaya Line, similar challenges are expected.
Thus, maintaining the equilibrium of the sub-surface geological system containing
underground reservoirs and water-filled cavities is a challenge as any disturbances from
underground activities could cause karst sinkholes and ground subsidence. Another
possible consequence is bentonite blowouts, resulting in mudflows that rise to the surface
during the boring process.
The MRT Sungai Buloh-Serdang-Putrajaya Line’s
underground section passes through three distinct geological formations. This determines
the type of tunnel boring machines to be used for boring works.
4.4
Karstic Limestone
The main challenge tunnelling in limestone is the difficulty in controlling the sudden loss
of face pressure due to the existence of unpredictable underground voids and channels,
resulting in surface settlement or sinkholes. This is normally overcome by extensive
mapping and investigation before tunnel boring starts.
The Variable Density Tunnel Boring Machine (VD TBM) slows down the sudden loss of
face pressure by applying more viscous slurry to prevent blowouts to surface through
underground channels
10
4.5
Kenny Hills
This geological formation consists of mainly sandy silt and sandstones and is generally
stable for tunnelling. The challenge is from the abrasiveness of the material, resulting in
excessive wear and tear to the TBM’s cutting tools. There are also sporadic intrusions of
quartz lens or dyke that is very hard. The Earth Pressure Balance machine is well-suited
for this geological formation.
4.6
Granite
Granite is generally hard and abrasive. The main challenge is the need for regular
maintenance and change of tools, resulting in tunnelling at this section being slower.
Weathering of the granite underground may result in water channels being trapped and
hidden, making the conditions similar to karstic limestone. The use of the VD TBM
manages the mixed condition and prevents the drawdown from the water lenses.
11
5.0
Case Studies
5.1
Comparison of Taipei MRT and Kaohsiung MRT
Kaohsiung MRT has only one single line, and plus there are comparatively few shuttle
buses offering passengers to interchange with their destinations. Moreover, there are
relatively few routes for shuttle buses to travel, which results in inconvenience.
Accordingly, Kaohsiung MRT has yet to publish the interchanging information on the
brochures for passengers; instead, it posted the interchanging information inside the
station only.
On Taipei MRT, except for Taipei Main Station and Zhongxiao Fuxing Station, there is
no other platform door constructed at HCS (High Capacity System). And in Taipei’s MCS
(Medium Capacity System), except for Muzha and Taipei Zoo Station, the platform doors
have been installed in every station. However, no matter whether it is the Red Line (●) or
the Orange Line (●) on Kaohsiung MRT, platform doors have been installed in every
station. With the precedent of Taipei, the authorities concerned installed platform doors
at every station of Kohsiung MRT. Despite the broader platform doors on Taipei MRT,
the public prefer the doors on Kohsiung MRT than those of Taipei MRT. The reason is
that the passengers consider safety facilities in Kaohsiung to be better.
Fig.1 The platform on Taipei MRT
Fig.2 The platform on Kohsiung MRT
12
5.2
Door Warning Lights in Taipei MRT Construction and Warning Sirens in
Kaohsiung Construction
Unlike Taipei MRT, which uses flashing warning light to indicate that platform doors are
about to close, Kaohsiung MRT uses warning sirens to remind passengers of the coming
trains. Passengers, however, consider warning light better than warning sirens due to the
misunderstandings warning sirens may cause. The warning sirens make people confused
about the coming directions of MRT since they cannot tell which siren is going off, and
which is dangerous to passengers.
5.3
Safety Facilities
There are same safety facilities both on Taipei and Kaohsiung MRT; however, it’s
Kaohsiung MRT that has Nighttime Safeguarded Waiting Zone.
5.4
The Convenience of Handrails
Overall, Kaohsiung MRT is said to be more user-friendly than Taipei MRT because on
the train, it segmented the central handrail into three vertical branches, which gives
passengers more handles bars to hold on and thus increasing safety on MRT.
A construction project involves so many parties, such as owners, designers, construction
contractors, subcontractors, maintenance contractors, and material suppliers, that some
interface problems can arise, for example, the lack of cooperation, limited trust, and
ineffective communication leading to an adversarial relationship among all these project
stakeholders. This kind of relationship induces project delays, difficulty in resolving
claims, cost overruns, litigations, and compromise project quality. On facing such types
of situations, practitioners can only manage to re-solve them according to their own
intuition instead of standards and thus the individual cannot be provided with a
comprehensive picture of the interface problems. Consequently, these interface problems
need to be immediately and carefully resolved, particularly through proper coordination,
cooperation, and communication among the construction parties. Many studies listed in
the literature discuss the interface problems between two parties, including designers and
13
contractors and subcontractors’ owners and maintenance contractors’ owners and
designers as well as common interface problems among various construction parties.
