Part of a stream

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Ch 9/10 Earth’s Water
Lesson 2
Surface water
The Rivers of North Carolina…
Focus Questions…
What is the structure and
function of a river?
What causes a river to flood?
How do rivers cause erosion and
deposition?
Rivers begin
 as trickles of water flowing over the surface from
water that has fallen, melted or collected.
 We call the beginning of a river a stream.
http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/78/3078-004-9B8860F2.jpg
Stream Systems: Beginning…
1. The beginning of a
stream is called the
headwaters.
a. Found in mountains
b. Cold, oxygenated,
clear
c. V-shaped channels
i. have steep sides.
ii. The Grand Canyon is
a V- shaped valley.
The Grand Canyon
Formation of Stream Valleys…
http://www.indiana.edu/~geol116/week9/rivprof.jpg
Next 3 slides
Headlands
of
Watauga
River –
Linville
Gorge
Headwaters of The Mighty Yadkin
– At W. Kerr Scott Reservoir
Stream Systems: Middle…
The
River
. Rivers are the accumulation of all tributaries and streams –
they meander which means they bend and curve as
they move downstream.
A bend or curve in a stream channel is a -
• meander
The Yadkin River
http://www.wfae.org/wfae/images/Yadkin.jpg
http://www.wilmingtonbeachrentals.com/2010/02/cape-fear-river-facts-pictures.html
The Cape Fear River
Meandering Streams – A Diagram
Stream Systems: Middle…
Water in a river
flows fastest…
I. Along the
center
II. Outside of a
meander
Stream Systems: Middle…
Rivers and streams also FLOOD.
What is a floodplain?
… a broad, flat, fertile area next to a stream that
floods periodically
… It is not wise to build on a floodplain because it
is prone to flooding!
Floods…
Floods related to
groundwater levels?
… It is more likely to
flood when
groundwater levels
are high because…
… the aquifer is already
full and can only hold
so much water.
… the dotted line on the
diagram represents
the groundwater
level.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004896970800380X
Oxbow Lakes…
An oxbow lake is…
Created after a flood – it is
a blocked-off meander
We have our very own oxbow lake
in the Carolinas – in the
Congaree National Park just
outside of Columbia, SC.
http://www.daviddarling.info/images/oxbow_lake.jpg
Stream Systems: The End!…
The end of a stream is
called the mouth
… and is usually located at
the ocean or another
large body of water
http://carolinagreensense.com/uploaded_images/NIWB-731140.jpeg
Floods…
When do floods occur?
•
when water overflows a
stream’s banks
(Soccer fields were built on
the flood plain of the
Yadkin River in Davie
County. Why?)
http://www.nowpublic.com/world/floodplain
Flooding is devastating
Floods…
Which agency monitors
potential flood
conditions?
• The National
Weather Service
monitors changing
weather conditions.
• USGS has established
gauging station on
more than 4400
streams in the USA!
http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2005/3113/images/Cropped_bridge.jpg
Oxbow Lakes…
Oxbow Lake in the Amazon
Oxbow Lakes in Alaska
http://muller.lbl.gov/travel_photos/AmazonWebPages/AmazonWebPages-Pages/Image1.html
http://www.alaska-in-pictures.com/oxbow-lake-aerial-3405-pictures.htm
A Bigger View!
(Yadkin)PeeDee River
A Stream’s End: Deposition of
Sediment…
Streams lose their
ability to carry
sediment
…because they
slow down and
lose energy
An alluvial fan is a
fan-shaped
deposit commonly
found in
mountains.
http://practicalbio.blogspot.com/2011/09/sonoran-desert-soil-distributions.html
Alluvial Fan in the Sonora Desert
A Stream’s End: Deposition of
Sediment…
A delta is a triangular deposit
that forms at the mouth of a
river.
The city of New
Orleans is on the
Mississippi River
Delta.
The Mississippi River Delta –
picture taken by Landsat 7
http://earthasart.gsfc.nasa.gov/mississippi.html
Erosional Stream Load…
Three ways in which a stream carries its load...
a.
b.
c.
Material is carried in solution after it becomes dissolved in a
stream’s water.
All particles small enough to be held up by the turbulence of a
stream’s moving water are carried in suspension.
Sediments that are too large or heavy to be held up by turbulent
water are transported as a stream’s bed load.
