Contemporary terrorist organizations

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Contemporary
terrorist
organizations
Prepared 3rd year students,
Modern foreign languages
" Teaching ":
Demidovich Ekaterina,
Polyachenko Anzhelika,
Suslova Veronica
Plan of the project
We will tell you about the most famous terrorist groups in the last 10 years.
1
Al-Qaeda
2
ISIS
3
The Taliban
4
Hezbollah
5
Boko Haram
Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda is an international terrorist
network founded by Osama bin Laden
in the late 1980s.
Osama bin
Laden
Osama bin Laden, also
spelled Usāmah ibn Lādin, (born
1957, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia—died
May 2, 2011, Abbottabad,
Pakistan), founder of the militant
Islamist organization al-Qaeda
Early Life
Bin Laden was one of more than
50 children of Muhammad bin
Laden, a self-made billionaire who,
after immigrating to Saudi
Arabia from Yemen as a laborer,
rose to direct major construction
projects for the Saudi royal family..
Osama bin Laden studied business administration
at King Abdul Aziz University in Jiddah, where it is
likely that he also received instruction in religious
studies from Muḥammad Quṭb
His time at the university was key to his future
role as leader of al-Qaeda, not only in influencing
his radical views but also in providing him with
the skill to market al-Qaeda.
Building Al-Oaeda
Shortly after the Soviet
Union invaded Afghanistan in
1979, bin Laden, who viewed the
invasion as an act of aggression
against Islam, began traveling to
meet Afghan resistance leaders
and raise funds for the
resistance.
• A computer database he created in 1988
listing the names of volunteers for
the Afghan War led to the formation
that year of a new militant network
named al-Qaeda (Arabic: “the Base”),
although the group remained without
clear objectives or an operational
agenda for several years.
In the early 1990s bin Laden and
his al-Qaeda network began to
formulate an agenda of violent
struggle against the threat of U.S.
dominance in the Muslim world
In 1994, as bin Laden expanded
his group’s infrastructure in
Sudan and trained Islamic
militants to participate in
conflicts around the world
In 1996, under heavy
international pressure, Sudan
expelled bin Laden, and he
returned to Afghanistan, where
he received protection from its
ruling Taliban militia.
Bin Laden’s apparent goal was to
draw the United States into a
large-scale war in the Muslim
world that would overthrow the
existing world order and
establish a single Islamic state.
The Territory Of
Al Qaida
Special activity of al
Qaeda was
observed from 1992
to 2000s.
But after the terrorist group has not weakened the fervor, its
attacks have become less frequent but no less dangerous
The last activity of this group was
observed in 2016
Attacks
1 September 11, 2001- New
York, USA- Captured by terrorists
"Boeing" crashed into the tower
of the world Trade Center in New
York and the wing of the
Pentagon in Washington.
According to the official version,
the responsibility for these
attacks lies with al-Qaeda»
(2974 people were killed (not
counting 19 terrorists), 24 were
missing.))
2 On March 11, 2004 - Madrid,
Spain - Explosions of four trains.
(191 people were killed, about
2000 wounded)
ISIS (the Islamic
State of Iraq and
Syria )
The group was founded in 1999
and it is a Sunni jihadist group
based in the Middle-East.
The group was founded in 1999
by Jordanian Salafi jihadist Abu
Musab al-Zarqawi under the
name ( "The Organisation of
Monotheism and Jihad"). On 7
June 2006 , a US airstrike killed
al-Zarqawi, who was succeeded
as leader of the group by the
Egyptian militant Abu Ayyub alMasri. On 16 May 2010, Abu Bakr
al-Baghdadi was appointed the
new leader of ISIS.
Salafi jihadist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
With an aspiration to mobilize
the majority of the Muslim
population under its control, the
ISIS has their stronghold in Iraq,
Syria, Palestine, etc. The group
has been designated a terrorist
organization by the United
Nations and many individual
countries. ISIL is widely known
for its videos of beheadings and
other types of executions of both
soldiers and civilians, including
journalists and aid workers, and
its destruction of cultural
heritage sites. ISIS Started as an
al-Qaeda splinter group.
