PMID- 18198331 OWN - NLM STAT- MEDLINE DA - 20080116 DCOM- 20080313 LR - 20081121 IS - 0890-9369 (Print) VI - 22 IP - 2 DP - 2008 Jan 15 TI - Understanding of bat wing evolution takes flight. PG - 121-4 AD - Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. FAU - Cooper, Kimberly L AU - Cooper KL FAU - Tabin, Clifford J AU - Tabin CJ LA - eng GR - F32 HD 052349/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States GR - R37 HD 32443/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States PT - Comment PT - Journal Article PT - Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural PL - United States TA - Genes Dev JT - Genes & development JID - 8711660 RN - 0 (Homeodomain Proteins) SB - IM CON - Genes Dev. 2008 Jan 15;22(2):141-51. PMID: 18198333 MH - Animals MH - Chiroptera/*genetics MH - *Evolution MH - Forelimb/anatomy & histology MH - Fossils MH - *Genetic Variation MH - Homeodomain Proteins/*genetics MH - Wing/*growth & development EDAT- 2008/01/17 09:00 MHDA- 2008/03/14 09:00 CRDT- 2008/01/17 09:00 AID - 22/2/121 [pii] AID - 10.1101/gad.1639108 [doi] PST - ppublish SO - Genes Dev. 2008 Jan 15;22(2):121-4. PMID- 16618938 OWN - NLM STAT- MEDLINE DA - 20060427 DCOM- 20060615 LR - 20081120 IS - 0027-8424 (Print) VI - 103 IP - 17 DP - 2006 Apr 25 TI - Development of bat flight: morphologic and molecular evolution of bat wing digits. PG - 6581-6 AB - The earliest fossil bats resemble their modern counterparts in possessing greatly elongated digits to support the wing membrane, which is an anatomical hallmark of powered flight. To quantitatively confirm these similarities, we performed a morphometric analysis of wing bones from fossil and modern bats. We found that the lengths of the third, fourth, and fifth digits (the primary supportive elements of the wing) have remained constant relative to body size over the last 50 million years. This absence of transitional forms in the fossil record led us to look elsewhere to understand bat wing evolution. Investigating embryonic development, we found that the digits in bats (Carollia perspicillata) are initially similar in size to those of mice (Mus musculus) but that, subsequently, bat digits greatly lengthen. The developmental timing of the change in wing digit length points to a change in longitudinal cartilage growth, a process that depends on the relative proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. We found that bat forelimb digits exhibit relatively high rates of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We show that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) can stimulate cartilage proliferation and differentiation and increase digit length in the bat embryonic forelimb. Also, we show that Bmp2 expression and Bmp signaling are increased in bat forelimb embryonic digits relative to mouse or bat hind limb digits. Together, our results suggest that an up-regulation of the Bmp pathway is one of the major factors in the developmental elongation of bat forelimb digits, and it is potentially a key mechanism in their evolutionary elongation as well. AD - Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Developmental Biology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, 12800 East 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. FAU - Sears, Karen E AU - Sears KE FAU - Behringer, Richard R AU - Behringer RR FAU - Rasweiler, John J 4th AU - Rasweiler JJ 4th FAU - Niswander, Lee A AU - Niswander LA LA - eng SI - GENBANK/DQ279782 SI - GENBANK/DQ279783 SI - GENBANK/DQ279784 SI - GENBANK/DQ279785 GR - F32 HD050042-01/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States GR - HD32427/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States PT - Comparative Study PT - Journal Article PT - Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural PT - Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. DEP - 20060417 PL - United States TA - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A JT - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America JID - 7505876 RN - 0 (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins) RN - 0 (DNA, Complementary) SB - IM MH - Animals MH - Base Sequence MH - Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/genetics MH - Chiroptera/anatomy & histology/embryology/*genetics/*physiology MH - DNA, Complementary/genetics MH - *Evolution, Molecular MH - *Flight, Animal MH - Fossils MH - Mice MH - Molecular Sequence Data MH - Signal Transduction MH - Wing/*anatomy & histology/embryology/*physiology PMC - PMC1458926 OID - NLM: PMC1458926 EDAT- 2006/04/19 09:00 MHDA- 2006/06/16 09:00 CRDT- 2006/04/19 09:00 PHST- 2006/04/17 [aheadofprint] AID - 0509716103 [pii] AID - 10.1073/pnas.0509716103 [doi] PST - ppublish SO - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 25;103(17):6581-6. Epub 2006 Apr 17. PMID- 11353869 OWN - NLM STAT- MEDLINE DA - 20010524 DCOM- 20010719 LR - 20081120 IS - 0027-8424 (Print) VI - 98 IP - 11 DP - 2001 May 22 TI - Integrated fossil and molecular data reconstruct bat echolocation. PG - 6241-6 AB - Molecular and morphological data have important roles in illuminating evolutionary history. DNA data often yield well resolved phylogenies for living taxa, but are generally unattainable for fossils. A distinct advantage of morphology is that some types of morphological data may be collected for extinct and extant taxa. Fossils provide a unique window on evolutionary history and may preserve combinations of primitive and derived characters that are not found in extant taxa. Given their unique character complexes, fossils are critical in documenting sequences of character transformation over geologic time and may elucidate otherwise ambiguous patterns of evolution that are not revealed by molecular data alone. Here, we employ a methodological approach that allows for the integration of molecular and paleontological data in deciphering one of the most innovative features in the evolutionary history of mammals-laryngeal echolocation in bats. Molecular data alone, including an expanded data set that includes new sequences for the A2AB gene, suggest that microbats are paraphyletic but do not resolve whether laryngeal echolocation evolved independently in different microbat lineages or evolved in the common ancestor of bats and was subsequently lost in megabats. When scaffolds from molecular phylogenies are incorporated into parsimony analyses of morphological characters, including morphological characters for the Eocene taxa Icaronycteris, Archaeonycteris, Hassianycteris, and Palaeochiropteryx, the resulting trees suggest that laryngeal echolocation evolved in the common ancestor of fossil and extant bats and was subsequently lost in megabats. Molecular dating suggests that crown-group bats last shared a common ancestor 52 to 54 million years ago. AD - Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. FAU - Springer, M S AU - Springer MS FAU - Teeling, E C AU - Teeling EC FAU - Madsen, O AU - Madsen O FAU - Stanhope, M J AU - Stanhope MJ FAU - de Jong, W W AU - de Jong WW LA - eng SI - GENBANK/AF337537 SI - GENBANK/AF337538 SI - GENBANK/AF337539 SI - GENBANK/AF337540 SI - GENBANK/AF337541 SI - GENBANK/AF337542 SI - GENBANK/AF337543 PT - Journal Article PT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't PT - Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. DEP - 20010515 PL - United States TA - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A JT - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America JID - 7505876 RN - 0 (DNA, Complementary) SB - IM MH - Animals MH - Base Sequence MH - Chiroptera/classification/*genetics MH - DNA, Complementary MH - Ecosystem MH - *Evolution, Molecular MH - *Fossils MH - Humans MH - Molecular Sequence Data MH - Phylogeny PMC - PMC33452 OID - NLM: PMC33452 EDAT- 2001/05/17 10:00 MHDA- 2001/07/20 10:01 CRDT- 2001/05/17 10:00 PHST- 2001/05/15 [aheadofprint] AID - 10.1073/pnas.111551998 [doi] AID - 111551998 [pii] PST - ppublish SO - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 22;98(11):6241-6. Epub 2001 May 15.