However, all the main interface problems are identified only through a review of the
literature and a pilot study of the interviews rather than by using any statistical tools.
Moreover, the adverse effects of these interface problems among the related parties upon
the completion and quality of the construction projects is not highlighted. Therefore, it is
essential to rigorously categorize the interface problems among various parties and
accurately study their effects on the projects in order to avoid excessive costs as well as
improve the quality of the construction projects.
In order to successfully combine practice and theory, this paper aims to identify the main
interface problems among various construction parties and assess their impacts with
particular reference to the mass rapid transit system (MRTS). as far as the construction of
the MRTS is concerned, the additional expenses incurred by the interface problems are
higher than any other construction project owing to its highly complicated integration
between the mechanical, electrical, civil, and track interfaces. As a result, the problems in
the MRTS require greater consideration than any other type of construction.
5.5
Definition of Interface
interface is a dimension between two firms or organizations that can mutually influence
each other, whereas Lin believe that interfaces exist within the occasions, processes,
systems, elements, and equipment’s. In any case, the concept of “the conflicts among units
need to be coordinated and resolved” is generally accepted. The units are likely to be
contractors, materials, or events, and their interactive relationships are further prominent
causes of interface problems. Therefore, the possibility of interface problems emerging
would inevitably rise with the gradual development of construction projects together with
an increasing complexity in the interactive relationships among the involved parties. With
regard to the MRTS projects, interfaces would probably appear in electrical, civil,
functional, physical, organizational, or contractual shapes. Hence, based on these previous
researches, the definition of “the matters required to be physically and functionally
14
coordinated or cooperated with among two or more subjects” is thought to be appropriate
for this research.
5.6
The Analysis of Construction Interface Management
According to our definition of interface, a range of interfaces would come into existence
between or among various parties in all types of construction projects. Hence, the
importance of interface management is discussed as well as emphasized in literature. For
instance, Stuckenbruck suggested that one project involving numerous people, parties, and
units must be carefully and effectively integrated into a single unit if it aims to operate
smoothly so as to prevent incurring extra costs. Moreover, proposed that a project could
prosper only through the proper management of communication, coordination, and
responsibility across a common boundary between two organizations, phases, and
independent physical entities. The critical relationship between interface management and
project success is developed so constantly in literature further proposed that the
performance of interface management completely depended on how smooth the interface
could be made. Therefore, it is evident that effective interface management and wellorganized solution to interface problems would be essential for ensuring project success.
Its proposed that five different perspectives in order to analyze interface management,
namely, “contract interface”, “technology interface”, “monitor interface”, “execution
integration interface”, and “the interacting behavior in the interface”. Among all these
views, the “execution integration interface” is the most practical and comprehensive to
understand interface management involved in construction projects. Generally speaking,
a construction project involves a variety of parties having contracts with each other, such
as designers, PCM, constructors, suppliers, and executives in a project; however, only the
major contractor possesses the authority to integrate and monitor the execution process.
As a result, successful interface management in a construction project should carefully
integrate all the technical and managerial matters among the involved parties and
emphasize their coordination and cooperation. Otherwise, counteractions will emerge in
the interface and cause damages to all the participants in the project.
15
6.0
Discussion of case study among construction parties
With the rapid development of technology and the increasingly bigger size of
constructions, the involved parties are required to pay more attention to all types of
difficult interface problems than ever before. By considering the mass rapid transit system
(MRTS) as an example, several problems resulting from complicated mechanical,
electrical, civil, and track interfaces led to enormously extra losses in the construction
process. Types of interface problems will probably cause a huge disaster in construction
projects such as the following variables:
Difficulty in coordination between interfaces Track engineering constructors, do not
embark on detailed design until they award the contract, which is different from other
types of constructions. Thus, they try to use as much of their stock material as possible
while undertaking the design. However, old-fashioned stock material does not meet the
owner’s requirement; therefore, it will result in poor interface coordination and bring
about new interface problems.
Parties different opinions on mutual views and needs, there are too many parties involved
in a track engineering construction project to have a good understanding of mutual
standpoints and needs among all the parties. If some party strongly insists on their own
view, there will be competition and arguments within the interface and thus the entire
project will get deferred.
