реферат теория языка

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное
учреждение высшего профессионального образования
«Ярославский государственный педагогический университет
им. К.Д. Ушинского»
Кафедра английского языка
Направление подготовки 44.03.05 Педагогическое образование
РЕФЕРАТ
На тему: «Modern Experimental Phonetics»
Работа выполнена студенткой
2 курса, 422 a группы
Бекировой Гульнар Мушвик кызы
Научный руководитель
кандидат педагогических наук,
старший преподаватель
Слободская Юлия Владимировна
Ярославль
2015
Contents
Introduction………………………………………………………………………….…3
1. Phonetics: Aims and Branches………………………………………………………4
2. Modern Experimental Phonetics……………………………………….…………..6
3. Methods and Apparatuses of Experimental Phonetics…………………………….7
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………..11
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………….13
2
Introduction
This work is dedicated to the theme “Modern experimental phonetics”. The study
of experimental phonetics has always been one of the most interesting, disputable and
important problems of phonetics of modern English. Experimental Phonetics is a part of
phonetic sciences that comprises the study of the sounds and speech with empirical
research methods. This scientific field covers basic areas of phonetics - articulatory
phonetics, acoustic phonetics and auditory phonetics.
The main aim of this work is to give information about experimental phonetics and
its contribution.
The practical value of the present work is that the practical results gained by
investigating the giving problem may be used in seminars and practical lessons of
English Phonetics.
Structurally the present work consists of four parts – Introduction, Main body,
Conclusion and Bibliography.
3
1. Phonetics: Aims and Branches
The term phonetics comes from the Greek word φωνή (phõnē) meaning sound,
voice. It is rather difficult to give an exact and precise definition of the term. One of the
probable definitions is that phonetics is the science that “studies the sound system of the
language, that is segmental phonemes, word stress, syllabic structure and intonation” [4,
с. 6].
To say that phonetics studies speech sounds means that it studies only such sound
sequences, which are produced by a human vocal apparatus, which are carriers of
organized information of language and which are meaningful.
Phonetics has three branches: articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics and
auditory phonetics.
Articulatory phonetics is the branch of phonetics “which is concerned with the
study, description and classification of speech sounds as regards their production by the
human speech apparatus” [2, с. 10]. “From the articulatory point of view every speech
sound is a complex of definite, finely coordinated and differentiated movements and
positions of the speech organs” [2, с. 10].
Acoustic phonetics is the branch of phonetics that studies the physics of the air
vibrating between the mouth of the speaker and the ear of the hearer and producing
sound waves of different character and acoustic effect, different speech sounds. “From
acoustic point of view, a speech sound, like any other sound in nature, is a physical
phenomenon, a kind of moving matter and energy” [2, с. 12].
Auditory phonetics is the branch of phonetics which main concern is the
investigation of the hearing process. At present time it mainly deals with the brain
activity rather than with the physiological process of signal delivery and transfer
through the nervous system of the hearer. Its interest lies more in the sphere of
experimental psychology. An outstanding Polish-Russian linguist, Baudouin de
Courtenay has invented the term anthropophonics, which united the articulatory and the
auditory aspects of speech sounds. In the Soviet (Russian) linguistics the term has
changed to physiological phonetics due to close connection between the articulatory and
the auditory aspects of speech sounds. When our speech organs work, we at the same
4
time hear what we speak, thus receiving feedback from our hearing system. Step by
step, through accumulation of instrumental data, auditory phonetics finds its place in the
sphere of phonetic science [2].
Besides branches, phonetics is divided into several segments also.
1) General phonetics – is a section studying all the sound-producing possibilities of
human speech apparatus (organs) in various languages of the world. It studies the laws
that govern the changes which speech sounds undergo in the flow of speech and finds
out the types of such changes in various languages;
2) Historical phonetics – is a section that traces and establishes the successive
changes in the phonetic system of a given language or a language family at different
stages of its historical development. It helps to understand how this modern phonetic
system came to be and what changes may take place in the future;
3) Comparative phonetics – studies the correlation between the phonetic systems
of two or more languages, especially kindred ones. It finds out the correspondences
between the speech sounds of kindred languages;
4) Theoretical phonetics – deals with theoretical problems of a particular language.
It gives students the latest theories and views on many phonetic problems. It describes
some moot points in a particular language;
5) Experimental phonetics – is a section that studies various phonetic phenomena
in the laboratory conditions by means of all sorts of devices. It has gained far- reaching
results in the last two decades [3].
5
2. Modern Experimental Phonetics
Experimental phonetics is “a part of phonetic sciences that comprises the study of
the sounds and speech with empirical research methods” [5]. Experimental phonetics
nowadays is closely connected with other sciences. It is connected with such sciences as
psychology, physics, physiology, logic, medicine, radio-technology and others.
This scientific field covers basic areas of phonetics - articulatory phonetics,
acoustic phonetics and auditory phonetics. Moreover, experimental method used in
study of the segmental phonetics and suprasegmental phonetics, in exploration of the
typological phonetics. Experimental phonetics is used to test theories or hypotheses in
order to support or disprove them [6].
An experimental phonetic research activity is primarily composed of:

