Anatomy of the Heart

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Anatomy of the Heart
Location of the Heart
Center of the chest
 Under the sternum and
between the lungs
 About the size of your fist
 Weighs about 10.6 oz or 300
grams
 Protected by pericardium – two
layered sac

Layers of the heart
 Epicardium
- outer
layer of the heart
 Myocardium middle
thick layer of the
heart
 Endocardium – inner
layer of the heart
Chambers of the Heart
 Chambers
- the heart contains 4
chambers (hollow spaces)
 Right and left Atria (upper chambers)
 Right and left Ventricles (lower
chambers)
Heart Chambers
Heart Valves
 Valves
prevent the backflow of blood
 The
heart has 4 valves that keep the
blood flowing into and out of the
chambers in one direction
 The
valves also direct the flow of blood
into the chambers to fill
Heart Valves and Vessels
Heart Valves
The 4 Valves are:
 Tricuspid
 Bicuspid or Mitral
 Aortic semilunar
 Pulmonary semilunar
Blood Vessels
Arteries
Veins

Carry blood away from
the heart

Carry blood towards the
heart

Thicker


Contain smooth muscle
Smaller and thinner
than arteries

No valves in them

No smooth muscle

Has one-way check
valves
Blood Vessels
F
L
O
W
Body
Right Atrium
Tricuspid
Valve
O
F
B
L
O
O
D
Right
Ventricle
Pulmonary
Valve
Pulmonary
Arteries
LUNGS
Deoxygenated
blood returns
to the heart
via veins and
enters the
Right Atrium
F
L
O
W
Pulmonary
Veins
Mitral Valve
Left
Ventricle
O
F
B
L
O
O
D
Left Atrium
Aortic Valve
Aorta
Body
Oxygenated
blood from
the lungs
returns to
the heart
and enters
the Left
Atrium.
Diseases and disorders
 CAD-Coronary
Disease
Artery
 Thickening
and hardening
of the artery walls
 Build
up of plaque or fat in
the artery walls

Can cause blockages,
heart attacks, and strokes

Smoking makes it worse
CT of CAD
Aneurysm
 Ballooning
of an
artery at a weak
spot in the
artery
MRI Image
Why Heart Attack?
Causes

Hardening of the arteries

Plaque build up—fatty deposits
Risk Factors

Lack of exercise

Stress

Diabetes

Bad diet

Smoking

Obesity

Atherosclerosis
Angiography

Angiography is
the X-ray study of
blood vessels
using a contrast
dye injected into
the blood stream
to detect the
blocks
Angioplasty

A
procedure
using a
balloon to
open a
blocked
blood vessel
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