ISIS aims to create an Islamic
state called a caliphate across
Iraq, Syria and beyond and also
to return to the early days of
Islam, rejecting all innovations in
the religion, which it believes
corrupts its original spirit. The
group is implementing Shari Law,
rooted in eighth-century Islam,
to establish a society that mirrors
the region's ancient past.
ISIS uses modern tools like social
media to promote reactionary
politics and religious
fundamentalism. In 2014, ISIS
controlled more than 34,000
square miles in Syria and Iraq, from
the Mediterranean coast to south
of Baghdad.
At the end of 2016, ISIS territory
had shrunk to about 23,320 square
miles. In 2015, ISIS was believed to
be holding 3,500 people as slaves,
according to a United Nations
report. Most of the enslaved were
women and children from the
Yazidi community, but some were
from other ethnic and religious
minority communities.
ISIS's revenue comes from oil production and smuggling, taxes, ransoms from
kidnappings, selling stolen artifacts, extortion and controlling crops.
Since declaring ISIS’s caliphate in
June 2014, the self-proclaimed
Islamic State has conducted or
inspired more than 140 terrorist
attacks in 29 countries other
than Iraq and Syria, where its
carnage has taken a much
deadlier toll. Those attacks have
killed at least 2,043 people and
injured thousands more.
The territory of ISIS
In conclusion I would like to
say about some biggest
terrorist’s acts:
October 31, 2010. Baghdad, Iraq. 58 dead.
ISIS seized about 100 parishioners of the
local church of the Blessed Virgin Mary in
Baghdad.
June 26, 2015. Sousse, Tunisia. 38 dead.
23-year-old gunman’s student Seyfuddin
Yakubi opened fire on tourists on the beach.
June 26, 2015. Kuwait City, Kuwait. 27
dead. A suicide bomber from ISIS carried out
an explosion in one of the Shiite mosques of
the capital of Kuwait.
October 31, 2015. The sky over Sinai,
Egypt. 224 dead. The plane of the Russian
airline Kogalymavia (Metrojet brand) Airbus
A321, flying from Sharm el-Sheikh to St.
Petersburg, fell in the Sinai Peninsula as a
result of a bomb explosion on board.
November 13, 2015. Paris, France. 130
dead. In the evening of November 13 last
year in the French capital, the supporters of
the ISIS organized a series of simultaneous
terrorist attacks.
March 22, 2016. Brussels,
Belgium. 32 dead. Immediately,
three coordinated explosions
occurred in the morning of March
22 in Brussels. Two of them are at
the airport, one is at the Maalbek
metro station.
June 28, 2016. Istanbul, Turkey.
45 dead. As at least three terrorists
staged explosions in one of the
terminals of the Istanbul airport.
July 14, 2016. Nice, France. 84
dead. In Nice At that moment,
when residents and guests of the
resort town gathered to watch
fireworks on the seashore, a 25-ton
truck crashed into them at high
speed.
Taliban
The Taliban (Pashto: ‫ طالبان‬ṭālibān
"students") or Taleban, who refer
to themselves as the Islamic
Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA) are a
Sunni Islamic fundamentalist
political movement that emerged
in Afghanistan in the mid-1990s
following the withdrawal of
Soviet troops, the collapse of
Afghanistan’s communist regime,
and the subsequent breakdown
in civil order.
the Taliban group is active from 1995
to the present days.
Leaders
Mullah Mohammed Omar was
the supreme commander of the
Taliban, until his death in 2013.
Mullah Akhtar Mansour was
elected as his replacement in
2015, and following Mansour's
killing in a May 2016 U.S. drone
strike, Mawlawi Hibatullah
Akhundzada became the group's
leader.
The faction took its name from
its membership, which consisted
largely of students trained in
madrasahs (Islamic religious
schools) that had been
established for Afghan refugees
in the 1980s in northern
Pakistan. From 1996 to 2001, the
Taliban held power over roughly
three quarters of Afghanistan,
and enforced there a strict
interpretation of Sharia, or
Islamic law.
The Taliban emerged as
a force for social order
in 1994 in the southern
Afghan province of
Kandahār and quickly
subdued the local
warlords who controlled
the south of the
country. By late 1996,
popular support for the
Taliban among
Afghanistan’s southern
Pashtun ethnic group, as
well as assistance from
conservative Islamic
elements abroad, had
enabled the faction to
seize the capital, Kabul,
and gain effective
control of the country.