Searching for information: speech recording, speakers selecting, observation of pro-
nunciation;

Experiments: with the tools (software for analysis of acoustic signal and аrticulatory
gestures), with the help of auditory (listening, questioning etc.);

Processing of experimental data: mathematical and statistical calculations, indexing,
graphs, tables, charts, diagrams, etc.;

Discussion of results: analysis, comparison, generalization, modeling, classification,
conclusions etc.
Experimental Phonetics Laboratory is a complex of spatial and technical options
for the speech analysis.

A spatial option is denoted by a special phonic room – studio. Audio studio is
characterized by sound insulation and noise absorption. It is used for spoken language recording;

A technical option is signified by support for record of speech, its acoustic and articulatory analysis.
Special computer programs make possible to record, edit and analyze speech con-
tent. Good sound editors and analysers: Speech Analyzer, Praat, Wavelab, Wavesurfer,
WinСeсil, WASP/SFS, Phonedit [5].
6
3. Methods and Apparatuses of Experimental Phonetics
One of the first methods of scientific research used in phonetics is observation.
Though instrumental methods in phonetics are of great value, the method of observation
has not lost its significance. It does not exclude, but presupposes instrumental methods.
Speech is investigated by the combined techniques.
Instrumental methods are divided into methods investigating articulation and
methods of physical analysis of speech sounds, the nature of stress and intonation [1].
Palatography is one of the earliest experimental methods. “The aim of the
palatogram method is to determine the areas of the palate with which the tongue comes
into contact in pronouncing a certain sound, to reveal in a visual manner the actual
tongue-palate contacts in the production of a sound” [1, c. 27].
Palatograms were obtained with the help of artificial palates. An artificial palate
was made of vulcanite, cellulose or metal. The traces of the contact of the tongue with
the artificial palate while producing the sound made it possible to obtain the data about
the position of the tongue in pronouncing a definite speech sound.
In order to produce a palatogram the artificial palate was dusted with powder and
inserted into the mouth. When a sound was pronounced the places of the artificial palate
from which the powder had been removed showed the areas of the palate with which the
tongue came into contact in pronouncing the sound. “The artificial palate made it
possible to obtain a linguagram, by which one could determine the parts of the tongue
which made contact with the palate in pronouncing a sound. But the traces of the tongue
contact with the artificial palate can be registered only once and then the procedure
should be repeated. Besides, static palatography gives no evidence about the changes in
the position of the tongue during the pronunciation of the sound” [1, c. 28].
A new method of dynamic electric palatography was realized by a group of
scientists of the I.P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology in St. Petersburg (Ju.I. Kuzmin; I.G.
Chistovits, V.A. Kozhevnikov and others, 1965). Electronic sensing elements were
installed into the surface of the artificial palate which made it possible to register the
contact of the tongue with the palate during the whole period of pronunciation with the
help of an electronic device, connected with the sensing elements.
7
The scientists of the I.P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology worked out the problem of
complex analysis of the articulatory parameters of speech (Kozhevnikov V.A.,
Shuplyakov V.S., 1962). “The experimental installation, including data units and
electronic devices, made it possible to receive the articulatory characteristics of speech:
the speed of air movement exhaled from the mouth, the movement of the lower jaw and
the lips, dynamic palatograms, the vocal cords oscillations, etc” [1, с.29].
Photography method is also one of the methods used in experimental phonetics.
“The aim of the photography method is to determine the position of the speech organs
in pronouncing speech sounds” [1, c. 31]. This method includes: photography of the
position of the lips and the shape of the mouth, photography of the mouth cavity by
means of a special camera and X-ray photography. Lip position photography allows us
to photograph the most typical lip position for a certain sound. One of its drawbacks is
that it does not show the movement of the lips in articulating sounds. Cinematography
