BIO AKHIR TAHUN 2015

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1
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BIOLOGI
MAC
2017
1 Jam
SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN AGAMA WATANIAH
PEPERIKSAAN AWAL TAHUN
TINGKATAN 4 2017
BIOLOGI
Satu jam
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA DIBERITAHU
1.
Kertas soalan ini mengandungi 20 soalan soalan objektif dan 2 soalan struktur.
Jawab semua soalan.
2.
Jawab dengan menghitamkan satu ruangan sahaja bagi setiap soalan dalam
kertas jawapan objektif.
3.
Kertas soalan ini adalah dalam bahasa melayu.
4.
5.
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Rajah yang mengiringi soalan dimaksudkan untuk memberi maklumat yang
berguna bagi menjawab soalan. Rajah tidak dilukis mengikut skala kecuali
dinyatakan sebaliknya.
Penggunaan kalkulator saintifik yang tidak boleh diprogramkan adalah
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dibenarkan.
______________________________________________________________________
Kertas soalan ini mengandungi 12 halaman bercetak termasuk kulit.
Disediakan oleh
Disemak oleh
Disahkan oleh
Zuhazaid Tuan Harith
En. Zulkifli Abdullah
Hj. Abdul Rahman Mahmood
1.
Maklumat berikut berkaitan suatu organel dalam sel tumbuhan.
Guru Biologi
KB Sains & Matematik
Pengetua
Kantung bermembran yang membentuk sebahagian besar sel matang.
mengandungi air, makanan, garam dan bahan kumuh.
Bahagian manakah yang berlabel, A, B, C dan D yang merupakan organel ini?
A
B
C
D
2.
Rajah menunjukkan suatu organel.
Apakah proses yang berlaku dalam organel ini?
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A
Osmosis
B
Resapan
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C
D
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Respirasi
Fotosintesis
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3.
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Rajah menunjukkan sejenis tisu dalam haiwan.
Apakah nama tisu tersebut?
4.
A
Tisu epitelium
B
Tisu penghubung
C
Tisu otot licin
D
Tisu otot rangka
Rajah menunjukkan satu proses oleh Amoeba sp.
Organel manakah yang TIDAK terlibat dalam proses di atas?
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A
Lisosom
B
Vakuol makanan
C
Pseudopodium
D
Vakuol mengecut
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5.
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Jadual menunjukkan ciri tisu tumbuhan X.

Terdiri daripada sel rakan

Mengandungi tiub tapis
Namakan proses yang berlaku dalam tisu X?
A
Penyerapan
B
Pembiakan
C Transpirasi
D Translokasi
6. Rajah menunjukkan struktur membran plasma.
X
Y
Bahagian berlabel X dan Y adalah
X
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Y
A
Protein Liang
Protein Liang
B
Protein Pembawa
Protein Pembawa
C
Protein Pembawa
Protein Liang
D
Protein Liang
Protein Pembawa
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7. Rajah menunjukkan sejenis proses pengangkutan dalam Pam Natrium-Kalium
dalam sel.
Apakah yang terlibat dalam proses tersebut?
A
Osmosis
B
Resapan
C
Plasmolisis
D
Pengangkutan aktif
8. Maklumat merujuk kepada keadaan sel darah merah apabila direndam dalam
suatu larutan.

Sel mengecut

Membran plasma menjadi berkedut
Apakah proses yang dialami oleh sel tersebut?
A
Krenasi
B
Hemolisis
C
Plasmolisis
D
Deplasmolisis
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9. Proses manakah yang tidak menggunakan tenaga daripada proses respirasi
sel?
A
Penghantaran impuls saraf
B
Pengangkutan aktif glukosa dalam vlius
C
Pembentukan gamet di gonad
D
Resapan oksigen merentasi permukaan alveolus
10. Apakah proses yang berlaku dalam sel rambut akar tumbuhan dalam keadaan
ketiadaan oksigen?
A Pengangkutan aktif dan osmosis
B Pengangkutan aktif dan resapan
C Pengangkutan aktif
D Resapan
11 . Sel bawang berikut direndam dalam empat larutan berbeza kepekatan.
Sel manakah yang direndam dalam larutan hipotonik?
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A
C
B
D
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12. Graf menunjukkan perubahan panjang jalur ubi kentang dalam larutan berbeza.
Panjang jalur ubi
kentang /cm
A
B
C
D
Masa / min
Lengkung manakah A, B, C dan D menunjukkan perubahan panjang ubi kentang
di dalam air suling?
13. Yang manakah menunjukkan struktur polisakarida?
A
B
C
D
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14.
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Berapa banyak unit asas yang membentuk struktur DNA dalam rajah di bawah? .
A.
3
B.
6
C.
9
D.
18
15. Rajah menunjukkan tindakan suatu enzim ke atas sukrosa.
Q
R
P
Apakah P, Q dan R?
P
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Q
R
A
Lactase
Glucose
Lactose
B
Sucrase
Glucose
Fructose
C
Sucrase
Lactose
Fructose
D
Lactase
Galactose
Lactose
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16. Rajah menunjukkan satu struktur protein.
Apakah yang terbentuk daripada struktur di atas?
A. Enzim
B. Hormon
C. Antibodi
D. Haemoglobin
17. Yang manakah menunjukkan kesan pH ke atas aktiviti enzim pepsin?
A.
B.
Kadar
tindakbalas
Kadar
tindakbalas
0
C.
14
pH
0
7
14
pH
D.
Kadar
tindakbalas
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7
Kadar
tindakbalas
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0
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7
14 pH
0
7
14
pH
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18. Rajah menunjukkan kitar sel suatu organisma.
Interfasa
X
Yang manakah merupakan urutan yang betul bagi proses X?
A. Telofasa
Anafasa
Metafasa
Profasa
B. Anafasa
Metafasa
Profasa
Telofasa
C. Profasa
Metafasa
Anafasa
Telofasa
D. Profasa
Anafasa
Metafasa
Telofasa
19. Bilangan kromosom dalam sel kulit seekor kucing adalah 24
Berapakah bilangan kromosom dalam sel ovum kucing tersebut?
A
12
B
24
C
36
D
48
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20.
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Rajah menunjukkan satu sel organisma yang sedang menjalani pembahagian sel.
Apakah fasa yang ditunjukkan oleh sel tersebut?
A. Prophase I
B. Prophase II
B. Metaphase I
D. Metaphase II
21.
Rajah menunjukkan beberapa peringkat dalam mitosis.
Y
Bagaimanakah perlakuan kromosom pada peringkat Y.
