ANIMAL CLASSIFICATION Phylum: Protozoa Amoeba Euglena Plasmodium Phylum : Porifera Sedentary, aquatic mostly marine, solitary or colonial Radially symmetrical or assymetrical organisms Porous body permeated with pores, canals and chambers through which water current flows, with one to many internal cavities lined with collar cells Skeleton made up of Calcerous or siliceous or horny fibers Body without definite organs, systems , mouth and nervous tissue Posses great power of regeneration Both hermaphrodite and unisexual forms exist. Euspongia Phylum: Coelenterata Characteristic of Phylum: Body multicellular, with a definite form, generally radial symmetry May be polymorphic, generally polyp and Medusa. Body wall of two layers - ectoderm and endoderm. Respiratory, excretory and vascular system absent. Nervous system made up of a network of nerve cells and neuritis. Reproduction both asexually( by budding) and sexually (gamates) Sea Anemone Phylum: Platyhelminthes Characteristic of Phylum: They have a dorsoventrally flattened body. They include free living as well as parasitic forms. The free-living flatworms live in springs, sands, streams or in bodies of salt water. Show Bilateral symetery Body is covered with a cuticle in parasitic forms and with ciliated epithelium in free living forms and also in free-living larval stages of parasitic forms. Excretory organs are protonephridia. Digestive system may or may not be present. Blood and skeletal system absent Tape worm Tape worm It has an elongate, dorsoventrally flattened (hence platyhelminthes), ribbon-like or tape-like body with many segments called proglottids, hence the name cestoda. Body is divided into three distinct regions: Head or scolex, neck and strobila. The head or scolex is a minute, round knob-like structure about the size of a pinhead. It bears hooks and suckers. The neck is situated just behind the scolex. It is narrow, short, unsegmented and represents an area of proliferation. Phylum:Nematoda Characteristics of Phylum: They are round worms showing bilateral symmetery, mostly microscopic in size, but complex in organisation, possesing all major physiological systems of higher animals except respiratory and circulatory system. They are cylindrical and slender tapering towards the end The digestive system is tubular made up of three main regions Oesophagus, intestine and rectum. The excretory system opens to the exterior by a pore that is located ventrally above the level of the nerve ring. The nervous system consists of the nerve ring surrounds the oesophagus. Ascaris lumbricoides Ascaris lumbricoides Commonly known as roundworm, and is a parasite occurring in man, especially among children. The chief structural features are as follows: It has an elongate, cylindrical, unsegmented wormiform body (Hence nematoda) yellowish brown body covered with a smooth and tough elastic cuticle, which shows transverse striations at frequent intervals. There are four well-marked longitudinal lines, the dorsal and ventral lines are thin and whitish in colour, while the two lateral lines are thick and brownish in colour. The mouth is situated at the anterior end and is guarded by three lips, one mid-dorsal and two ventro-laterals. The sexes are separate and there is a clear sexual dimorphism. Phylum: Annelida Characteristics of Phylum: Bilaterally symmetrical and vermiform. Body has more than two cell layers, tissues and organs. Body cavity is a true coelom, often divided by internal septa. Body possesses a true gut with mouth and anus. Body possesses 3 separate sections, a prosomium, a trunk and a pygidium. Has a nervous system with an anterior nerve ring, ganglia and a ventral nerve chord. Has a true closed circulatory system. Has no true respiratory organs. Reproduction normally sexual and hermaphoditic. Leech Leech The important characteristic features are as follows: The body is metamerically divided into 33 segments. There are two suckers, an anterior sucker and a posterior sucker formed by the fusion of last seven segments. They are the organs of adhesion. The triradiate mouth is situated in the centre of the cup-like cavity of the anterior sucker, and the anus is situated at the base of-the-posterior sucker on the dorsal surface. Phylum: Arthropoda Charactersictics of Phylum: The body segmented, the segments usually grouped in two or three rather distinct regions Paired segmented appendages Bilateral symmetry A chitinous exoskeleton, which is periodically shed and renewed as the animal grows A tubular alimentary canal, with mouth and anus An open circulatory system Excretion usually by means of tubes (the Malpighian tubules) that empty into the alimentary canal, the excreted material passing to the outside by way of the anus Respiration by means of gills, or tracheae and spiracles No cilia or nephridia The sexes nearly always separate Centipede Centipede: The body is elongated, dark greenish-brown in colour, dorsoventrally flattened and is divided into a distinct head and a long, segmented trunk or body. Head segments are closely fused. Head appendages are long antennae, reduced maxillae and mandibles. Body segments have 21 pairs of walking legs. The first pair of legs is curved, clawed and forwardly directed to form maxillipedes or poison claws, while the rest of walking legs have 7 joints. All walking legs are similar, hence the name myriapoda. Phyllum: Mollusca Characteristic of Phylum: Aquatic animals, mostly marine, a few freshwater and some terresetrial. Adult body – plan is sharply defined and represents the tissue – organ grade of body organisation. The body is soft, unsegmented without jointed appendages and made of 4 parts- the visceral mass, the head, the foot and mantle. Fundamentally bilateral symmeterical. The alimentary canal is simple and straight, often U shaped or coiled. The respiratory organs consists of one to many