makes it possible to observe the movement of the lips in the articulation of sounds; it
allows to measure the time of the articulation of the sound and of its separate phases, to
observe the changes in the position of the lips in connected speech.
The Feldshtain-Maksutov gastrograph is a specially designed tiny camera, (30 mm
x 16 mm) which makes it possible to obtain photos of the speech organs position inside
the mouth cavity. This camera makes possible to investigate not only the position of
speech organs but also the shape of the surface of the main articulating organ – the
tongue.
Radiography (X-ray photography) makes it possible to determine the position of
the speech organs in the pronunciation of speech sounds, provides the investigator with
adequate research tools to study the speaking mechanism. At the present time, the basic
radiographic techniques applied in experimental phonetics are cephalometric
röntgenography and cineradiography.
Pneumatic kymograph was an apparatus which was used for the investigations of
speech physical characteristics in the first laboratories of experimental phonetics. By
means of the pneumatic kymograph air oscillations caused by the sounding speech were
transformed into mechanical vibrations of the stylus which left the traces of the
recorded speech on the rotating drum of the kymograph, and a kymogram was received.
8
After that the kymogram was fixed, as the drum had been covered with smoke, and
analysed. “Soon the pneumatic kymograph was replaced by an electronic kymograph
registering speech wave and singling out the main acoustic parameters of speech –
fundamental tone (melody)” [1, c. 33].
Oscillographs as well as other electro-acoustic devices guarantee accurate
recording. By means of electro-acoustic apparatus air oscillations are transformed into
electric oscillations and recorded in the form of a sound wave.
Intonograph is an electronic device which registers speech signal as a sound wave
and signals out the main acoustic characteristics of speech. With the help of the
intonograph the following main physical characteristics of speech may be separated and
registered on the intonogram:
1.
Fundamental frequency (measured in cycles per second);
2.
Intensity (measured in mm, conventional units or db);
3.
Time marker makes it possible to calculate the duration of the utterance or its parts,
measured in msec.
Spectrography offers remarkable opportunities for serious study of physical
characteristics of speech, phenomena of acoustic process on the borders of sounds in
speech. Among the first up-to-date electronic speech analysing apparatuses were Kay
sonographs. It produces real time speech analysis on a high resolution display monitor.
One-screen waveform editing and speech parameter extraction help to analyse speech
and select segments for further work.
Electronic devices are widely used in acoustic investigations of speech and
guarantee quick and precise analysis and registration of the experimental data. The
computer is an electronic device which can simultaneously acquire, store in memory,
analyse and display speech signals and it also produces the required results from the
stored data.
Computer speech programmes are a powerful tool for acoustic analysis of all the
phonetic phenomena of speech. They make it possible to receive the results of two main
types of analysis – intonographic and spectrographic. In the upper part of the computer
intonogram, speech is recorded in the form of a sound wave. In the middle part of
intonograms overall fundamental frequency in the form of a curve is recorded. In the
9
lower part of the intonograms amplitude of the intensity of the speech signals is
recorded. The time marks are registered by the time marker on all the bordering lines of
intonograms and spectrograms.
Computer analysis enables the researcher to receive the main acoustic
characteristics of sounding speech, its spectral and formant structure.
With the help of WINCECIL V 2.2. programme which was developed in Great
Britain all the main acoustic characteristics of speech are analyzed – wave form and
overall amplitude of fundamental frequency, intensity and duration, as well as formant
and spectral characteristics. It is possible to examine the intonation structure, the
spectral and formant structure of different communicative types of sentences and the
text as a whole. The Prado programme is applied for the analysis on segmental level – a
detailed acoustic analysis of speech sounds and the processes on their borders.
With the help of computer programmes all the acoustic characteristics of speech
signal may be calculated, registered and singled out.
