periodic-table-2017-nocrop

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P E R I O D I C
Group
1
IA
1 2S1/2
Atomic Properties of the Elements
FREQUENTLY USED FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTS §
H
1 second = 9 192 631 770 periods of radiation corresponding to the
transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of 133Cs
Hydrogen
2
2
4
S1/2
Li
Lithium
3
Period
4
5
Sodium
24.305*
2
[Ne]3s
7.6462
20
2
S1/2
K
40.078
2
[Ar]4s
6.1132
38
S1/2
Rb
56
S1/2
Cs
S1/2
Fr
39
2
Y
D3/2
Yttrium
88.90584
2
[Kr]4d5s
6.2173
S0
1
S0
G°4
Ce
Name
Ground-state
Configuration
12
Ionization
Energy (eV)
3
Zr
F2
Zirconium
91.224
2 2
[Kr]4d 5s
6.6339
72
3
3
Rf
F2
F2
Rutherfordium
V
Vanadium
50.9415
3 2
[Ar]3d 4s
6.7462
41
6
D1/2
Nb
Niobium
92.90637
4
[Kr]4d 5s
6.7589
73
4
F3/2
Ta
Tantalum
Cr
Chromium
5
Solids
Liquids
Gases
Artificially
Prepared
13
IIIA
2
B
P°1/2
Boron
13
6
14
IVA
3
P0
C
Carbon
10.81*
2 2
1s 2s 2p
8.2980
12.011*
2 2 2
1s 2s 2p
11.2603
2
P1/2
°
Al
Aluminum
51.9961
5
[Ar]3d 4s
6.7665
42
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
54.938044
55.845
6 2
[Ar]3d 4s
7.9025
58.933194
7 2
[Ar]3d 4s
7.8810
58.6934
8 2
[Ar]3d 4s
7.6399
63.546
10
[Ar]3d 4s
7.7264
65.38
10 2
[Ar]3d 4s
9.3942
5
S3
Mo
Molybdenum
95.95
5
[Kr]4d 5s
7.0924
5
W
Fe
[Ar]3d 4s
7.4340
7
74
Mn
Manganese
D0
Tungsten
43
2
6
S5/2
Tc
Technetium
(98)
5 2
[Kr]4d 5s
7.1194
75
6
S5/2
Re
Rhenium
Iron
44
5
Ru
Cobalt
F5
Ruthenium
45
4
F9/2
Rh
Rhodium
101.07
102.90550
[Kr]4d 5s
7.3605
[Kr]4d 5s
7.4589
7
76
5
Os
8
D4
Osmium
77
4
F9/2
Ir
Iridium
105
4
F3/2
Db
Dubnium
106
Sg
0
Seaborgium
107
Bh
5/2
Bohrium
108
Hs
4
Hassium
(267)
(268)
(271)
(270)
(269)
14 4 2
14 5 2
14 6 2
14 2 2
14 3 2
[Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s [Rn]5f 6d 7s
6.8
7.8
7.7
7.6
6.01
Cerium
140.116
2
[Xe]4f5d6s
5.5386
40
104
1
Ground-state
Level
58
1
S0
He
Helium
Nickel
46
1
Pd
S0
Palladium
106.42
10
[Kr]4d
8.3369
78
3
Pt
D3
Platinum
Copper
47
2
48
S1/2
Ag
S0
Cadmium
107.8682
10
[Kr]4d 5s
7.5762
2
1
Cd
Silver
79
Ga
Zinc
112.414
10 2
[Kr]4d 5s
8.9938
80
S1/2
1
S0
Hg
Au
Gold
Mercury
178.49
180.94788
183.84
186.207
190.23
192.217
195.084
196.966569
200.592
14 2 2
14 6 2
14 5 2
14 3 2
14 10 2
14 7 2
14 10
14 9
14 4 2
[Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s [Xe]4f 5d 6s
6.8251
7.5496
7.8640
7.8335
8.4382
8.9670
8.9588
9.2256
10.4375
(226)
2
[Rn]7s
5.2784
Atomic
Number
47.867
2 2
[Ar]3d 4s
6.8281
Hafnium
Radium
(223)
Ti
Titanium
Hf
Barium
Ra
Francium
44.955908
2
[Ar]3d4s
6.5615
137.327
2
[Xe]6s
5.2117
88
2
Based upon
1
Ba
Cesium
[Rn]7s
4.0727
†
Sc
Scandium
87.62
2
[Kr]5s
5.6949
132.9054520*
Standard
Atomic
†
Weight (Da)
S0
§ For the most accurate
values of these and
other constants, visit
pml.nist.gov/constants
(exact)
(ħ
/2 )
2
Physical Measurement Laboratory www.pml.nist.gov
Standard Reference Data www.nist.gov/srd
18
VIIIA
14
