shift tenses

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Shifts in Tense and Point of View
Multiple Choice
Select the answer that has no unnecessary shifts in tense or point of view.
1.
a. Following the Holocaust, Jews and others call for a Jewish state in the Middle East.
United States foreign policy supported the call, and the State of Israel came into being
in May 1948. Charges that Jews forced Palestinians from the land led to a war
between Israel and Arab states.
b. Following the Holocaust, Jews and others call for a Jewish state in the Middle East.
United States foreign policy supports the call, and the State of Israel came into being
in May 1948. Charges that Jews forced Palestinians from the land led to a war
between Israel and Arab states.
c. Following the Holocaust, Jews and others called for a Jewish state in the Middle East.
United States foreign policy supported the call, and the State of Israel came into being
in May 1948. Charges that Jews forced Palestinians from the land led to a war
between Israel and Arab states.
ANS: c
REF: The correct answer is c.
In The Norton Field Guide to Writing, see S-9.
<http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/bullock2_readings_handbook_ebook/welco
me.asp?page=33>
In The Little Seagull Handbook, see S-9.
<http://wwnorton.com/college/english/write/LSH/full/s-9-shifts.html>
2.
a. To understand the Korean War, which started in 1950, you have to know that the
Soviet Union backed the northern occupation zone.
b. For one to understand the Korean War, which started in 1950, you have to know that
the Soviet Union backed the northern occupation zone.
c. To understand the Korean War, which started in 1950, you have to know that the
Soviet Union is backing the northern occupation zone.
ANS: a
REF: The correct answer is a.
In The Norton Field Guide to Writing, see S-9.
<http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/bullock2_readings_handbook_ebook/welco
me.asp?page=33>
In The Little Seagull Handbook, see S-9.
<http://wwnorton.com/college/english/write/LSH/full/s-9-shifts.html>
3.
a. Americans waited anxiously in 1962 when Russia pointed missiles in Cuba at the
United States. One wondered how the Russians would respond to the American
demand for removal of the missiles.
b. Americans waited anxiously in 1962 when Russia pointed missiles in Cuba at the
United States. They wondered how the Russians would respond to the American
demand for removal of the missiles.
c. Americans had waited anxiously in 1962 when Russia pointed missiles in Cuba at the
United States. They wondered how the Russians would respond to the American
demand for removal of the missiles.
ANS: b
REF: The correct answer is b.
In The Norton Field Guide to Writing, see S-9.
<http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/bullock2_readings_handbook_ebook/welco
me.asp?page=33>
In The Little Seagull Handbook, see S-9.
<http://wwnorton.com/college/english/write/LSH/full/s-9-shifts.html>
4.
a. The North Vietnamese and the Vietcong staged the Tet offensive in 1968. American
and South Vietnamese troops won the battle but lost in the arena of public opinion.
b. The North Vietnamese and the Vietcong were staging the Tet offensive in 1968.
American and South Vietnamese troops won the battle but lost in the arena of public
opinion.
c. The North Vietnamese and the Vietcong staged the Tet offensive in 1968. American
and South Vietnamese troops win the battle but lose in the arena of public opinion.
ANS: a
REF: The correct answer is a.
In The Norton Field Guide to Writing, see S-9.
<http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/bullock2_readings_handbook_ebook/welco
me.asp?page=33>
In The Little Seagull Handbook, see S-9.
<http://wwnorton.com/college/english/write/LSH/full/s-9-shifts.html>
5.
a. The antiwar movement, spawned by the Vietnam War, and the civil rights movement
made the 1960s a decade of rebellion by young Americans. We called for social
change.
b. The antiwar movement, spawned by the Vietnam War, and the civil rights movement
made the 1960s a decade of rebellion by young Americans who called for social
change.
c. The antiwar movement, spawned by the Vietnam War, and the civil rights movement
made the 1960s a decade of rebellion by young Americans who have called for social
change.
ANS: b
REF: The correct answer is b.
In The Norton Field Guide to Writing, see S-9.
<http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/bullock2_readings_handbook_ebook/welco
me.asp?page=33>
In The Little Seagull Handbook, see S-9.
