Layout Presentation

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LAYOUTS
PRODUCT & PROCESS
LAYOUTS:
IMPACT ON
OPERATIONS
Productions & Operations Management
Facility Layout Definition
■
A facility layout is an arrangement of everything
needed for production of goods or delivery of
services. A facility is an entity that facilitates the
performance of any job. It may be a machine tool, a
work centre, a manufacturing cell, a machine shop,
a department, a warehouse, etc. (Heragu, 1997).
■The
layout design generally
depends on the products variety
and the production volumes. Four
types of organization are referred
to, namely fixed product layout,
process layout, product layout and
cellular layout (Dilworth, 1996).
Quantity
Product
Layouts
Fixed
Position
Layouts
Mixed Layouts Process Layouts
Number of Different Products
Objectives of Plant Layout
■
The main objective consists of organizing equipment
and working areas in the most efficient way, and at
the same time satisfactory and safe for the personnel
doing the work.
❑ Sense of Unity
■
❑
❑
Minimum Movement of people, material and
resources.
Safety
■
❑
The feeling of being a unit pursuing the same objective.
In the movement of materials and personnel work flow.
Flexibility
■
In designing the plant layout taking into account the changes
over short and medium terms in the production process and
manufacturing volumes.
Product Layouts
2
◻
◻
Part of the manufacturing process which
allows for the repetitive assembly of highly
standardized products.
When a manufacturing operation utilized
product layout, production work can be layout
in
a straight
line
with labor and equipment subdivided in a
smooth line.
Productions & Operations Management
Example
3
◻
Fora garment
manufacturer,stations for
sewing cloth, sewing on buttons, inspecting
seams, wrapping finished garments and
boxing them up would all be located within
close proximity for an individual clothing item,
allowing individual garments to pass from one
station to another quickly.
Productions & Operations Management
Flow
4
Turning
Operations
Milling
Machines
Drilling
Machines
Package
Dispatch
Inspection
Assembly
Productions & Operations Management
Advantages
5
◻
◻
◻
◻
◻
◻
Easy production
Handling cost reduces
Less in-process inventory
Less supervision
Efficient space utilization
Higher productivity/Cycle time is short
Productions & Operations Management
Disadvantages
6
◻
◻
◻
◻
◻
Expensive
Breakdown(stops entire process if breaks
down)
Lack of flexibility
Output quantity fixed, no alterations possible
Specialized superiors not present
Productions & Operations Management
Impact on Operations
7
◻
◻
◻
◻
◻
Mass production
Heavy financial back-up
Less employees(if no. of products are less)
Cycle time less
Product specialization
Productions & Operations Management
Process Layout
8
◻
A process layout is a type of facility layout in
which the floor plan is arranged with similar
processes or machines located together.
Productions & Operations Management
Example
9
◻
Again using
the garment manufacturing
example, a process layout would group
multiple sewing stations together for different
clothing items in one area, then locate
inspection, wrapping and packaging stations
for different items together in different areas.
Productions & Operations Management
Flow
10
Milling
Machines
Inspection
Assembly
Welding
Grinding &
Inspection
Shipping
Productions & Operations Management
Advantages
1
1
◻
◻
◻
◻
Capital investment lower
Specialization
Efficient utilization of production facility
Effective supervision
Productions & Operations Management
Disadvantages
12
◻
◻
◻
◻
Complexity
Greater floor area
Larger stock of raw materials
Handling cost increases
Productions & Operations Management
Impact on Operations
13
◻
◻
◻
◻
◻
Possibility of change in the process
Cost effective as space utilization
Complexity
Cycle time is more
Process specialization
Productions & Operations Management
Difference
14
Product Layout
Process Layout
Single product can be produced
Multiple products can be produced
simultaneously
Cycle time is less
Cycle time is more
Expensive
Relatively cheaper
Lower space requirements
Higher space requirements
Product specialization
Process specialization
Productions & Operations Management
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