3
P0
Si
Silicon
7
15
VA
4
S3/2
°
N
Nitrogen
14.007*
2 2 3
1s 2s 2p
14.5341
15
°
S3/2
4
P
Phosphorus
8
16
VIA
3
P2
O
Oxygen
15.999*
2 2 4
1s 2s 2p
13.6181
16
3
P2
S
9
17
VIIA
2
P3/2
°
F
Fluorine
18.99840316*
2 2 5
1s 2s 2p
17.4228
17
P3/2
°
2
Cl
Sulfur
Chlorine
Selenium
Bromine
4.002602
2
1s
24.5874
10
1
S0
Ne
Neon
20.1797
2 2 6
1s 2s 2p
21.5645
18
1
S0
Ar
Argon
26.9815385
28.085*
30.97376199*
32.06*
35.45*
39.948
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
2 5
2 6
2 4
2 2
2
2 3
[Ne]3s 3p
[Ne]3s 3p
[Ne]3s 3p
[Ne]3s 3p
[Ne]3s 3p
[Ne]3s 3p
IIIB
IVB
VB
VIB
VIIB
VIII
IB
IIB
5.9858
8.1517
10.4867
10.3600
12.9676
15.7596
2
3
1
3
P3/2
P0 33 4S3/2
S0
P2 35
° 32
° 36
° 34
21 2D3/2 22 3F2 23 4F3/2 24 7S3 25 6S5/2 26 5D4 27 4F9/2 28 3F4 29 2S1/2 30 1S0 31 2P1/2
Strontium
85.4678
[Kr]5s
4.1771
Symbol
1
Sr
Rubidium
[Xe]6s
3.8939
7
S0
R
R c
R hc
eV
k
R
electron volt
Boltzmann constant
molar gas constant
Calcium
39.0983
[Ar]4s
4.3407
87
1
Ca
Potassium
2
S0
Magnesium
22.98976928
[Ne]3s
5.1391
2
1
−1
299 792 458 m s
−34
6.626 070 x 10 J s
−19
1.602 177 x 10 C
−31
9.109 384 x 10 kg
0.510 999 MeV
−27
1.672 622 x 10 kg
1/137.035 999
−1
10 973 731.569 m
15
3.289 841 960 x 10 Hz
13.605 693 eV
-19
1.602 176 6 x 10 J
−23
−1
1.380 65 x 10 J K
−1 −1
8.314 5 J mol K
c
h
e
me
2
mec
mp
proton mass
fine-structure constant
Rydberg constant
Mg
Na
55
6
12
S1/2
37
Be
S0
9.0121831
2 2
1s 2s
9.3227
2
19
1
Beryllium
6.94*
2
1s 2s
5.3917
11
2
IIA
speed of light in vacuum
Planck constant
elementary charge
electron mass
Lanthanides
3
1.008*
1s
13.5984
Actinides
1
T A B L E
57
2
D3/2
La
Lanthanum
138.90547
2
[Xe]5d6s
5.5769
89
2
D3/2
Ac
Actinium
(227)
2
[Rn]6d7s
5.3802
58
1
Ce
G°4
Cerium
140.116
2
[Xe]4f5d6s
5.5386
90
3
Th
F2
Thorium
232.0377
2 2
[Rn]6d 7s
6.3067
59
°
I9/2
4
Pr
60
5
I4
Nd
Praseodymium Neodymium
140.90766
3 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.473
91
4
K11/2
Pa
Protactinium
231.03588
2
2
[Rn]5f 6d7s
5.89
C. () indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope.
144.242
4 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.5250
92
U
5
L°6
Uranium
238.02891
3
2
[Rn]5f 6d7s
6.1941
61
H°5/2
6
Pm
Promethium
(145)
5 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.582
93
6
L11/2
Np
Neptunium
(237)
4
2
[Rn]5f 6d7s
6.2655
109
Mt
Meitnerium
(278)
62
7
F0
Sm
Samarium
150.36
6 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.6437
94
7
Pu
F0
Plutonium
(244)
6 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.0258
110
Ds
111
112
Rg
Cn
Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium
(281)
63
8
S°7/2
Eu
Europium
151.964
7 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.6704
95
8
°
S7/2
Am
Americium
(243)
7 2
[Rn]5f 7s
5.9738
(282)
64
9
(285)
D°2
Gd
Gadolinium
157.25
7
2
[Xe]4f 5d6s
6.1498
96
9
D°2
Cm
Curium
(247)
7
2
[Rn]5f 6d7s
5.9914
*For the most accurate value, visit ciaaw.org.