comb- like gills or ctenidia , at the base of which is usually present an olfactory organ called osphradium. The excretory system comprises one to six pairs of sac like kidneys. Pila Phylum:Echinodermata Characteristics of the Phylum: Exclusively marine Gergarious, mostly free living and creeping slowly on the sea bottom. Body is triploblastic, coelomate and without segmentation. Radial symmetry in adults and biradial symmetery in larvae Shape of the body is star shape, spherical, globular, discoidal or elongated. Echinoderms possess a unique water vascular system or called Ambulacral system They have a simple radial nervous system that consists of a modified nerve - net — interconnected neurons with no central brain. Reproduction is entirely sexual. Sexes are separate. Starfish Characteristics of Chordates ➢ Notochord ➢ Dorsal nerve cord ➢ Pharyngeal pouches or gill slits ➢ Postanal tail Phylum – chordata Characterisistics of phylum: Notochord or a rod of vacuolated cells, encased by a firm sheath that lies ventral to the neural tube in vertebrate embryos and some adults. Hollow nerve cord that lies dorsal to the notochord Pharyngeal pouches ➢ Ventral Heart – heart located ventrally Higher Classification of Chordata ➢ Phylum Chordata ● Subphylum Urochordata – tunicates, sea squirts ● Subphylum Cephalachordata – lancelets ● Subphlum Vertebrata- vertebrates Class : Chondrichthyes Characterisistics of class: Jaws with calcified teeth Serially arranged vertebrae Pectoral and pelvic girdles support paired fins Skeleton composed of cartilage (no bone) Placoid scales Claspers on male pelvic fins Scoliodon: Scoliodon: Characters: Body is divisible into head, trunk and tail. Head is dorsoventrally compressed. Tail fin is heterocereal. The mouth is ventrally located and is crescent shaped supported by jaws bearing teeth. 5 pairs of gill slits are present laterally between the mouth and the pectoral fins (hence the name elasmobranchi). There are two unpaired dorsal fins and a ventral fin present. Class : Amphibia Characteristics of class: They are ectothermic vertebrates Their skin is usually smooth and lacks scales, hair, and feathers. They are dependent upon moisture and subject to desiccation their skin must remain moist to aid in breathing. They have three-chambered hearts. Salamander Salamander Salamander Salamander is commonly known as European fire-salamander and terrestrial in habit, lives in Moist areas. For breeding needs water, hence the name Amphibia. Body is lizard-like in appearance covered with slimy mucous rich skin without scales. The colour is black with yellow spots. Limbs are well developed and strong. Tail is cylindrical. Gills are absent. Eye-lids are movable. Class : Reptilia Characteristics of class: Cold-bloodedness Presence of lungs Direct development without larval forms as in amphibians a dry skin with scales but not feathers or hair an amniote egg; internal fertilization a three or four-chambered heart; two aortic arches (blood vessels) carrying blood from the heart to the body. metanephric kidney Twelve pairs of cranial nerves skeletal features such as limbs with usually five clawed fingers or toes, and an incomplete or complete partition along the roof of the mouth, separating the food and air passageways so that breathing can continue while food is being chewed Cobra Cobra Naja naja is commonly called Indian cobra or nag. Body is elongated measuring one and a half to two meters in length, without limbs. The colour of the body is brown or blackish. Body is covered with smooth oblique scales and is arranged in 1525 rows (hence it is a reptilian). Head is not differentiated from the neck. Neck is dilatable laterally into a hood by cervical ribs. The dorsal surface of the hood bears a biocellate mark The lower surface of the hood bears two black patches. Eyes are very small and with round pupils. Poison fangs are followed by 1-3 small teeth. Tail is cylindrical and tapering posteriorly. Class : Aves Fore limbs modified for flying Hindlimbs adapted for walking, swimming or perching. Epidermal feathers on the body Endothermic (warm blooded) Epidermal scales on legs and feet Light weight bony skeleton with air cavities in some bones Four chambered heart Digestive system has a crop and a gizzard. Syrnix ( voice box) is capable of producing two pure tones simultaneously Excellent vision No bladder present, kidney produces uric acid Salt gland present above the eyes. Elaborate courtship rituals, internal fertilization and oviparous reproduction Duck DUCK Characters: The ducks are aquatic birds. Body is covered by feathers (hence it belongs to Aves) coated with oil. Beak is broad and depressed or flat (hence it belongs to Aves). The upper and lower jaws are provided with lamellae, which serve as sifting apparatus. Toes are webbed. Tongue is muscular. Class : Mammalia Characteristics of class: Possess hair which is made of keratin. Endothermic. 4 chambered heart. Mammary glands are used to produce milk to nourish their young. The diaphragm is a muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. 7 cervical vertebrae (neck bones) are present in most mammals. Most are viviparous though some are oviparous. Teeth are embedded in the jaw bone and come in a variety of forms. Well developed brain. BAT Bat It is small in size and the body is covered with soft fur (hence it belongs to mammalia). Snout is short with or without nose leaf. The wings are outgrowths of the body and support of the forelimbs. The main part of the wing is called patagium. Pinna is large and often provided with flags, serving as tactile organs and also in making the power of hearing more acute. Eyes are small and the vision is weak. Tail is included in the inter-femoral membrane provided with a distinct flap. Only the thumb or first digit is clawed in the forelimbs. Hind limbs are weak and have five clawed digits.