1 The Growth of Industry

Reading Study Guide
Section 1 (pages 585–589)
The Growth of Industry
Before You Read
In the last chapter, you read about how the nation began expanding
westward in the years following the Civil War.
In this section, you will learn about the growth of industry in the
United States and how it changed many lives.
petroleum Oily, flammable liquid
used in making kerosene
As You Read
business cycle Pattern of good and
bad economic times
Use this diagram to take notes on the factors that spurred the nation’s
industrial growth.
patent Document giving inventors
sole rights to make and sell their
Bessemer steel process Technique
that produced steel more cheaply
generator Machine that produced
electric current
Thomas Edison Inventor who
developed a practical light bulb and
found the most ways to use electricity
Factors that Helped
Industry Grow
Alexander Graham Bell Inventor
who developed the first telephone
Centennial Exhibition A public fair
celebrating America’s 100th birthday
The Industrial Revolution Continues
Copyright © McDougal Littell Inc.
(pages 585–586)
What helped U.S. industries to grow?
After the Civil War ended, U.S. industries grew more
rapidly. Several factors caused this growth. First, the
nation had many natural resources. For example, it
had a lot of mineral wealth. This included coal, iron,
and copper. These resources were used to make a
variety of goods.
From 1860 to 1900, the number of people in the
country more than doubled. Because the nation had
more people, it needed more goods. To meet that
demand, industry became larger. There were also
large numbers of immigrants. They supplied factories
with workers.
Better means of transportation helped industry to
grow. These included roads, canals, and railroads.
They made it easier to ship goods.
New discoveries also aided the growth of
industries. For example, chemists began to make
kerosene from an oily liquid called petroleum. It was
cheaper to light lamps using kerosene. The number of
inventions also grew at a fast rate. Inventors applied
for patents. A patent is a government document. It
gives inventors the sole right to make and sell their
products. Finally, banks and rich people chose to
invest money in businesses.
1. Describe two factors that helped the
nation’s industries to grow.
The Business Cycle
(pages 586–587)
How do a boom and bust differ?
U.S. industry did not grow at a steady pace. It went
through ups and downs. This pattern of good and bad
times is called the business cycle. Good times are
called booms. During these times, people buy more
and invest in business. As a result, industries and
The Growth of Industry continued
2. What is the difference between an
economic boom and bust?
Steel: The Backbone of Industry
(page 587)
What was the Bessemer steel process?
The steel industry added greatly to America’s
industrial growth. Before the mid-1800s, it took large
amounts of coal to make steel. As a result, steel was
very expensive to produce. In the 1850s, two men
developed a new technique for making steel. It used
less than one-seventh of the coal that the older
process used. It was called the Bessemer steel
process after one of the technique’s inventors.
This process cut the cost of making steel. As a
result, the nation’s steel output greatly increased.
Steel was used for many products. The main use was
rails for the railroads.
3. How did the Bessemer steel process lead
to an increase in steel output?
Edison and Electricity; Bell and the
Telephone (pages 587–588)
What did Edison and Bell invent?
The industry to create electric power got its start in
the late 1800s. By the 1870s, people had invented
good generators. These are machines that make
electric current. As a result, people became eager to
use electricity. The man who found the most ways to
do so was Thomas Edison. He invented the first
safe, steady light bulb.
Electricity played a role in inventions that helped
people to communicate. One of the most important
of these was the telephone. Alexander Graham
Bell invented it. Bell showed his telephone at the
Centennial Exhibition. This was a large public fair.
It took place to mark the 100th birthday of the
United States. The telephone amazed the scientists
who saw it.
4. What were the most important
inventions of Thomas Edison and
Alexander Graham Bell?
Inventions Change Industry
(pages 588–589)
What was the sewing machine’s effect?
New inventions changed U.S. life. The typewriter was
invented in 1867. It opened jobs for women. The
sewing machine led to a new industry. Factories used
it to make clothes. The clothes came in standard sizes
and popular styles. Soon, many people bought clothes
instead of making their own.
Granville T. Woods was an African-American
inventor. He made telephone and telegraph systems
better. Margaret Knight invented machines to help
with packaging and shoe-making. She also improved
motors and engines.
5. What practice did the sewing machine
help to discourage?
Copyright © McDougal Littell Inc.
businesses grow. Bad times are known as busts.
During a bust, people buy and invest less. As a result,
businesses close. The number of unemployed people
During the late 1800s, America went through a
series of economic booms and busts. Yet, U.S.
industries continued to grow.
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