<http://wwnorton.com/college/english/write/LSH/full/s-9-shifts.html>
6.
a. Western observers were horrified to see that Mao Zedong’s so-called Great Leap
Forward in China led to the starvation and death of more than twenty million people
during the famine of 1958-1961. Later, the observers were shocked at the effects of
Mao’s Cultural Revolution of 1966-1968.
b. Western observers were horrified to see that Mao Zedong’s so-called Great Leap
Forward in China led to the starvation and death of more than twenty million people
during the famine of 1958-1961. Later, one was shocked at the effects of Mao’s
Cultural Revolution of 1966-1968.
c. Western observers were horrified to see that Mao Zedong’s so-called Great Leap
Forward in China led to the starvation and death of more than twenty million people
during the famine of 1958-1961. Later, the observers become shocked at the effects
of Mao’s Cultural Revolution of 1966-1968.
ANS: a
REF: The correct answer is a.
In The Norton Field Guide to Writing, see S-9.
<http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/bullock2_readings_handbook_ebook/welco
me.asp?page=33>
In The Little Seagull Handbook, see S-9.
<http://wwnorton.com/college/english/write/LSH/full/s-9-shifts.html>
7.
a. The lecturer explained to the audience how greenhouse gasses come about, and you
soon wondered what you could do to forestall disaster.
b. The lecturer explained to us how greenhouse gasses come about, and we soon
wondered what we could do to forestall disaster.
c. The lecturer is explaining to us how greenhouse gasses came about, and we soon will
wonder what we could do to forestall disaster.
ANS: b
REF: The correct answer is b.
In The Norton Field Guide to Writing, see S-9.
<http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/bullock2_readings_handbook_ebook/welco
me.asp?page=33>
In The Little Seagull Handbook, see S-9.
<http://wwnorton.com/college/english/write/LSH/full/s-9-shifts.html>
8.
a. What led us to personal computers in the late 1970s? Inventions and developments
such as the transistor, integrated circuitry, the memory chip, and the floppy disk (now
almost forgotten) contribute to the digital revolution one experienced back then.
b. What led us to personal computers in the late 1970s? Inventions and developments
such as the transistor, integrated circuitry, the memory chip, and the floppy disk (now
almost forgotten) contributed to the digital revolution one experienced back then.
c. What led to personal computers in the late 1970s? Inventions and developments such
as the transistor, integrated circuitry, the memory chip, and the floppy disk (now
almost forgotten) contributed to the digital revolution back then.
ANS: c
REF: The correct answer is c.
In The Norton Field Guide to Writing, see S-9.
<http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/bullock2_readings_handbook_ebook/welco
me.asp?page=33>
In The Little Seagull Handbook, see S-9.
<http://wwnorton.com/college/english/write/LSH/full/s-9-shifts.html>
9.
a. Globalization has lowered costs for some products but demoralizes parts of the
worldwide work force. We who lose jobs to lower-paid labor cannot purchase
products even at lower prices.
b. Globalization has lowered costs for some products but has demoralized parts of the
worldwide work force. Workers who have lost jobs to lower-paid labor cannot
purchase products even at lower prices.
c. Globalization has lowered costs for some products but demoralizes parts of the
worldwide work force, including some of us here in the United States. Workers who
lose jobs to lower-paid labor cannot purchase products even at lower prices.
ANS: b
REF: The correct answer is b.
In The Norton Field Guide to Writing, see S-9.
<http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/bullock2_readings_handbook_ebook/welco
me.asp?page=33>
In The Little Seagull Handbook, see S-9.
<http://wwnorton.com/college/english/write/LSH/full/s-9-shifts.html>
10.
a. In the 1980s, countries in eastern Europe overthrew their Soviet governments. The
most symbolic move of the period was the tearing down of the Berlin Wall. It means,
once and for all, the end of the cold war, which started in the late 1940s.
b. In the 1980s, countries in eastern Europe overthrew their Soviet governments. The
most symbolic move of the period was the tearing down of the Berlin Wall. It meant,
once and for all, the end of the cold war, which had started in the late 1940s.
c. In the 1980s, countries in eastern Europe overthrow their Soviet governments. The
most symbolic move of the period was the tearing down of the Berlin Wall. It meant,
once and for all, the end of the cold war, which started in the late 1940s.
ANS: b
REF: The correct answer is b.
In The Norton Field Guide to Writing, see S-9.
<http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/bullock2_readings_handbook_ebook/welco
me.asp?page=33>
In The Little Seagull Handbook, see S-9.
<http://wwnorton.com/college/english/write/LSH/full/s-9-shifts.html>
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