Limited personal experience and defective feedback, since the technological
characteristics of track engineering changes with time, personal past experience about
interface problems cannot be utilized in new projects. Therefore, previous solutions for
interface problems might not be applicable for the present situation, which could bring
about the occurrence of new interface problems.
Increase in the uncertainty and ambiguity of interface conflicts, With the emergence of
new types of construction projects, unprecedented interface problems occur and thus
create a great deal of uncertainty and ambiguity, which may raise the possibility of
interface arguments and conflicts among the participating parties.
16
Incompetence in solving new technical problems, newly developed techniques have
surpassed traditional imagination and thus the relevant staffs are incompetent in dealing
with arguments arising from the development of new techniques. It is imperative to
acquire more understanding of the new technical (know-how) problems in addition to
personal past experiences. Otherwise, new types of interface problems will probably cause
a huge disaster in construction projects.
Table 1: Summary of factor analysis (Management factor).
Small number of factors that can be used to represent the relationships among sets of many
interrelated variables. It was conducted to reduce the interface problems into a small
number of underlying factors. The extraction and rotation of the factors were performed
to yield a small number of factors and obtain a clearer picture of what each factor
represents.
6.1
Suggestions for the critical interface problems
For the purpose of reducing the harm that they could cause and improving future
performance, two solutions— project partnering and configuration management—have
been proposed as follows.
17
1. Project Partnering is such a magnificent technique that it can create an effective
project management process between two or more organizations along with
avoiding the repetitive occurrence of problems and possible litigation in the
construction project. It intends to generate an organizational environment of trust,
open communication circumstances, and employees’ involvement.
2. Configuration Management its purpose is really quite simple and elegant. It is
designed to ensure that organizations possess the information they need to
guarantee that the expected performance is met. Moreover, configuration
management can provide a method and program for the management of change
orders. In the long term, it can prevent unnecessary changes from taking place as
well. The idea of configuration management is helpful for the settlement of
confrontations when inconsistencies occur between subsequent performances and
the original plan and design. Therefore, numerous interface problems caused by
poor coordination can be effectively reduced because it can setup a standard for
the parties to abide by.
Suggestions from this case study there is no significant influence of environmental factors
on the construction performance. Nevertheless, in practice, construction performances are
apparently restrained by local regulations and global market integration. As a result, an
investigation of the relationship between environmental factors alone and the construction
performance should be conducted in the future. Cases on various track engineering
construction projects, such as Kaohsiung MRTS or Taiwan High-Speed Rail Project,
should be launched to verify the applicability and reliability of the consequences indicated
in this research. The industry with the best practice can be denoted as the benchmark for
similar construction projects in the future and effective strategies can also be suggested to
enhance the project performance and improve the dispute resolution mechanisms. Longterm observations with the establishment of database in the future are beneficial for a
comprehensive understanding of a range of interface problems, which are not completely
revealed in this study. By means of a full-scale survey, the possible problems can be
understood and controlled on a pre-contract basis and thus the standard of track
engineering construction can be effectively enhanced.
18
Lastly, categorize common interface problems as mentioned above in the MRTS and
discussed the relationship between them and the project performance. It provides an
overview of foreign studies in terms of significant interface problems in track engineering
projects.
6.2
MRT - More Convenience or Waste
In this project need to discuss the differences between Taipei and Kaohsiung MRT systems,
such as the investigation toward people’s willingness to take the MRT, efficiency, cleaners,
and facilities. We can not only know how to improve the drawbacks on the Kaohsiung
MRT, but make people have a further understanding of MRT systems. In the future,
Taichung metropolitan areas in Taichung are going to set up the MRT system. From
differences of facilities on Taipei MRT and Kaohsiung MRT can discuss the case study of
them as Kaohsiung MRT has only one single line, and plus there are comparatively few
shuttle buses offering passengers to interchange with their destinations. Moreover, there
are relatively few routes for shuttle buses to travel, which results in inconvenience.
Platform Doors, On Taipei MRT, except for Taipei Main Station and Zhongxiao Fuxing
Station, there is no other platform door constructed at HCS (High Capacity System). And
in Taipei’s MCS (Medium Capacity System), except for Muzha and Taipei Zoo Station,
the platform doors have been installed in every station. Unlike Taipei MRT, which uses
flashing warning light to indicate that platform doors are about to close, Kaohsiung MRT
uses warning sirens to remind passengers of the coming trains. Passengers, however,
consider warning light better than warning sirens due to the misunderstandings warning
sirens may cause.