A. Kromosom menebal dan memendek
B. Kromosom tersusun pada satah khatulistiwa
C. Kromosom homolog berpasangan dan pindah silang berlaku
D. Kromosom homolog berpisah dan bergerak ke kutub bertentangan.
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22. Yang manakah menunjukkan perlakuan kromosom semasa meiosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
23. Yang mana merupakan organisma autotrof?
A. O r g a n i s m a parasit
B. O r g a n i s m a h olofit
C. Organisma saprofit
D. Organisma kemosintesis
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24. Maklumat merupakan ciri suatu bahan.
o melindungi daripada kecederaan fizikal
o memberi tenaga untuk menjalankan aktiviti
o sebagai penebat haba
o membentuk hormon seks
Namakan bahan yang mempunyai ciri di atas.
A.
Karbohidrat
B.
Protein
C.
Air
D.
Lipid
25. Rajah menunjukkan keratan rentas vilus manusia.
S
Bahan manakah yang didapati di dalam S?
A. Vitamin A
B. Vitamin D
C. Asid Amino
D. Titisan kecil lemak
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26. Yang manakah benar tentang tindakbalas cahaya dan tindakbalas gelap?
Tindakbalas Cahaya
Tindakbalas Gelap
A.
Berlaku di dalam stroma
Berlaku di dalam grana
B.
Menggunakan ATP dan Hidrogen
Menghasilkan ATP dan Hidrogen
C.
Tiada penurunan karnon dioksida
Berlaku penurunan karbon dioksida
D.
Tidak menghasilkan Oksigen
Menghasilkan Oksigen
27. Graf menunjukkan kadar fotosintesis melawan keamatan cahaya.
●
Kadar
Fotosintesis
●
Y
0∙06 % CO2
●
X
0∙02 % CO2
Keamatan Cahaya
Kadar fotosintesis meningkat daripada X kepada Y. Apakah faktor penghad
yang diatasi?
A.
Keamatan cahaya
B. Kepekatan Karbon Dioksida
C. Suhu
D. Air
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28. Apabila 0.4 g kacang tanah terbakar sepenuhnya, suhu 20 ml air meningkat dari
30°C kepada 70°C. ( Muatan haba tentu air ialah 4.2 Jg °C )
Kirakan tenaga yang terkandung di dalam kacang tanah.
A 1.4 kJg−¹
B
3.4 kJg−¹
C. 8.4 kJg−¹
D. 76.2 kJg−¹
29. Satu sampel makanan diuji untuk menentukan kandungannya.
Jadual di bawah menunjukkan hasil kajian.
Ujian Makanan
Ditambah dengan Larutan Benedict dan dipanaskan
Keputusan
Mendakan merah bata
Ditambah dengan iodin
Warna perang
Ditambah dengan Reagen Millon dan dipanaskan dalam
kukus air
Mendakan merah
Apakah kelas makanan yang didapati dalam sampel makanan tersebut?
A
Kanji dan protein
B
Lipid dan protein
C
Gula penurun sahaja
D
Protein dan gula penurun
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30. Organ P merupakan sebahagian dari sistem pencernaan manusia.
Organ P
Apabila bayi meminum susu, apakan yang terjadi kepada protein susu di
dalam organ P?
A.
Protein dicernakan oleh pepsin kepada asid amino
B.
Polipeptida dihidrolisis oleh tripsin kepada dipeptida
C.
Kaseinogen dikentalkan kepada kasein oleh renin
D.
Kasein ditukarkan kepada kaseinogen oleh asid hidroklorik
31. Rajah menunjukkan struktur respirasi suatu organisma
Organisma manakah yang mempunyai struktur di atas?.
A
B
C
D
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Ikan
Buaya
Belalang
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32. Rajah menunjukkan struktur alveolus.
P
Proses manakah yang berlaku antara alveolus dan struktur P semasa
pertukaran gas?
A.
Osmosis
B.
Resapan ringkas
C.
Pengangkutan aktif
D.
Resapan berbantu
33. Struktur manakan yang terlibat dalam pertukaran gas oleh Paramesium sp?.
A.
Sitoplasma
B.
Vakuol makanan
C.
Vakuol mengecut
D.
Membran plasma
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34. Persamaan di bawah menunjukkan suatu proses yang berlaku di dalam yis.
Glukosa
S + Tenaga + Karbon dioksida
Apakah S?.
A. Air
B. Ethanol
C. Oksigen
D. Asid laktik
35. Rajah menunjukkan model sangkar rusuk.
Vertebra
R
Yang manakah diwakili oleh P, Q dan R?
P
A
B
C
D
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Sternum
Otot interkosta
Sternum
Otot interkosta
Q
Tulang rusuk
Sternum
Otot interkosta
Tulang rusuk
R
Otot interkosta
Tulang rusuk
Tulang rusuk
Sternum
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36. Rajah menunjukkan sistem respirasi manusia.
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R
Apakah yang berlaku kepada struktur R semasa menghembus nafas?
A. Mengendur dan menjadi rata
B. Mengecut dan menjadi rata
C. Mengendur dan berbentuk kubah
D. Mengecut dan berbentuk kubah
37.
Maklumat menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk menentukan kandungan
oksigen di dalam udara hembusan menggunakan tiub-J
.
Panjang asal udara hembusan
= 10.0 cm
Panjang udara hembusan selepas dirawat =
dengan Kalium Hidroksida
Panjang udara hembusan selepas dirawat =
dengan Kalium Pirogalol
9.6 cm
8.5 cm
Peratus oksigen dalam udara hembusan adalah
A.
4.0 %
B. 11.0 %
C. 16.0 %
D. 21.0 %
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38.
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Rajah menunjukkan proses pertukaran gas di dalam peparu manusia.
T
Kapilari
darah
Alveolus
S
R
Yang manakah benar tentang salur darah R, S dan T?
R
S
T
A
Mengandungi darah
beroksigen
Membenarkan
oksigen meresap
ke alveolus
Mengandungi darah
terdeoksigen
B
Mengandungi darah
beroksigen
Membenarkan karbon
dioksida meresap ke
alveolus
Mengandungi darah
terdeoksigen
C
Mengandungi darah
terdeoksigen
Membenarkan karbon
dioksida meresap ke
dalam kapilari darah
Mengandungi darah
beroksigen
Mengandungi darah
terdeoksigen
Membenarkan
oksigen meresap
ke dalam kapilari
darah
Mengandungi darah
beroksigen
D
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39.
Rajah menunjukkan siratan makanan dan piramid nombor dalam suatu
ekosistem.
tumbuhan
M
lebah
tikus
arnab
L
K
cicak
ular
J
helang
Yang manakah K?
A. Ular
B. Lebah
C. Helang
D. Tumbuhan
40. Rajah menunjukkan perubahan saiz populasi dua organisma di dalam sebuah adang
kelapa sawit. Kedua-dua organisma saling bergantung di dalam rantai makanan.
