Contemporary terrorist organizations Prepared 3rd year students, Modern foreign languages " Teaching ": Demidovich Ekaterina, Polyachenko Anzhelika, Suslova Veronica Plan of the project We will tell you about the most famous terrorist groups in the last 10 years. 1 Al-Qaeda 2 ISIS 3 The Taliban 4 Hezbollah 5 Boko Haram Al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda is an international terrorist network founded by Osama bin Laden in the late 1980s. Osama bin Laden Osama bin Laden, also spelled Usāmah ibn Lādin, (born 1957, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia—died May 2, 2011, Abbottabad, Pakistan), founder of the militant Islamist organization al-Qaeda Early Life Bin Laden was one of more than 50 children of Muhammad bin Laden, a self-made billionaire who, after immigrating to Saudi Arabia from Yemen as a laborer, rose to direct major construction projects for the Saudi royal family.. Osama bin Laden studied business administration at King Abdul Aziz University in Jiddah, where it is likely that he also received instruction in religious studies from Muḥammad Quṭb His time at the university was key to his future role as leader of al-Qaeda, not only in influencing his radical views but also in providing him with the skill to market al-Qaeda. Building Al-Oaeda Shortly after the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979, bin Laden, who viewed the invasion as an act of aggression against Islam, began traveling to meet Afghan resistance leaders and raise funds for the resistance. • A computer database he created in 1988 listing the names of volunteers for the Afghan War led to the formation that year of a new militant network named al-Qaeda (Arabic: “the Base”), although the group remained without clear objectives or an operational agenda for several years. In the early 1990s bin Laden and his al-Qaeda network began to formulate an agenda of violent struggle against the threat of U.S. dominance in the Muslim world In 1994, as bin Laden expanded his group’s infrastructure in Sudan and trained Islamic militants to participate in conflicts around the world In 1996, under heavy international pressure, Sudan expelled bin Laden, and he returned to Afghanistan, where he received protection from its ruling Taliban militia. Bin Laden’s apparent goal was to draw the United States into a large-scale war in the Muslim world that would overthrow the existing world order and establish a single Islamic state. The Territory Of Al Qaida Special activity of al Qaeda was observed from 1992 to 2000s. But after the terrorist group has not weakened the fervor, its attacks have become less frequent but no less dangerous The last activity of this group was observed in 2016 Attacks 1 September 11, 2001- New York, USA- Captured by terrorists "Boeing" crashed into the tower of the world Trade Center in New York and the wing of the Pentagon in Washington. According to the official version, the responsibility for these attacks lies with al-Qaeda» (2974 people were killed (not counting 19 terrorists), 24 were missing.)) 2 On March 11, 2004 - Madrid, Spain - Explosions of four trains. (191 people were killed, about 2000 wounded) ISIS (the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria ) The group was founded in 1999 and it is a Sunni jihadist group based in the Middle-East. The group was founded in 1999 by Jordanian Salafi jihadist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi under the name ( "The Organisation of Monotheism and Jihad"). On 7 June 2006 , a US airstrike killed al-Zarqawi, who was succeeded as leader of the group by the Egyptian militant Abu Ayyub alMasri. On 16 May 2010, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was appointed the new leader of ISIS. Salafi jihadist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi With an aspiration to mobilize the majority of the Muslim population under its control, the ISIS has their stronghold in Iraq, Syria, Palestine, etc. The group has been designated a terrorist organization by the United Nations and many individual countries. ISIL is widely known for its videos of beheadings and other types of executions of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, and its destruction of cultural heritage sites. ISIS Started as an al-Qaeda splinter group. ISIS aims to create an Islamic state called a caliphate across Iraq, Syria and beyond and also to return to the early days of Islam, rejecting all innovations in the religion, which it believes corrupts its original spirit. The group is implementing Shari Law, rooted in eighth-century Islam, to establish a society that mirrors the region's ancient past. ISIS uses modern tools like social media to promote reactionary politics and religious fundamentalism. In 2014, ISIS controlled more than 34,000 square miles in Syria and Iraq, from the Mediterranean coast to south of Baghdad. At the end of 2016, ISIS territory had shrunk to about 23,320 square miles. In 2015, ISIS was believed to be holding 3,500 people as slaves, according to a United Nations report. Most of the enslaved were women and children from the Yazidi community, but some were from other ethnic and religious minority communities. ISIS's revenue comes from oil production and smuggling, taxes, ransoms from kidnappings, selling stolen artifacts, extortion and controlling crops. Since declaring ISIS’s caliphate in June 2014, the self-proclaimed Islamic State has conducted or inspired more than 140 terrorist attacks in 29 countries other than Iraq and Syria, where its carnage has taken a much deadlier toll. Those attacks have killed at least 2,043 people and injured thousands more. The territory of ISIS In conclusion I would like to say about some biggest terrorist’s acts: October 31, 2010. Baghdad, Iraq. 58 dead. ISIS seized about 100 parishioners of the local church of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Baghdad. June 26, 2015. Sousse, Tunisia. 38 dead. 23-year-old gunman’s student Seyfuddin Yakubi opened fire on tourists on the beach. June 26, 2015. Kuwait City, Kuwait. 27 dead. A suicide bomber from ISIS carried out an explosion in one of the Shiite mosques of the capital of Kuwait. October 31, 2015. The sky over Sinai, Egypt. 224 dead. The plane of the Russian airline Kogalymavia (Metrojet brand) Airbus A321, flying from Sharm el-Sheikh to St. Petersburg, fell in the Sinai Peninsula as a result of a bomb explosion on board. November 13, 2015. Paris, France. 