The computer automatic acoustic analysis of the experimental material makes it
possible to receive exact results of the measurements of acoustic characteristics in a
considerably shorter time and consequently to enlarge the experimental data under
investigation. The results of automatic computer analysis may be calculated directly
from the computer display or from the printed intonograms and spectrograms with the
help of a metric ruler [1].
Nowadays experimental methods in phonetics are applied more and more widely,
new apparatuses and new methods continue to appear.
10
Conclusion
As it was said earlier, phonetics “studies the sound system of the language, that is
segmental phonemes, word stress, syllabic structure and intonation” [4, с. 6]. It has
three branches: articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics and auditory phonetics.
Besides branches, phonetics is divided into several segments also: general
phonetics,
historical
phonetics,
comparative
phonetics,
theoretical
phonetics,
experimental phonetics.
Experimental phonetics is “a part of phonetic sciences that comprises the study of
the sounds and speech with empirical research methods” [5]. It is used to test theories or
hypotheses in order to support or disprove them.
One of the first methods of scientific research used in phonetics is observation. It
does not exclude, but presupposes instrumental methods.
Instrumental methods are divided into methods investigating articulation and
methods of physical analysis of speech sounds, the nature of stress and intonation.
Palatography is one of the earliest experimental methods. Its aim is to determine
the areas of the palate with which the tongue comes into contact in pronouncing a
certain sound.
Photography method is used to determine the position of the speech organs in
pronouncing speech sounds. This method includes: photography of the position of the
lips and the shape of the mouth, photography of the mouth cavity by means of a special
camera and X-ray photography.
Cinematography makes it possible to observe the movement of the lips in the
articulation of sounds; it allows to measure the time of the articulation of the sound and
of its separate phases.
Radiography (X-ray photography) makes it possible to determine the position of
the speech organs in the pronunciation of speech sounds.
Pneumatic kymograph was an apparatus used for the investigations of speech
physical characteristics in the first laboratories of experimental phonetics.
Oscillographs: air oscillations are transformed into electric oscillations and
recorded in the form of a sound wave.
11
Intonograph is an electronic device which registers speech signal as a sound wave
and signals out the main acoustic characteristics of speech.
Spectrography offers remarkable opportunities for serious study of physical
characteristics of speech, phenomena of acoustic process on the borders of sounds in
speech.
Electronic devices are widely used in acoustic investigations of speech and
guarantee quick and precise analysis and registration of the experimental data.
With the help of computer programmes all the acoustic characteristics of speech
signal may be calculated, registered and singled out. Good sound editors and analysers:
Speech Analyzer, Praat, Wavelab, Wavesurfer, WinСeсil, WASP/SFS, Phonedit, etc.
The computer automatic acoustic analysis of the experimental material makes it
possible to receive exact results of the measurements of acoustic characteristics in a
considerably shorter time and consequently to enlarge the experimental data under
investigation.
In conclusion, this work is dedicated to the theme “Modern experimental
phonetics”. The study of experimental phonetics has always been one of the most
interesting, disputable and important problems of phonetics of modern English.
12
Bibliography
1. Бровченко, Т.О., Корольова, Т.М. English Phonetics [электронный ресурс] Т.О.
Бровченко, Т.М. Корольова. – Николаев, МДГУ им. Петра Могили, 2005. – 208
с.
2. Васильев, В.А. Фонетика английского языка. Теоретический курс [электронный
ресурс] В.А. Васильев. – М., Высшая Школа, 1970. – 323 с.
3. Глухий, Я.А., Глушков, С.В. Очерки по теоретической фонетике английского
языка [электронный ресурс] Я.А. Глухий, С.В. Глушков. – Томск, Томский
Институт Бизнеса, 2009. – 21 с.
4. Соколова, М.А. и др. Теоретическая фонетика английского языка [электронный
ресурс] М.А. Соколова, К.П. Гинтовт, И.С. Тихонова, Р.М.Тихонова. – М.,
ВЛАДОС, 2003. – 288 с.
5. https://enphonetica.wordpress.com/expphonetics/
6. http://wikien3.appspot.com/wiki/Experimental_phonetics
13
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