Moving water – moving sediment
 Moving water is very turbid – cloudy and muddy
because it carries sediment, leaves and just about
anything caught in the movement.
Erosional Stream Load…
All the materials that the water in a stream carries is known as
the stream’s load.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/Stream_Load.gif
Erosional Stream Load…
A rivers Carrying capacity is the ability of a stream to…
• transport material
http://water.weather.gov/ahps2/images/hydrograph_photos/muri2/muri2_2.jpg
Erosional Stream Load…
Lakes
Focus Question…
How do dams create
reservoirs and how is the
water in a reservoir used by
people?
What can cause
eutrophication or pollution in
1. What is a lake?
o a depression in land that
holds water
Lakes
…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Rock_Lake
a. What determines where
a lake can form?
o the surface materials
b. Why are lakes
important?
http://www.city-data.com/picfilesv/picv23839.php
o Recreation, drinking
water, habitats
2. What is a reservoir?
o a manmade lake
o They hold water for
drinking and power
production
High Rock Lake
Types of Lakes…
Oxbow Lake… a meander gets cut off
Weston Lake (Oxbow) in
Congaree National Park
The Great Salt Lake in Utah - the remains of
a sea
http://www.americansouthwest.net/utah/salt_lake_desert/salt_l.html
Moraine-dammed Lake - glacial melt is
dammed by a moraine
Moraine-dammed Lake in Alaska
http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1216/i/i.html
Kettle Lakes - Glacial melt in a depression
created by the glacier
Kettle Lakes in Michigan
http://www.geo.msu.edu/geogmich/kettle_lakes.html
Lakes Undergo Change…
1. What maintains a
lake’s water supply?
o rain, runoff, and
groundwater
2. A lake will exist for a
long time if…
o it gets more water
than it loses
After a long time a lake
will dry up and fill up!
The Aral Sea: Uzbekistan
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=1396
Lakes Undergo Change…
3. Eutrophication is…
o excess nutrients cause
overgrowth of algae
which use up oxygen
in the lake
The process of
eutrophication can be
sped up by…
o over-fertilizing land
near a waterway
http://www.eoearth.org/article/Eutrophication
Eutrophication in Australia
Fish kill in the Salton Sea, CA
Eutrophication in Winston-Salem
• Reynolda House - Lake Katherine (then)
Lake Katherine (Now)
Eutrophication Sources …
http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/pollution/culturaleutroph.jpg
Lakes Undergo Change…
4. Four things that can
cause
eutropication…
o animal wastes
o phosphate
detergents
o industrial
toxins
o untreated
sewage
Lesson 4
Freshwater Wetlands
Think About It…
What would happen if all of our
coastal wetlands were filled in
for homes and hotels?
Focus Question…
Why are wetlands important?
What factors affect and degrade
wetlands and estuaries?
http://www.tommangan.net/twoheeldrive/index.php/2009/11/29/easy-hike-at-historic-bethabara-park/
Freshwater Wetlands…
A wetland is…
o land that is
soaked with
water
Three examples of wetlands
are…
a. bogs
b. marshes
c. swamps
Boardwalk at Bethabara Park
Our very own wetlands!
http://water.epa.gov/type/wetlands/bog.cfm
Bogs…
1. A bog is a water-soaked area
with poor drainage.
Water in a bog comes
from…
http://here4now.typepad.com/here4now/2011/05/weeks-bay-reserve.html
o Precipitation (rain)
2. The soil in a bog is acidic
because…
o of decaying moss
which slows
bacterial growth &
prevents nitrogen
(N) recycling.
A bog in Alabama
Bogs…
3. Interesting plants that
live in a bog are the…
o Venus fly trap
o Sun dew
o Pitcher plants
These plants are
carnivorous b/c of
nutrient-poor soil of
the bog. They must
digest insects to
obtain nitrogen.
http://www.duke.edu/~jspippen/plants/carnivorousplants.htm
Marshes…
1. A marsh is a water-
soaked area at the
mouth of streams.
An estuary is a marsh on the
coast where fresh and salt
water mix.
Fresh water marshes and
estuaries often form…
o Where a river
enters a lake or
sea
2. Marsh grasses have
shallow roots that …
o anchor silt and mud
deposits in a delta.