130 dead. In the evening of November 13 last year in the French capital, the supporters of the ISIS organized a series of simultaneous terrorist attacks. March 22, 2016. Brussels, Belgium. 32 dead. Immediately, three coordinated explosions occurred in the morning of March 22 in Brussels. Two of them are at the airport, one is at the Maalbek metro station. June 28, 2016. Istanbul, Turkey. 45 dead. As at least three terrorists staged explosions in one of the terminals of the Istanbul airport. July 14, 2016. Nice, France. 84 dead. In Nice At that moment, when residents and guests of the resort town gathered to watch fireworks on the seashore, a 25-ton truck crashed into them at high speed. Taliban The Taliban (Pashto: طالبانṭālibān "students") or Taleban, who refer to themselves as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA) are a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement that emerged in Afghanistan in the mid-1990s following the withdrawal of Soviet troops, the collapse of Afghanistan’s communist regime, and the subsequent breakdown in civil order. the Taliban group is active from 1995 to the present days. Leaders Mullah Mohammed Omar was the supreme commander of the Taliban, until his death in 2013. Mullah Akhtar Mansour was elected as his replacement in 2015, and following Mansour's killing in a May 2016 U.S. drone strike, Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada became the group's leader. The faction took its name from its membership, which consisted largely of students trained in madrasahs (Islamic religious schools) that had been established for Afghan refugees in the 1980s in northern Pakistan. From 1996 to 2001, the Taliban held power over roughly three quarters of Afghanistan, and enforced there a strict interpretation of Sharia, or Islamic law. The Taliban emerged as a force for social order in 1994 in the southern Afghan province of Kandahār and quickly subdued the local warlords who controlled the south of the country. By late 1996, popular support for the Taliban among Afghanistan’s southern Pashtun ethnic group, as well as assistance from conservative Islamic elements abroad, had enabled the faction to seize the capital, Kabul, and gain effective control of the country. By 2001 the Taliban controlled all but a small section of northern Afghanistan World opinion, however, largely disapproved of the Taliban’s social policies—including the near-total exclusion of women from public life (including employment and education), the systematic destruction of nonIslamic artistic relics (as occurred in the town of Bamiyan), and the implementation of harsh criminal punishments—and only a few countries recognized the regime. More significant was the fact that the Taliban allowed Afghanistan to be a haven for Islamic militants from throughout the world, including an exiled Saudi Arabian, Osama bin Laden, who, as leader of al-Qaeda, stood accused of organizing numerous terrorist attacks against American interests. The Taliban’s refusal to extradite bin Laden to the United States following the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon outside Washington led to the expulsion of the Taliban from power. Taliban insurgency against U.S. and NATO forces continued in the years following the Taliban’s ouster. The Taliban funded its efforts in large part through a thriving opium trade, The Taliban funded its efforts in large part through a thriving opium trade, which reached record levels several years after the fall of the Taliban. Hezbollah Hezbollah is a political and militant Shi'ite Muslim group based in Lebanon. Hezbollah, whose name means “Party of God” in Arabic, was founded in 1982 following Israel’s invasion of Lebanon in the First Lebanon War. The group, which is currently led by Sheikh Hassan Nasrallah, has close political and military ties with Syria and Iran, and is designated by the United States and other Western nations as a terrorist group The political arm of Hezbollah is deeply involved in Lebanese politics, with seats in the government, and the group has a history of providing social programs, schools and health care to the Lebanese Shi'ite community. Hezbollah zone Hezbollah opposes the West and Israel, and seeks to create in Lebanon an Islamic state modeled on Iran. It primarily operates in the Shi'ite dominated areas of southern Beirut, southern Lebanon, and the Bekaa Valley. The group’s founding was inspired by the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran and it received military assistance from Iran during the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon. Today, Hezbollah remains a strong opposition force with representatives in Lebanon’s parliament and it still enjoys large support from the country’s Shi'ite population, as well as backing from Syria and Iran. The Hezbollah’s most terrible attacks was: On April 18, 1983, Hezbollah blew up a van filled with explosives outside the U.S. Embassy in Lebanon. 63 people, including 13 Americans, were killed and 120 wounded. on October 23, 1983 in Beirut, Hezbollah militants exploded two trucks of explosives near the US Marine and French paratrooper barracks. 299 people died. On July 18, 1994, a suicide bomber blew himself up at the Jewish Cultural Center in Buenos Aires. 86 people died Boko Haram Boko Haram is an islamist terrorist group committed to the propagation of the Prophet's Muhammad's teachings and Jihad. Boko Haram means "Western education is forbidden". Territory It is a Salafist jihadist terrorist organisation based in the northeast of Nigeria, specifically Yobe, Kano, Bauchi, Borno and Kaduna. It is an Islamist movement which strongly opposes man-made laws. Founded by Mohammed Yusuf around 2001, the organisation is a Muslim sect that seeks to abolish the secular system of government and establish a Sharia system in the country. Today the leader of this group is Abubakar Shekau. He was the deputy of the founder of the group, Mohammed Yusuf, until Yusuf was killed in 2009. The biggest Boko Haram`s attacks was: On April 14, 2014, when the militants kidnapped 276 schoolgirls, from a secondary school in Chibok in Borno state, north-east Nigeria. About 50 of the girls escaped but 219 were captured. On November 28, 2014, during the Friday prayer, militants attacked the main mosque of Kano. At least 150 people died, 270 people were injured. on Jan. 2015: A multi-day attack in the town of Baga left about 2,000 dead; Nowadays the world is too dangerous , Be careful, please !!!