Populasi
X
Y
Masa / Tahun
Namakan jenis interaksi tersebut
A. Mutualisme
B. Parasitisme
C. Mangsa-Pemangsa
D. Komensalisme
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41. Rajah menunjukkan interaksi di antara dua spesis organisma.
P
Q
Yang manakah menerangkan kesan interaksi tersebut kepada P dan Q?
Species P
Species Q
A
Untung
Untung
B
Rugi
Rugi
C
Tiada Kesan
Rugi
D
Untung
Tiada Kesan
42.
Seorang pegawai dari Jabatan Hutan ingin menentukan taburan pohon Cengal di
dalam Hutan Simpan Belum.
Teknik manakah yang paling sesuai digunakan ?
A. Membilang terus
B. Kuadrat 1m X 1m
C. Kuadrat 10m X 10 m
D. Tangkap, Tanda, Lepas dan Tangkap Semula
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43. Rajah (a) menunjukkan profil paya bakau manakala rajah (b) menunjukkan tiga
jenis akar pokok yang didapati di kawasan paya bakau.
P
Rajah (a)
Rajah (b)
Akar bakau yang manakah didapati di kawasan P?
A. X
B. Y
C. Z
D. X dan Y
44.
Penicillin merupakan antibiotik yang pertama ditemui.
Mikroorganisma manakah yang menghasilkan penicillin?
A. Virus
B. Fungi
C. Bacteria
D. Protozoa
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45. Rajah menunjukkan akar pokok kekacang.
Nodul akar
Apakah peranan bakteria yang terdapat di dalam nodul akar pokok
kekacang dalam kitar nitrogen?
A. Pengikatan nitrogen
B. Pereputan
C. Pendenitritan
C. Penitritan
46.
Maklumat berikut adalah berkaitan satu proses yang berlaku di dalam ekosistem.

Fosfat melarut resap ke dalam sungai

Pertumbuhan cepat organisma autotrof
Proses tersebut adalah
A. pengkolonian
B. persaingan
C. eutrofikasi
D. pemfosforilatan
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47.
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Rajah menunjukkan satu aktiviti manusia yang mengancam ekosistem.
Yang manakah merupakan kesan aktiviti tersebut ?
A. Pengurangan nilai BOD sungai.
B. Menambahkan habitat fauna.
C. Mengurangkan suhu di kutub.
D. Meningkatkan aras karbon dioksida di atmosfera.
48.
Apakah kesan jerebu kepada tumbuhan?
A. Mengurangkan pengangkutan air.
B. Memusnahkan klorofil pada daun.
C. Mengurangkan keamatan cahaya yang diterima oleh daun.
D. Memusnahkan lapisan mesofil palisad di dalam daun.
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49.
50.
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Yang mana merupak sumber tidak diperbaharui?
I
Bijih besi
II
Balak
III
Petroleum
IV
Bijih timah
A
I dan III sahaja
B
II dan IV sahaja
C
I, III dan IV sahaja
D
I, II, III dan IV
Penyakit manakah menjadi lebih buruk dengan pencemaran udara?
I
Asthma
II
Skurvi
III
Pellagra
IV Bronkitis
A.
I dan III
B.
I dan IV
C. II dan III
D. I, III dan IV
END OF THE QUESTIONS
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Biologi
Oktober
2008
2½ jam
Nama ...................................................... Tingkatan ....................
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BAHAGIAN PENGURUSAN SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH
DAN SEKOLAH KLUSTER
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
PEPERIKSAAN DIAGNOSTIK TAHUN 2008
TINGKATAN EMPAT
BIOLOGI
Kertas 2
Dua jam tiga puluh minit
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA DIBERITAHU
1. Kertas soalan ini adalah dalam Bahasa Inggeris.
2. Calon dikehendaki membaca maklumat di bawah.
Untuk Kegunaan Pemeriksa
Bahagian
Soalan
Markah
Penuh
1
12
2
12
3
12
4
12
5
12
6
20
7
20
8
20
9
20
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
1. This question paper consists of two sections :
Section A and Section B.
2. Answer all questions in Section A. Write your
answers for Section A clearly in the spaces provided
in the question paper.
3. Answer any two questions from Section B. Write your
answer for Section B on the lined paper in detail. You
may use equations, diagrams, tables, graphs and
other suitable methods to explain your answer.
4. Show your working, it may help you to get marks.
5. If you wish to cancel any answer, neatly cross out the
answer.
6. The diagrams in the questions are not drawn to scale
unless stated.
7. The mark allocated for each question or part of
question is shown in brackets.
8. The time suggested to complete Section A is 90
minutes, and Section B is 60 minutes.
9. You may use a non-programmable scientific calculator
10. Hand in this question paper at the end of the
examination.
A
Markah
B
Jumlah
Kertas soalan ini mengandungi 15 halaman bercetak.
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[Lihat sebelah
SMS MUZAFFAR SYAH , MELAKA
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Section A
[ 60 marks ] Answer all
questions
1.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan organisasi sel tumbuhan. Sel J mengalami pembezaan dan
pengkhususan sel untuk membentuk beberapa tisu di dalam daun.
Sel J
Pengkhususan sel
K
L
Keratan
rentas
daun
Xilem
M
RAJAH 1
(a)
Namakan tisu K dan L
K : ..………………………………………………………………………………
1(a)
L: …………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]
(b)
Nyatakan fungsi sel K dan M di dalam daun.
K : ..………………………………………………………………………………
M: ……………...…………………………………………………………………
1(b)
[2 marks]
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(c) (i) Terangkan proses pembezaan Sel J untuk membentuk tisu Xilem.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
1(c)(i)
……………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]
(ii) Semasa pembentukan tisu xilem, tumbuhan tersebut tidak dapat
mensintesis lignin.
Terangkan kesan terhadap fungsi daun.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
1(c)(ii)
[2 marks]
(d)
Berdasarkan Rajah 1, nyatakan definisi bagi pengkhususan sel.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
1(d)
[2 marks]
(e)
Daun merupakan organ fotosintesis utama bagi tumbuhan.
Terangkan penyesuaian tisu L bagi membolehkan daun menjalankan
fungsinya dengan cekap.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
1(e)
[3 marks]
TOTAL
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2.
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Rajah 2.1 proses sintesis dan rembesan enzim di dalam sel haiwan.
R
P
Q
S
RAJAH 2.1
(a)
Namakan bahagian berlabel P dan R.