Brackish marsh near Wanchese, NC
http://www.duke.edu/~jspippen/vistas/outerbanks.htm
Marshes…
3. Plants found in a
marsh include…
o Grasses
o Reeds
o Sedges
o Rushes
These plants provide
shelter and food for
aquatic larva.
Marsh with reeds and rushes natural reserve near Ravenna,
Italy
Swamps…
1. A swamp is…
o a low-lying area
near a stream
Swamps may develop
from marshes that
have filled in to
support the growth
of shrubs and
trees.
Congaree National Park, SC
http://vogeltalksrving.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Mosquito-meter.jpg
Water Lily in Bok Tower Gardens, Orlando,
FL …
http://attractionsmagazine.com/blog/2012/09/14/water-lilies-seem-to-big-to-be-true-at-bok-tower-gardens/
Swamps…
2. Trees that grow in a
swamp include…
o mangrove trees
o cypress trees
Mangroves in Biscayne
National Park, FL
Bald Cypress Trees in
Florida
Swamps…
If a swamp were to be buried under tons of sediment…coal
might form!
http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/visual/visual.php?shortname=coal_formation
Environmental Issues: A Loss of
Habitat…
1. Two valuable functions
of wetlands …
o the filtering of
water
o providing a habitat
for migrating birds
and fish fry (fish
babies!)
2. What % of our wetlands
were lost from the late
1700s to mid-1980s?
o 50 %
o Why?
Snow Geese in Prince William Sound
http://www.pwconserve.org/wildlife/birds/snowgoose.htm
Environmental Issues: Upstream
Drought…
3. A drought
upstream …
o … will lead to
less fresh water
entering the
estuary and…
o … saltier water
Snow Geese in Prince William Sound
http://www.pwconserve.org/wildlife/birds/snowgoose.htm
Environmental Issues: Saltwater
Intrustion…
4. Overused wells
in coastal areas …
o … may draw up
salt water from
the ocean and
…
o … cause the
water to
Snow Geese in Prince William Sound
become
undrinkable.
http://www.pwconserve.org/wildlife/birds/snowgoose.htm
Three Ways to Preserve
Wetlands…
 Education
 Conservation
 Regulation
Lesson 5
The Movement and Storage of Groundwater
Think About It…
Does your family drink well
water?
Focus Question…
How does groundwater move
through the lithosphere?
How are flood events affected by
groundwater levels?
Precipitation and Groundwater…
Remember the water cycle?
1. Most water in the atmosphere comes
from oceans!
2. Most precipitation that falls on land
becomes groundwater.
Eventually groundwater will…
… return to the ocean to complete the
water cycle.
Groundwater Storage…
1. Porosity is…
…the percentage of pore space in
a material
2. The types of soil that have •
•
highest porosity - well- sorted
lowest porosity – poorly- sorted
1. Groundwater is stored…
• in the pore spaces of rocks
and sediments (See picture )
• …and can be compared to a
hard sponge
http://core.ecu.edu/geology/woods/GWANSW2008_files/image002.jpg
Groundwater Storage…
3. The zone of saturation is…
• the depth below Earth’s surface at which groundwater
completely fills all the pores
4. The water table is …
…the upper boundary of the zone of saturation
e. Figure 10-2: Groundwater Storage (p. 421)
soil
Zone of
aeration
Water table
Zone of
saturation
Groundwater Storage…
5. The depth of the water table
varies…
…in swampy areaswater table is
almost at surface,
…in arid regions water table is far
beneath surface
Green Swamp, FL
Groundwater Storage…
6.
If the water table is
 high, it is more likely
to flood.
 low, it is less likely to
flood.
7. The water table fluctuates
with the seasons and
weather conditions
because…
• it depends on rain to
recharge it
http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/images/chwattab.gif
Groundwater Movement:
Permeability…
1. What is permeability?
•
a.
the ability of a material to let water pass through it
What subsurface materials are permeable?
• sand, sandstone, and gravel
b.
What subsurface materials are impermeable?
• clay, silt, and shale
c.
Why is clay used to line ponds & landfills?
•
It is impermeable (our storm drainage pond)
1.
Groundwater Movement:
Aquifers…
An aquifer
 … underground
storage area for
water made of
permeable rock
layers.
2.
An aquiclude
 … impermeable
layer above or
below an aquifer.