Table2. The comparison of Taipei and Kaohsiung MRT
19
In conclusion, the authorities concerned of Taipei MRT systems should be 10 concerned
about the efficiency, safe facilities, and better environment. And the authorities concerned
of Kaohsiung MRT system should make more efforts on improving its efficiency,
convenience, and the designs of routes.
7.0
Conclusions
This research initiated a comprehensive investigation through face-to-face interviews and
questionnaires to categorize common interface problems in the MRTS and discussed the
relationship between them and the project performance. It provides an overview of foreign
studies in terms of significant interface problems in track engineering projects. The
research findings were confirmed to be applicable and influential to the majority of future
track engineering projects. On one side, two interface problems (experience and
coordination factors) were identified to be critical with regard to project performance.
They both occurred due to the lack of know-how. On the other hand, in spite of the
insignificance of the remaining four factors, they make the overview of interface problems
more complete. Therefore, in practice, the first step to solve interface problems is to train
employees, increase their coherence, and create an atmosphere of cooperation.
Past experience dominates the rate of project progress and thus experience and instruction
should be emphasized among the involved parties. With regard to practical application, it
is crucial to avoid the repetition of the same mistakes and thus some taskforces comprising
experienced personnel should be formed, whereas inexperienced employees should get
20
involved in the construction project. For example, configuration management,
maintaining the requisite designs, and earlier solutions to interface problems can
efficiently lower wastage with regard to cost and time.
Coordination is so critical to the quality of the project that a system that is capable of
facilitating the participants’ knowledge of their mutual needs should be established to
avoid internal competition for resources. Integration will be the core ingredient of
management in the future as well as the essential part of tomorrow’s organization;
therefore, to increase competitiveness, it becomes vital to establish the integral platforms
for proper coordination among the participants. Environmental factors seem insignificant
to the project performance because they are external forces that are not brought about by
humans. As a result, the importance of the environment should be less than that of humans
in the entire construction project.
As a conclusion, the KVMRT project has many benefits to the people once it is completed
but they will have to bear with the problems that may appear during the completion of the
project. MRT project should be able take Malaysia closer to its target; to be one of the
world’s advanced countries by 2020. Therefore, the KVMRT, without doubt, brings good
benefits to the people.
21
8.0
Reference
Sekou, E. A. (2012). Promoting the use of ICT in the construction industry (Doctoral
dissertation, Department Of Building Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University
of Science And Technology-Kumasi
Levinson, H., S. Zimmerman, J. Clinger, S. Rutherford, R.L. Smith, J. Cracknell, and R.
Soberman. Bus Rapid Transit, Volume 2: Implementation guidelines. Transit
Cooperative Research Program Report 90, Transportation Research Board (2003).
Nurdden, A., Rahmat, R. A., and Ismail, A. Effect of transportation policies on modal.
shift from private car to public transport in Malaysia. Journal of the Applied
Sciences, 7(7) (2007), p. 1013-1018
Kuan-seng, K. (2013). Design and Construction of Excavation Works for Klang Valley
Mass Rapid Transit Underground Station. Fifth International Young Geotechnical
Engineering Conference - 5iYGEC’13, 5–8.
Razak, M. H. B. A., & Ismail, A. (2015). Minimizing defects occurrences on sfrc tunnel
segment of Klang Valley MRT project. Journal of Engineering Science and
Technology, 10(Spec. Issue on 4th International Technical Conference (ITC) 2014),
13–23.
Tunnel. (2017). Tunnelling in Malaysia. Retrieved December 9, 2018, from
http://www.tunnelonline.info/en/artikel/tunnel_Tunnelling_in_Malaysia_2822504.h
tml
Tunnelling in Malaysia International/TBM . 2017. ternational Freelancing Journalist and
Author,Wetzlarhttp://www.tunnelonline.info/en/artikel/tunnel_Tunnelling_in_
Malaysia_2822504.html
Breakthrough of the world’s first Variable Density Tunnel Boring Machine.2016.
https://www.mymrt.com.my/events/breakthrough-of-the-worlds-first-variabledensity-tunnel-boring-machine/
22
9.0
Appendix
9.1
Appendix A: Photos of M RT
MRT LINE KAJANG
23
MRT train Malaysia
SMART Tunnel Lining Work
24
SMART Tunnel’s Ventilation System
Flood Warning System
25
9.2
Appendix B: Drawing of M RT
MRT station
MRT LINE KAJANG
Download
Related flashcards

Project management

14 cards

Project management

37 cards

Create Flashcards