P : ..………………………………………………………………………………
R: ……………...…………………………………………………………………
2(a)
[2 marks]
(b)
Nyatakan fungsi organel S.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
2(b)
[1 mark]
(c)
Terangkan peranan organel Q dalam mensintesis enzim.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
2(c)
[2 marks]
Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan struktur enzim dan tiga substrat W, X dan
Y.
Enzim
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W
X
Y
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RAJAH 2.2
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(d) (i) Berdasarkan Rajah 2.2, pilih substrat yang betul dan lengkapkan rajah
skemauntuk menunjukkan mekas=nisma tindakan enzim ke atas substrat
+
Enzim + Substrat
Kompleks Enzim–Substrat
+
2(d)(i)
Enzim + Hasil
[2 marks]
(ii) Nyatakan dua ciri enzim berdasarkan jawapan di (d)(i).
1 : ..………………………………………………………………………………
2: ……………...…………………………………………………………………
2(d)(ii)
[2 marks]
(e)
Seorang kanak-kanak mengalami demam dengan suhu 41ºC.
Terangkan kesan terhadap proses pencernaan di dalam sistem
pencernaannya.
2(e)
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
TOTAL
……………………………………………………………………………………
[3 marks]
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3. Rajah 3 menunjukkan fasa dalam pembahagian Sel X. Setiap fasa tidak disusun
dalam urutan yang betul
.
P
Q
S
R
T
U
RAJAH 3
(a) (i) Namakan jenis pembahagian sel.
……………………………………………………………………………………
3(a)(i)
[1 mark]
(ii) Nyatakan organ di mana pembahagian sel ini berlaku..
……………………………………………………………………………………
3(a)(ii)
[1 mark]
(b)
Nyatakan bilangan kromosom sel X semasa Fasa P dan Fasa U.
P: …….………………………
U: …….………………………
3(b)
[2 marks]
(c) (i) Namakan setiap fasa di dalam Jadual 1
Fasa
Nama Fasa
P
Q
R
S
T
U
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3(c)(i)
JADUAL 1
[3 marks]
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(ii) Namakan fasa yang menghasilkan variasi kepada organisma.
Terangkan jawapan anda.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
3(c)(ii)
……………………………………………………………………………………
[3 marks]
(d))
SelX is dirawat dengan sejenis bahan kimia yang merencatkan
pergerakan sentriol.
Terangkan kesan kepada perlakuan kromosom pada peringkat P.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
3(d)
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
TOTAL
[2 marks]
4.
Rajah 4 menunjukkan sistem pencernaan manusia.
P
Q
R
RAJAH 4
(a) (i) Namakan organ Q.
……………………………………………………………………………………
4(a)(i)
[1 mark]
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(ii) Terangkan proses pencernaan makanan di Q.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
4(a)(ii)
……………………………………………………………………………………
[3 marks]
(b)
Nyatakan dua kesan sekiranya kelenjar di Q gagal menghasilkan Asid
Hidroklorik
1 : ..………………………………………………………………………………
4(b)
2: ……………...…………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]
(c)
Terangkan satu perbezaan antara makanan yang memasuki P dan R.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
4(c)
[2 marks]
(d) (i) Terangkan penyerapan protein di R.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
4(d)(i)
……………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]
(ii) Terangkan kepentingan pencernaan makanan yang membolehkan
nutrien diserap oleh vilus.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
4(d)(ii)
[2 marks]
TOTAL
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5.
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Rajah 5 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada kitar nitrogen.
Nitrogen di
atmosfera
Pengikatan
oleh
bakteria
pengikat
nitrogen di
dalam
nodul akar
kekacang
Organisma
mati dan
bahan
kumuh
Proses X
Ammonium
Penyerapan
Nitrites NO2
Sebatian Y
RAJAH 5
(a)
Name process X and compound Y.
Process X: ………………………………………………………………………
Compound Y: …………………………………………………………………..
5(a)
[2 marks]
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(b) (i) Plants will convert compound Y into an organic compound.
Name the organic compound.
……………………………………………………………………………………
5(b)(i)
[1 mark]
(ii) Describe the functions of the organic compound named in (b)(i) in plants.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
5(b)(ii)
[2 marks]
(c) (i) Name the bacteria involve in the fixation of nitrogen in nodules of a
leguminous plant.
5(c)(i)
……………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(ii) The microorganism name in d (i) interacts with the leguminous plant.
Name and explain the type of relationship between the two species.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
5(c)(ii)
……………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]
(d)
Relate the importance of nitrogen cycle in the growth of rabbits.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
5(d)
……………………………………………………………………………………
[3 marks]
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Section B
[ 40 marks ]
Answer any two questions from this section.
6. (a) State two differences between passive transport and active transport.
[2 marks]
(b)
Red blood cells
in 3% sodium
chloride solution
after 30 minutes
Red blood cells
in 0.1% sodium
chloride solution
after 30 minutes
DIAGRAM 6.1
Diagram 6.1 shows a red blood cell immersed in different salt solutions.
Explain what happen to the red blood cell after being immersed in 3% of sodium
chloride solution and 0.1% of sodium chloride solution for half an hour.
[8 marks]
(c) Diagram 6.2 shows the appearance of the plants cell which is immersed in different
concentration of sucrose solution one after another.
Plant cell in 17% of
sucrose solution
for 30 minutes
Plant cell in 0.1%
of sucrose solution
for 30 minutes
Plant cell in 30% of
sucrose solution
for 30 minutes
Plant cell in 0.1%
of sucrose solution
for 30 minutes
DIAGRAM 6.2
Based on Diagram 6.2, describe what happen to the cell in each concentration of
sucrose solution.
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7. Diagram 7.1 shows a respiratory structure of an insect.
P
tracheol
body cell
DIAGRAM 7.1
(a) (i) Explain the gases exchange between tracheol and body cell.
[4 marks]
(ii) Chitin is a polysaccharide on the outer surface of structure P. Due to the change
in the environment, the insect is unable to form the polysaccharide.
Explain how the absence of chitin affects inhalation and the energy production.
[6 marks]
(b) Diagram 7.2 shows the rate of oxygen intake before, during and after a vigorous
exercise of an athlete.
Oxygen intake
(litre/minute)
Vigorous exercise
Time (min)
DIAGRAM 7.2
(i) Based on the graph, compare the respiration before and during the vigorous
exercise.
(ii) Explain how the oxygen intake by the athlete returns to the normal level at the
25th minute.
[10 marks]
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8. (a) Diagram 8.1 shows the daily menu of a pregnant woman.
Breakfast
A plate of fried rice
A can of carbonated drink
An apple
Lunch
A bowl of chicken rice complete with a
piece of roasted drumstick and a bowl
of chicken soup
A plate of fried prawn
A glass of sweetened fruit juice
Dinner
A plate of fried noodle
2 slices of cucumber
A cup of coffee
DIAGRAM 8.1
Does the menu provide a balanced diet for the pregnant woman?