Groundwater Movement…
6. aquifer
7.
8. aquiclude
Lesson 6
Groundwater Erosion
Think About It…
Why do some homes in Florida get
swallowed up by the ground?
Focus Question…
What are the unique features of
caves?
What features are found in an
area with Karst topography?
Caves…
1.
What is a cave?
• A natural underground opening with a
connection to Earth’s surface
2.
Which acid forms caves?
• Carbonic acid (H2O + CO2 in the soil)
3.
Which rock is eroded by this acid to form a cave?
• limestone
Caves of the USA…
Mammoth Cave,
Kentucky
Carlsbad Caverns, N. Mexico
Lechuguilla Cave, N. Mexico
http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2011/07/dark-depths-mammoth-cave/
http://giantcrystals.strahlen.org/america/lechuguilla.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Witchs_Finger_Carlsbad_Caverns.jpg
Wind Cave,
South Dakota
Mammoth Cave: A Closer Look…
http://images.travelpod.com/users/socks/1.1248576883.mammoth-cave-river-styx-tour-route.jpg
Mammoth Cave Entrance
Cave Formations…
http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/orca/underworld/sec1b.htm
Karst Topography: Sinkholes…
1. What is a
sinkhole?
• A depression in
the ground
caused by the
collapse of a
cave
• http://southeas
tsinkhole.com/
http://www.virginiacaves.org/lok/ccvup56.htm
Karst Topography
2. Karst topography are limestone regions that
have sinkholes, sinks, and sinking streams –
named for an area in Croatia.
A aerial photograph of a classic Karst terrain north of Lewisburg, WV
Karst Topography…
Karst Topography
•Missouri
http://www.mospeleo.org/ozark_caving/springs/sprkarst.htm
Hard Water…
4. Hard water is water that contains high
concentrations of calcium, magnesiun, or iron.
•
•
•
Common in limestone areas
Causes deposits of calcium bicarbonate and can clog
water pipes. (p. 247)
More soap must be used
Lesson 7
Groundwater Systems, Use, and Threats!
Think About It…
Where does the water in a spring come
from?
Have you ever been swimming in a
spring?
Focus Question…
What are the unique features of
springs?
How can the use of wells lead to
aquifer depletion, subsistence,
and saltwater intrusion?
What are threats to our
groundwater?
Springs…
1. Ground water discharges (comes out) at…
• Earth’s surface
• These natural discharges of water are
called…springs
2. Water may flow out of a rock when…
• It’s where an aquifer meets an aquiclude
at Earth’s surface (a spring!)
http://www.eyekonic.net/gallery2/d/1232-2/Ponce_20De_20Leon_20Springs_202.jpg
Ponce De Leon Springs
Location of
Springs:
B. Perched Water 
Table
A. Near Horizontal
Sedimentary Layers 
D. Limestone Regions 
http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/8m.html
 C. Fault-blocked
Hot Springs…
3. The temperature of ground water is…
• the same as the average annual
temperature
4. Hot springs are…
• springs which have temperatures higher
than the human body
• Hot springs are so hot because… the
subsurface is still hot from recent
igneous activity
• Picture on next slide 
Hot Springs at Yellowstone N.P.
http://www.guideoftravels.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Yellowstone-National-Park.jpg
Mammoth Hot Springs Yellowstone
Yellowstone Mud Volcano, Wyoming
Basically
a muddy
hot
spring!
http://www.gogobot.com/old_faithful_geyser_and_upper-yellowstone_national_park-attraction
Springs and Geysers…
5. Most hot springs in our
country are found in the…
• western states
6. A geyser is an …
• explosive hot
spring that erupts
at regular
intervals
Old Faithful Geyser
Yellowstone NP
Wells…
1. A well is…
• a hole dug to reach groundwater
2. A cone of depression is produced by…
• over pumping wells
3. Drawdown is…
• the difference b/tw the original water
table level and that of a pumped well
4. Recharge is…
• water from rain or runoff is added to an
aquifer
Wells…
5. An artesian well…flows from a deep, confined
aquifer which contains water under pressure.
Artesian Well-fed Pool – Palm
Coast, FL
http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/gw_ruralhomeowner/gw_ruralhomeowner_new.html
Wells: Figure 10-15, p. 252
http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthgwlandsubside.html
Wells…
6. The entire water
table can be lowered
due to…
…overuse of wells
7. Ground above an
overused well can…
 …sink!
