Name Date Reading Study Guide Chapter 20 Section 1 (pages 585–589) The Growth of Industry Before You Read TERMS & NAMES In the last chapter, you read about how the nation began expanding westward in the years following the Civil War. In this section, you will learn about the growth of industry in the United States and how it changed many lives. petroleum Oily, flammable liquid used in making kerosene As You Read business cycle Pattern of good and bad economic times Use this diagram to take notes on the factors that spurred the nation’s industrial growth. patent Document giving inventors sole rights to make and sell their products Bessemer steel process Technique that produced steel more cheaply generator Machine that produced electric current Thomas Edison Inventor who developed a practical light bulb and found the most ways to use electricity Factors that Helped Industry Grow Alexander Graham Bell Inventor who developed the first telephone Centennial Exhibition A public fair celebrating America’s 100th birthday The Industrial Revolution Continues Copyright © McDougal Littell Inc. (pages 585–586) What helped U.S. industries to grow? After the Civil War ended, U.S. industries grew more rapidly. Several factors caused this growth. First, the nation had many natural resources. For example, it had a lot of mineral wealth. This included coal, iron, and copper. These resources were used to make a variety of goods. From 1860 to 1900, the number of people in the country more than doubled. Because the nation had more people, it needed more goods. To meet that demand, industry became larger. There were also large numbers of immigrants. They supplied factories with workers. Better means of transportation helped industry to grow. These included roads, canals, and railroads. They made it easier to ship goods. New discoveries also aided the growth of industries. For example, chemists began to make kerosene from an oily liquid called petroleum. It was cheaper to light lamps using kerosene. The number of inventions also grew at a fast rate. Inventors applied for patents. A patent is a government document. It gives inventors the sole right to make and sell their products. Finally, banks and rich people chose to invest money in businesses. 1. Describe two factors that helped the nation’s industries to grow. ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ The Business Cycle (pages 586–587) How do a boom and bust differ? U.S. industry did not grow at a steady pace. It went through ups and downs. This pattern of good and bad times is called the business cycle. Good times are called booms. During these times, people buy more and invest in business. As a result, industries and AN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 195 The Growth of Industry continued 2. What is the difference between an economic boom and bust? ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Steel: The Backbone of Industry (page 587) What was the Bessemer steel process? The steel industry added greatly to America’s industrial growth. Before the mid-1800s, it took large amounts of coal to make steel. As a result, steel was very expensive to produce. In the 1850s, two men developed a new technique for making steel. It used less than one-seventh of the coal that the older process used. It was called the Bessemer steel process after one of the technique’s inventors. This process cut the cost of making steel. As a result, the nation’s steel output greatly increased. Steel was used for many products. The main use was rails for the railroads. 3. How did the Bessemer steel process lead to an increase in steel output? ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Edison and Electricity; Bell and the Telephone (pages 587–588) What did Edison and Bell invent? The industry to create electric power got its start in the late 1800s. By the 1870s, people had invented 196 CHAPTER 20 SECTION 1 good generators. These are machines that make electric current. As a result, people became eager to use electricity. The man who found the most ways to do so was Thomas Edison. He invented the first safe, steady light bulb. Electricity played a role in inventions that helped people to communicate. One of the most important of these was the telephone. Alexander Graham Bell invented it. Bell showed his telephone at the Centennial Exhibition. This was a large public fair. It took place to mark the 100th birthday of the United States. The telephone amazed the scientists who saw it. 4. What were the most important inventions of Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell? ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Inventions Change Industry (pages 588–589) What was the sewing machine’s effect? New inventions changed U.S. life. The typewriter was invented in 1867. It opened jobs for women. The sewing machine led to a new industry. Factories used it to make clothes. The clothes came in standard sizes and popular styles. Soon, many people bought clothes instead of making their own. Granville T. Woods was an African-American inventor. He made telephone and telegraph systems better. Margaret Knight invented machines to help with packaging and shoe-making. She also improved motors and engines. 5. What practice did the sewing machine help to discourage? ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Copyright © McDougal Littell Inc. businesses grow. Bad times are known as busts. During a bust, people buy and invest less. As a result, businesses close. The number of unemployed people rises. During the late 1800s, America went through a series of economic booms and busts. Yet, U.S. industries continued to grow.