Evaluate the nutrients content and the effects of consuming the foods. .
[10 marks]
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(b) Diagram 8.2 shows a schematic diagram of the photosynthesis process.
chlorophyll
C6H12O6
CO2
O2
H2O
DIAGRAM 8.2
Based on Diagram 8.2,
(i) write the chemical equation of photosynthesis.
(ii) define photosynthesis.
[4 marks]
(c) Diagram 8.3 shows organisms in a pond ecosystem
lotus
Elodea sp
Hydrilla sp
DIAGRAM 8.3
Based on Diagram 8.3, describe how Hydrilla sp is able to obtain all the requirement
for photosynthesis.
[6 marks]
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9. (a)
The use of fertiliser increases the amount of phosphate and nitrate in the soil.
This enhances the growth of plants. There are two main types of fertilizers, which
are organic and inorganic fertilisers. Farmers are advised to use organic
fertilizers rather than the inorganic fertilizers. The organic fertilizers release the
nutrients gradually into the soil and this will reduce the amount of nutrients
entering the water system.
Based on the statement, explain how the use of excessive inorganic fertilizers in a
long period of time reduces the population of aquatic organisms.
[10 marks]
(b) Diagram 9 shows a tree grown wildly in an agricultural area.
Bird`s nest
Insects
Roots
Soil
DIAGRAM 9
A farmer plans to cut down the tree to grow vegetables.
Discuss the good and bad effects of this action on human and the ecosystem.
[10 marks]
END OF QUESTION PAPER
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Biologi
Oktober
2008
2½ jam
Nama ...................................................... Tingkatan ....................
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BAHAGIAN PENGURUSAN SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH
DAN SEKOLAH KLUSTER
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
PEPERIKSAAN DIAGNOSTIK TAHUN 2008
TINGKATAN EMPAT
BIOLOGI
Kertas 3
Satu jam tiga puluh minit
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA DIBERITAHU
1. Kertas soalan ini adalah dalam Bahasa Inggeris.
2. Calon dikehendaki membaca maklumat di bawah.
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
1. This question paper consists of two questions. Answer all the
questions.
2. Write your answers for Question 1 in the spaces provided in
the question paper
3. Write your answers for Question 2 on the lined pages at the
end of the question paper in detail. You may use equations,
diagrams, tables, graph and other suitable methods to explain
your answer.
4. Show your working, it may help you to get marks.
5. If you wish to cancel any answer, neatly cross out the answer.
6. The diagrams in the questions are not drawn to scale unless
stated.
7. Marks allocated for each question or part question are shown
in brackets
8. The time suggested to complete Question 1 is 45 minutes
and Question 2 is 45 minutes
9. You may use a non-programmable scientific calculator
10. Hand in this question paper at the end of the examination.
Marks awarded:
Score
3
2
1
0
Description
Excellent: The best response
Satisfactory: An average response
Week: An inaccurate response
No response or wrong response
Untuk Kegunaan
Pemeriksa
Soalan
Markah
penuh
1
33
2
17
Markah
JUMLAH
Kertas soalan ini mengandungi 6 halaman bercetak.
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Answer all questions.
Question 1
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical that bubbles when it reacts with a catalase enzyme. Catalase
enzyme is an antioxidant enzyme in living cells. Hydrogen peroxide is converted into water
and oxygen by the catalase enzyme
2H2O2
2H2O + O2
An experiment is carried out to investigate the effect of pH on catalase enzyme in potatoes.
Bubbling of gases is used to indicate that a reaction is occurring. The rate of reaction is
determined by measuring the volume of bubbles produced in a unit time. The experiment is
conducted as followed:
1.
Three measuring cylinders, P, Q and R are filled with 3.0 cm3 of hydrogen peroxide.
2.
6.0 cm3 of 0.1% hydrochloric acid is added to P, 6.0 cm3 of distilled water is added to Q
and 6.0 cm3 of 0.1% sodium hydroxide is added to R.
3.
pH paper is used to measure the pH value of each tube.
4.
The potato is cut into three cubes, with the size of 1.0 cm3 each.
5.
One potato cube is added into each measuring cylinder.
6.
The volume of bubbles produced in each measuring cylinder is observed after
5 minutes and recorded.
7.
The results are shown in Diagram 1.
cm 3
25
Volume
of
bubbles
cm 3
25
=
Volume
of
bubbles
15
10
0.1%
hydrochloric
acid
+
1.0 cm3
potato
3.0 cm3
3.0 cm
15
hydrogen
peroxide
+
peroxide
+
6.0 cm3
5
=
3
hydrogen
5
Volume
of
bubbles
20
3.0 cm3
10
25
=
20
20
15
cm 3
6.0 cm3
distilled
water
+
1.0 cm3
potato
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hydrogen
peroxide
+
6.0 cm3
10
5
0.1%
sodium
hydroxide
+
1.0 cm3
potato
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P
pH 2
Q
pH 7
R
pH 10
DIAGRAM 1
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(a)
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For
Examiner’s
Use
List all materials and apparatus used in this experiment.
Materials
Apparatus
1(a)
[3 marks]
(b)
Record the volume of bubbles formed in each measuring cylinder after
5 minutes in Diagram 1.
1(b)
[3 marks]
(c)
(i)
State two observations made on Diagram 1.
Observation 1
………………………………………………………………………….…………
……………………………………………………………………………….……
Observation 2
………………………………………………………………………………….…
…………………………………………………………………………………….
1(c)(i)
[3 marks]
(ii)
State the inference for each observation made in (b) (i).
Inference for observation 1
………………………………………………………………………………….…
…………………………………………………………………………………….
Inference for observation 2
………………………………………………………………………………….…
…………………………………………………………………………………….
[3 marks]
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(d) (i)
Construct a table and record all the data collected in the experiment
based on the following criteria:
pH value
Volume of bubbles formed
Rate of reaction (cm3 minute-1)
1(d)(i)
[6 marks]
(ii)
Explain the relationship between the test tube content and the volume of
bubbles formed in Q.
………………………………………………………………………………….…
………………………………………………………………………………….…
…………………………………………………………………………………….
1(d)(ii)
[3 marks]
(e) (i)
State the variables and explain how the variables are operated.
Variables
Manipulated variable
How the variables are operated
……………………………
………………………………………………
……………………………
………………………………………………
Responding variable
……………………………
………………………………………………
……………………………
………………………………………………
Fixed variables
……………………………
………………………………………………
……………………………
………………………………………………
1(e)(i)
[3 marks]
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(ii)
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State the hypothesis of the experiment.