By 2001 the Taliban controlled all but a small section of northern
Afghanistan
World opinion, however, largely
disapproved of the Taliban’s
social policies—including the
near-total exclusion of women
from public life (including
employment and education), the
systematic destruction of nonIslamic artistic relics (as occurred
in the town of Bamiyan), and the
implementation of harsh criminal
punishments—and only a few
countries recognized the regime.
More significant was the fact that
the Taliban allowed Afghanistan to
be a haven for Islamic militants
from throughout the world,
including an exiled Saudi Arabian,
Osama bin Laden, who, as leader of
al-Qaeda, stood accused of
organizing numerous terrorist
attacks against American interests.
The Taliban’s refusal to extradite
bin Laden to the United States
following the attacks on the World
Trade Center in New York City and
the Pentagon outside Washington
led to the expulsion of the Taliban
from power. Taliban insurgency
against U.S. and NATO forces
continued in the years following
the Taliban’s ouster.
The Taliban funded its efforts in large part through a thriving opium trade,
The Taliban funded its efforts in large part through a thriving opium trade,
which reached record levels several years after the fall of the Taliban.
Hezbollah
Hezbollah is a political and
militant Shi'ite Muslim group
based in Lebanon. Hezbollah,
whose name means “Party of
God” in Arabic, was founded in
1982 following Israel’s invasion of
Lebanon in the First Lebanon
War.
The group, which is currently led
by Sheikh Hassan Nasrallah, has
close political and military ties
with Syria and Iran, and is
designated by the United States
and other Western nations as a
terrorist group
The political arm of Hezbollah is
deeply involved in Lebanese
politics, with seats in the
government, and the group has a
history of providing social
programs, schools and health
care to the Lebanese Shi'ite
community.
Hezbollah zone
Hezbollah opposes the West and
Israel, and seeks to create in
Lebanon an Islamic state
modeled on Iran. It primarily
operates in the Shi'ite dominated
areas of southern Beirut,
southern Lebanon, and the
Bekaa Valley. The group’s
founding was inspired by the
1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran
and it received military
assistance from Iran during the
1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon.
Today, Hezbollah remains a
strong opposition force with
representatives in Lebanon’s
parliament and it still enjoys
large support from the country’s
Shi'ite population, as well as
backing from Syria and Iran.
The Hezbollah’s
most terrible
attacks was:
On April 18, 1983, Hezbollah
blew up a van filled with
explosives outside the U.S.
Embassy in Lebanon. 63 people,
including 13 Americans, were
killed and 120 wounded.
on October 23, 1983 in Beirut,
Hezbollah militants exploded two
trucks of explosives near the US
Marine and French paratrooper
barracks. 299 people died.
On July 18, 1994, a suicide
bomber blew himself up at the
Jewish Cultural Center in Buenos
Aires. 86 people died
Boko Haram
Boko Haram is an islamist
terrorist group committed to the
propagation of the Prophet's
Muhammad's teachings and
Jihad. Boko Haram means
"Western education is
forbidden".
Territory
It is a Salafist jihadist terrorist
organisation based in the
northeast of Nigeria, specifically
Yobe, Kano, Bauchi, Borno and
Kaduna.
It is an Islamist movement which
strongly opposes man-made
laws. Founded by Mohammed
Yusuf around 2001, the
organisation is a Muslim sect that
seeks to abolish the secular
system of government and
establish a Sharia system in the
country.
Today the leader of this group is
Abubakar Shekau. He was the
deputy of the founder of the
group, Mohammed Yusuf, until
Yusuf was killed in 2009.
The biggest Boko
Haram`s attacks
was:
On April 14, 2014, when the
militants kidnapped 276
schoolgirls, from a secondary
school in Chibok in Borno state,
north-east Nigeria. About 50 of
the girls escaped but 219 were
captured.
On November 28, 2014, during
the Friday prayer, militants
attacked the main mosque of
Kano. At least 150 people died,
270 people were injured.
on Jan. 2015: A multi-day
attack in the town of Baga left
about 2,000 dead;
Nowadays the world is too dangerous ,
Be careful, please !!!
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