65
6
H°15/2
Tb
Terbium
158.92535
9 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.8638
97
H°15/2
6
Bk
Berkelium
(247)
9 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.1978
Ge
Gallium
Germanium
As
Arsenic
Br
Kr
Krypton
69.723
72.630
74.921595
78.971
79.904*
83.798
10 2
10 2 2
10 2 3
10 2 4
10 2 5
10 2 6
[Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p [Ar]3d 4s 4p
5.9993
7.8994
9.7886
9.7524
11.8138
13.9996
49
2
P1/2
°
In
Indium
50
3
Sn
P0
Tin
51
°
S3/2
4
Sb
Antimony
52
3
Te
P2
Tellurium
53
P3/2
°
2
I
Iodine
54
1
Xe
S0
Xenon
114.818
118.710
121.760
127.60
126.90447
131.293
10 2 6
10 2 4
10 2 5
10 2 3
10 2
10 2 2
[Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p [Kr]4d 5s 5p
5.7864
7.3439
8.6084
9.0097
10.4513
12.1298
81
2
P1/2
°
Tl
Thallium
204.38*
[Hg]6p
6.1083
113
Nh
Nihonium
(286)
66
5
Dy
I8
Dysprosium
162.500
10 2
[Xe]4f 6s
5.9391
98
Cf
5
I8
Californium
(251)
10 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.2817
82
3
Pb
P0
Lead
207.2
2
[Hg]6p
7.4167
114
Fl
Flerovium
(289)
67
4
°
I15/2
Ho
Holmium
164.93033
11 2
[Xe]4f 6s
6.0215
99
4
°
I15/2
Es
Einsteinium
(252)
11 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.3676
83
°
S3/2
4
Bi
Bismuth
208.98040
3
[Hg]6p
7.2855
115
Mc
Moscovium
(289)
68
3
Er
H6
Erbium
167.259
12 2
[Xe]4f 6s
6.1077
100
3
H6
Fm
Fermium
(257)
12 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.50
84
3
Po
P2
Polonium
(209)
4
[Hg]6p
8.414
116
Lv
85
P3/2
°
2
At
Astatine
(210)
5
[Hg]6p
9.3175
117
Ts
86
1
S0
Rn
Radon
(222)
6
[Hg]6p
10.7485
118
Og
Livermorium Tennessine
Oganesson
69
71
(293)
2
F°7/2
Tm
Thulium
168.93422
13 2
[Xe]4f 6s
6.1843
101
2
F°7/2
Md
Mendelevium
(258)
13 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.58
(294)
70
1
Yb
S0
Ytterbium
173.045
14 2
[Xe]4f 6s
6.2542
102
1
S0
No
Nobelium
(259)
14 2
[Rn]5f 7s
6.65
(294)
2
D3/2
Lu
Lutetium
174.9668
14
2
[Xe]4f 5d6s
5.4259
103
P1/2
°
2
Lr
Lawrencium
(266)
14 2
[Rn]5f 7s 7p
4.96
For a description of the data, visit pml.nist.gov/data
NIST SP 966 (January 2017)
NISTory of the Periodic Table
Sodium:
NIST scientists used
lasers to cool a gas of
these atoms to lower-thanpredicted temperatures
near absolute zero.
(Nobel Prize 1997)
Cesium:
The frequency of microwave
radiation from this atom is
used to define the second,
measured in atomic clocks
such as the NIST-F2 (2014).
Image Credit: NIST
Krypton:
1960
Wavelengths of light from
this atom, measured by NIST
researchers, defined the official
meter until 1983.
Image Credit: H.Mark Helfer/NIST
Rubidium:
1988
The atoms that created the
first Bose-Einstein condensate,
made by researchers at JILA
(NIST-University of Colorado).
(Nobel Prize 2001)
Potassium and
Rubidium:
Image Credit: NIST/JILA/CU-Boulder
1967
1995
2008
JILA researchers married
these elements into an
ultracold gas of molecules
and demonstrated striking
predictions of quantum
physics by hitting the atoms
with “rulers of light” known
as frequency combs
(Nobel Prize 2005) and
trapping them in webs of
light known as optical lattices.
Image Credit: Steven Burrows and
Ye/Jin groups/JILA
Image Credit: Neil Tucker/Wikimedia
2010
/2011
1931
Beryllium and
Aluminum:
Deuterium:
This rare heavy
isotope of hydrogen
was concentrated at
NIST and then identified
by Columbia University's
Harold Urey (Nobel Prize 1934). On the
left is a deuterium lamp; the light on the
right comes from the NIST SURF III
Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility.
Individual ions of these
atoms were probed in a
NIST trap to create
"quantum logic" clocks that
measured the second more precisely than
before and tested Einstein's general theory
of relativity. Such quantum manipulations
were recognized in the 2012 Nobel Prize.
Image Credit: Uwe Arp/NIST
Image Credit: J. Amini/NIST
www.nist.gov
Design by: Natasha Hanacek/NIST
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