………………………………………………………………………………….…
…………………………………………………………………………………….
1(e)(ii)
[3 marks]
(f)
State the relationship between volume of bubbles formed and time in a
medium of pH 7.
………………………………………………………………………………….…
………………………………………………………………………………….…
…………………………………………………………………………………….
1(f)
[3 marks]
(g)
Based on the experiment, what is enzyme?
...……………………………………………………………………………….…
………………………………………………………………………………….…
…………………………………………………………………………………….
[3 marks]
(h)
The experiment is repeated by using 2 potato cubes sized 0.5 cm3 each.
Predict the observation in measuring cylinder R. Explain your answer.
………………………………………………………………………………….…
………………………………………………………………………………….…
…………………………………………………………………………………….
1(g)
[3 marks]
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Question 2
Acorbic acid, or vitamin C, is found in fruits and green vegetables. Ascorbic acid is a
reducing agent which decolourises the blue colour of DCPIP solution. The vitamin C in
solutions will deteriorate when exposed to oxygen.
Plan an experiment to determine the vitamin C content in orange, papaya and watermelon
juices.
Your experimental planning need to include the following aspects:
Statement of identified problem
Objective of study
Variables
Statement of hypothesis
List of materials and apparatus
Technique used
Experimental procedures
Presentation of data
Conclusion
[17 marks]
END OF QUESTION PAPER
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F4 BIOLOGY DIAGNOSTIC 2008
1
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Biologi
Oktober
2008
1¼ jam
4551
BAHAGIAN PENGURUSAN SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH
DAN SEKOLAH KLUSTER
KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
PEPERIKSAAN DIAGNOSTIK TAHUN 2008
TINGKATAN EMPAT
PERATURAN PEMARKAHAN
BIOLOGI
Kertas 1, 2 dan 3
UNTUK KEGUNAAN PEMERIKSAN SAHAJA
Peraturan pemarkahan ini mengandungi 21 halaman bercetak.
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PAPER 1
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Answer
D
D
A
D
D
C
D
A
D
D
No
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Answer
A
A
C
B
B
D
A
C
A
A
No
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Answer
B
C
D
D
C
C
B
C
D
C
No
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Answer
D
B
D
B
C
C
B
D
B
C
No
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
Answer
D
C
B
B
A
C
D
C
C
B
PAPER 2
Question 1
No
(a)
Able to state the function of cells K and M in a leaf.
Sample answer:
K: Protect the inner tissues. // Allows light to penetrate.
M: Controls the size of stoma / transpiration / gaseous exchange
// Allows gaseous exchange through the stoma.
(b)
(c) (i)
(ii)
(d)
Criteria
Able to name tissue K and tissue L.
Answer:
K: Upper epidermis (cells / tissue)
L: Palisade mesophyll (cells / tissue)
Able to explain the differentiation of cells J to form the xylem tissue.
Sample answer:
Cells J join end to end, / the wall of cells J at the joints dissolved,
to form a hollow tube / continuous tube (from root to leaves).
The wall of xylem vessel is thickened by lignin.
(Any 2)
Able to explain the effect on the function of the leaf when the plant
unable to synthesise lignin during the formation of the xylem tissue.
Sample answer:
Xylem cannot be strengthened / cannot uphold leaf.
Less sunlight received / absorbed.
Slow down the rate of photosynthesis / less glucose produced
Or
(Any 2)
Xylem vessels collapsed.
Less water supplied to leaves.
Slow down the rate of photosynthesis / less glucose produced
(Any 2)
Able to state the meaning of cell specialisation.
Sample answer:
Cells grow, change shape / differentiate.
To carry out / perform specific function.
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Marks
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
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(e)
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Able to explain the adaptation of palisade mesophyll tissue to enable
the leaf to carry out its function.
Sample answer:
Upright and closely packed.
Contains large number of chloroplast.
All cells receive maximum amount of sunlight.
// Absorb maximum amount of sunlight // energy.
1
1
1
3
TOTAL
13
Question 2
No
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d) (i)
(ii)
Criteria
Able to name the parts labelled P and R.
Answer :
P: Golgi apparatus
R: vesicle // lysosomes
1
1
2
Able to state the function of mitochondrion.
Sample answer :
Site of (cellular) respiration // To produce ATP.
1
1
Able to explain the role of nucleus in the synthesis of an enzyme.
Sample answer :
(Nucleus / DNA) carries genetic information (for protein synyhesis).
Ribosome synthesis the protein.
1
1
2
Able to complete the schematic diagram to show the mechanism of
enzyme action.
Sample answer :
Suitable substances : Y
Complete drawing
1
1
2
Able to name two characteristic of enzyme based on answer (d)(i).
Sample Answer:
The reaction of enzyme are highly specific // One enzyme only for
one substrate.
Enzyme reactions are reversible.
Enzymes are not destroyed in the reaction.
(Any 2)
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1
1
1
2
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Able to explain the effect of temperature on the digestion in the
mouth.
Sample Answer:
Reaction of enzyme decreases.
The active sites change.
Enzymes could not bind with substrates.
Digestion becomes slow.
(Any 3)
1
1
1
1
3
TOTAL
12
Question 3
No
(a) (i)
(ii)
(b)
(c) (i)
(ii)
(d)
Criteria
Able to name the type of cell division.
Answer: meiosis
1
1
Able to state an organ where meiosis takes place.
Answer: Testis // Ovary
1
1
State the number of chromosomes of cell X during phase P and
phase U.
Answer: P = 4; U = 2
1
1
2
Able to state the name of each phase of the cell division.
Answer:
Phase
Name of the phase
P
Anaphase I
Q
Metaphase I
R
Telophase I
S
Anaphase II
T
Prophase I
U
Telophase II
(6 correct=3m; 4-5 correct=2m; 2-3 correct=1m)
3
3
Able to state and explain the phase that brings about variation in
organism.
Answer: Phase T
Crossing-over occurs.
Exchange of genetic material / segment of chromatid between
members of homologous chromosomes.
Daughter cells have different gene combination.
(Any 2)
Able to explain the chromosomal behavior in stage P when Cell X is
treated with a type of chemical that retards the function of centrioles.
Sample answer:
The centrioles form spindle fibers to separate chromosomes
(during anaphase).
so the retarded centrioles will cause spindle fibres cannot be
formed.
(As a result) the chromosomes do not line up at equator //
metaphase cannot occur.
(Any 2)
Marks
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
TOTAL
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12
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Question 4
No
(a) (i)
(ii)
Criteria
Able to name organ Q.
Answer: Stomach
1
1
Able to explain the process of food digestion in the stomach.
Sample answer:
The food digested in stomach is protein.
Stomach secrete gastric juices contain pepsin.