 This is called
subsidence
Threats to Our Groundwater Supply…
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Overuse
Subsidence
Pollution (sewage, industrial waste, landfills, agriculture)
Chemicals (not filtered out by sediments; hard to remove
from groundwater)
Salt (esp. coastal areas)
Radon (radioactive decay of uranium in rocks – esp. granite
and shale)
Groundwater: A Music Video…
 The Story of Groundwater!
 http://www.groundwater.org/kc/groundwater_anima
tion.html
Protection of Groundwater…
1.
2.
3.
Identify and eliminate pollution sources.
Monitor pollution.
Pump groundwater to surface and treat it.
Lesson 8
Use, Abuse, and Conservation of Water Resources
Water Use:
The Importance of Water
1.
Four important uses of freshwater…
Agriculture, transportation, recreation, drinking!
2.
Water is indispensable for life on Earth because…
1.
2.
3.
4.
It exists as a liquid
It stores a lot of heat
It is the universal solvent
Solid water expands
The Importance of Water…
3.
Eastern states get the most
precipitation.
a. Eastern states - cooling,
b.
4.
energy production, and
manufacturing.
Western states - irrigation
Withdrawal rates of freshwater are
increasing each year because…
…our population is growing!
Western states use more water for growing
their crops…
Use of Water in the USA…
http://fracfocus.org/sites/default/files/water-use-pie-chart.jpg
Managing Freshwater
Resources
1.
Dams are built to…
…control flooding
downstream and to
manage freshwater
resources
2. In the USA, 23% of all
freshwater is obtained
from…
… aquifers (groundwater)
… Florida, Hawaii, and
Nebraska depend almost
entirely on groundwater.
Managing Freshwater Resources
3.
Drawdown causes…
a. wells to go dry
b. streams to run low or go dry
c. shallow aquifers on the coast to get salty
(This is called salt water intrusion)
4.
Desalination is removing salt from seawater to make
freshwater. It is not practical due to high costs.
See next slide…
Saltwater
Intrusion…
http://www.wrd.org/engineering/images/seawater-intrusion.gif
Desalination…
http://www.tampabaywater.org/tampa-bay-seawater-desalination-plant.aspx
Water Pollution:
Types of Pollution…
1.
…
Point sources …
…have a single point
of origin (often
through a pipe)
…Three examples
include (but aren’t
limited to)…
1. sewage
2. spills
3. industry
Drainage into the
Ohio River
http://www.lakescientist.com/learn-about-lakes/water-quality/pollution.html
http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Po-Re/Pollution-Sources-Point-and-Nonpoint.html
Coal-burning Power Plant –
Jacksonville, FL
Coal ash pollution from
power plants is a primary
source of arsenic in the
water.
http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/pollution/media/pol04a_460.jpg
Water Pollution: Types of
Pollution
…
2. Nonpoint sources …
… come from widely spread areas & can’t be identified
& cleaned up easily.
… Two examples include (but aren’t limited to)…
1. pesticides and fertilizers from farms and yards
2. oil and gasoline from parking lots
3. Clean up!
 Surface water is more easily polluted than
groundwater but easier to clean up.
http://www2.epa.gov/cleanups
Reducing Water Pollution…
1.
The Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) was designed to …
… ensure our citizens have safe drinking water
… NO! Our water does not always meet these standards.
2.
The Clean Water Act (1972) was created to…
a.
b.
eliminate sources of water pollution
restore water quality (which it has done!)
Water Conservation
1. Community Water Conservation…
a. Farmers can use irrigation
techniques like trickle irrigation to
save water.
http://www.tricklering.com/
b. Industries can use recycled or gray
water to save water.
2. Personal Conservation: How can you and I conserve
water in our homes and yards?
Lesson 7 Video Clip…
 The Cycle of Insanity: The Real Story of Water
Surfrider.org
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=espNKMCZ1kU
Webquest: Next Slide 
Yadkin Riverkeeper Website…
 The Yadkin Riverkeeper organization is a member of
the international Waterkeeper organization. This
alliance includes baykeepers, deltakeepers,
riverkeepers, lakekeepers, etc.
 http://www.yadkinriverkeeper.org/content/videomessages
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