Pepsin hydrolyses protein to polypeptide.
1
1
1
3
Able to state two effects if the gastric glands in the stomach are
unable to produce hydrochloric acid.
Sample answer:
Bacteria in the food cannot be killed.
Cannot provide acidic medium for enzyme reaction
Pepsin inactive, so proteins are unable to be hydrolysed.
Renin is inactive, so protein in milk cannot be coagulated
// caseinogen unable to be transform into insoluble casein.
(Any 2)
(b)
Able to explain one difference between the foods that enters P
(oesophagus) and R (ileum).
Sample answer:
The food in R has less content of starch / protein / lipid (than in P).
// The food in R has higher content of glucose / amino acid / fatty
acid and glycerol (than in P).
Starch is broken down / hydrolysed into maltose by amylase / into
glucose by maltase / sucrase / lactase.
// Protein is broken down / hydrolysed into polypeptides / peptones
by pepsin / into peptides by trypsin / into amino acid by protease /
erepsin. // Lipid is broken down / hydrolysed into fatty acids and
glycerols by lipase.
(c)
(d) (i)
(ii)
Marks
Able to explain the absorption of proteins in the ileum.
Sample answer:
Amino acids are absorbed (by the villi).
by facilitated diffusion into blood capillaries.
// The remaining amino acids is absorbed by active transport.
Able to explain the importance of food digestion which enables
nutrients to be absorbed by the villi.
Sample answer:
Complex food material is digested into simpler form. // Protein is
hydrolysed / broken down into amino acids // Other examples.
Simpler molecules / amino acids / other examples are able to pass
through the plasma membrane of the villi.
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
TOTAL
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12
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Question 5
No
(a)
(b) (i)
(ii)
(c) (i)
(ii)
(d)
Criteria
Able to name process X and compound Y.
Answer:
Process X : Decomposition / decaying
Process Y : Nitrates
Marks
1
1
2
Able to Name the organic compound in plants.
Answer: Amino acids / protein
1
1
Able to describe the functions of the amino acids / protein in plants.
Sample answer:
Growth / build new cells / tissue repairs in plants.
Forms nucleic acid / chlorophyll / photosynthetic and respiration
enzyme / other examples.
Able to name the bacteria involved in the fixation of nitrogen in
nodules of a leguminous plant.
Answer: Rhizobium sp.
Able to name and explain the relationship between Rhizobium sp.
and the leguminous plant.
Sample answer:
Mutualism
Relationship / interaction between two spesies of organism which
live closely together and give benefit to both.
Able to relate the importance of nitrogen cycle in the growth of
rabbits.
Sample answer:
Provides nitrate / nitrogen (elements / compound)
Absorb by the plant to synthesise protein.
(When the rabbit eats the plant) the protein is transferred to the
rabbit to be used for producing plasma membrane / enzyme /
hormones / growth / build new cells / tissue repairs.
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
TOTAL
11
Question 6
No
(a)
Criteria
Able to state two differences between passive transport and active
transport.
Answer:
Passive transport
Active transport
Does not require energy
Require energy
Occurs down the
concentration gradient
Occurs against the
concentration gradient
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1
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(b)
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Able to explain what happen to the red blood cell after being
immersed in 3% of sodium chloride solution and 0.1% of sodium
chloride solution for half an hour.
Sample answer:
Red blood cell in 3% of sodium chloride solution:
3% sodium chloride solution is a hypertonic solution compare to
the cell.
Water diffuses out from the cell / red blood cell by osmosis.
The cell becomes flaccid / shrunken.
This is known as crenation.
Red blood cell in 0.1% of sodium chloride solution:
0.1% sodium chloride solution is a hypotonic solution compare to
the cell.
Water diffuses into the cell/ red blood cell by osmosis.
The cell becomes swollen and burst.
This is known as haemolysis
(c)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
8
Able to describe what happen to the cell in each concentration of
sucrose solution.
Sample answer:
Plant cell in 17% of sucrose solution for 30 minutes:
The plant cell maintain its shape size
17% sucrose solution is isotonic to the concentration of the cell sap
in the plant cell
The rates of movement of water molecule in and out of the cell sap
in the plant cell
The size of the plant cell is maintained.
(Any 3)
Plant cell in 0.1% of sucrose solution for 30 minutes:
0.1% sucrose solution is hypotonic to the concentration of cell sap
of the plant cell
As a result, water molecules diffuse into the cell by osmosis
The vacuoles will expand, causing a pressure to be exerted on the
cell wall
The pressure causes the plant cell expands and become turgid.
(Any 3)
Plant cell in 30% of sucrose solution for 30 minutes:
30% sucrose solution is hypertonic to the concentration of cell sap
in the plant cell
As a result, water molecules diffuse out of the plant cell by osmosis
The vacuole becomes smaller, plasma membrane is pulled away
from the cell wall
The plant cell is plasmolysed and becomes flaccid.
(Any 3)
Plant cell in 0.1% of sucrose solution for 30 minutes:
0.1% sucrose solution is hypotonic to the concentration of cell sap
As a result, water molecules diffuse in the plant cell by osmosis
The cell undergoes deplasmolysis
The cell return to its normal condition.
(Any 3)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Max
10
TOTAL
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Question 7
No
(a) (i)
(ii)
b (i)
Criteria
Able to explain the exchange of gases between tracheole and body
cell.
Sample answer:
Partial pressure/concentration of oxygen in the tracheole is higher
than partial pressure/concentration of oxygen in body cell .
Oxygen diffuse from tracheole to body cell
Partial pressure/concentration of carbon dioxide in the body cell is
higher than partial pressure/concentration of carbon dioxide in
tracheole .
Carbon dioxide diffuse from tracheole to body cell
Able to explain how the absent of chitin affect the process of
inhalation and energy production of the insect.
Sample answer:
The function of chitin is to prevent trachea from collapsing/sustain
the air pressure
During inhalation high pressure air moves into the trachea.
The absent of chitin will cause the trachea / P to collapse / burst /
rupture.
Air with oxygen cannot reach tracheal.
Body cell cannot get enough oxygen for cellular respiration
The insect does not produce enough energy and
respire anaerobically.
Less energy produced.
(Any 6)
Marks
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Able to compare and explain the respiration before and during
vigorous exercise.
Sample answer:
Before (A)
Aerobic
Respiration
During (B)
Anaerobic
Respiration
2
.
The
muscles are
in normal
condition
The muscles
are in the state
of oxygen debt
3
.
Energy
produced is
more/38
ATP
Energy
produced is
less / 2 ATP
1
.
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Explanation (E)
Before - oxygen intake
is low/the same as
oxygen
required/enough oxygen
is supplied to the cell
During – oxygen
required is more than
oxygen intake
Before – oxygen is
sufficient
During – oxygen is
insufficient / oxygen
supplied is less than
oxygen supplied.
Before – complete break
down of glucose (produce
more energy)
During – incomplete break
down of glucose (produce
less energy)
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.
No/less
accumulatio
n of lactic
acid in the
muscles
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High
accumulation
of lactic acid in
the muscles
Before – complete break
down of glucose produce
carbon dioxide and water
During – Incomplete
breakdown of glucose
produce lactic acid
A + B = 1m
E=1m (Any one E)
Max = 8m
(b) (ii)
Able to explain how the oxygen intake by the athlete returns to the
normal level at the 25th minute.
Sample answer:
Lactic acid has been removed from the muscles
The lactic acid has been converted to energy/ convert to glucose
8
1
1
TOTAL
2
20
Question 8
No
(a)
Criteria
Able to state that the daily menu for the pregnant woman does not
provide a balanced diet.
Marks
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
Able to evaluate the nutrients content and the effects of consuming
the foods in the menu correctly.
Criteria:
Food class / nutrients
Effects
Sample answer:
Pregnant woman:
Carbohydrate in fried rice / chicken rice / (fried) noodle
Protein in chicken drumstick / fried prawn
Vitamin C in apple / fruit juice / cucumber
Lipids in fried prawn / fried rice
Caffein in coffee
Water in apple / fruit juice / chicken soup
Excess sugar in carbonated drink / fruit juice with sugar
Lack of / No calcium
Lack of fibre
(Any 5)
Effects of nutrients intake:
Carbohydrate provides energy
Protein for the foetus growth / repairing the damaged tissue
Lipid provides energy
Vitamin C for a good skin / preventing scurvy
Caffein may increase the blood pressure
Excess sugar may lead to diabetis / hyperglysaemia
Lack of / no calcium will lead to osteoporosis / teeth problem
Lack of fibre may lead to constipation / defecaetion problem
Water for replacing the water loss during daily activities / any
suitable functions of water.
(Any 4)
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1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
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(b) (i)
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Able to write chemical equation of photosynthesis correctly.
Answer:
6 H2O + 6CO2
Light
1+1
C6H12O6 + 6O2
chlorophyll
6 H20 + 6CO2
C6H12O6
1
+ 6O2
Or equation is not balance.
(ii)
(c)
1
Able to define photosynthesis.
Sample answer:
Photosynthesis is a process where a leaf / green plant absorbs
carbon dioxide and water
to produce glucose and oxygen in the presence of chlorophyll and
light.
2
1
1
2
Able to describe how Hydrilla sp is able to obtain all the requirement
for photosynthesis.
Sample answer:
F
No stomata
Many small green leaves
Many fishes/ and aquatic
organism in the pond
Penetration of sunlight
Penetration of sunlight
E
Enables easy diffusion of
photosynthetic gases.
Contain a lot of chloroplast /
chlorophyll
Supply carbon dioxide through
respiration
Supply light
Increase temperature in water
6
(Any 6)
TOTAL
20
Question 9
No
(a)
Criteria
Able to explain how the use of inorganic fertilizer reduces the
population of aquatic organism.
Criteria P:
The effect of excessive inorganic fertilizer.
Explanation of europhication.
Sample answers :
Inorganic fertilisers / phosphates / nitrates from agricultural area
enter the river water.
Excess inorganic fertilizer will encourage the high rate of growth of
algae / blue green bacteria.
This causes an algal bloom
The algae increase in number and form a thick scum on
the surface of river.
Prevent the penetration of sunlight reaching the bottom of the
water.
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1
1
1
1
1
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Alga and other aquatic organism in the bottom of the water cannot
do photosynthesis
The decomposition by aerobic bacteria of dead organic matter will
use up the dissolved oxygen
This will raise the BOD level.
Aquatic organism with low oxygen content will die.
The river water will be polluted.
(b)
1
1
1
1
1
10
Able to discuss the good and bad effects of this action on human and
the ecosystem.
Sample answers :
Good effect:
It can provide more space for another crop
It can increase the economic use of the land
It allow the crop to receives enough sunlight
More product will be produces.
It can reduces the possibility for the crop to be infected by insect /
pest.
So the crop can growth much healthier.
It can increase the consuming of water and nutrient
The crop will get enough nutrient
(Any 7)
Bad effect:
No windbreaker / shelter /niche for bird/small animal
No protection for the crop
Soil erosion
Roots of the plant will improve soil stability
(Any 3)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
TOTAL
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PAPER 3
Question 1
1 (a) [KB0602 - Classifying]
Score
Criteria
Able to categorise all the materials and apparatus used in the experiment correctly.
3
Sample answer:
Material
Potato*
Hydrogen peroxide*
Hydrochloric acid
Sodium hydroxide
Distilled water
pH paper
Apparatus
Knife
Measuring cylinder*
Stopwatch
2
Able to categorise any 4 materials and any 2 apparatus into correctly.
(*compulsory)
1
Able to categorise 2 materials (*) and 1 apparatus (*) correctly.
1 (b) [KB0603 - Measuring Using Number]
Score
Criteria
Able to record all the volume of bubbles formed in each measuring cylinder
3
accurately with correct unit.
Answer:
P
Q
Q
Volume of bubbles
Volume of bubbles
Volume of bubbles
= 0 cm3
= 11.5 cm3
= 0 cm3
2
Able to record two readings (which include Q) accurately with correct unit.
1
Able to record any one reading accurately with correct unit.
1 (c) (i) [KB0601 - Observation]
Score
Criteria
Able to state any two observations correctly according to the criteria:
3
pH value
test tube
bubbles produce
Sample answers:
1. At pH 7 in test tube R, volume of bubbles produced in 5 minutes time is 11.5 cm3.
2. At pH 2 in test tube P, volume of bubbles produced in 5 minutes time is 0 cm3.
3. At pH 10 in test tubes Q, volume of bubbles produced in 5 minutes time is 0 cm3.
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Able to state any one observation correctly.
or
Able to state any two incomplete observations ( any 2 criteria)
Sample answers:
1. pH affect the volume of bubbles formed.
2. The volume of bubbles formed depends on pH.
1
Able to state any one idea of observation (any 1 criterion)
Sample answers:
1. Bubbles formed in neutral pH.
2. No bubbles in test tube P / Q.
3. Rate of enzyme reaction is higher at pH 7.
4. Bubbles are produced when potatoes react with hydrogen peroxide.
1 (c) (ii) [KB0604 - Making inferences]
Score
Criteria
Able to make one logical inference for each observation based on the criteria:
3
pH
enzyme in potato
react with H2O2 producing oxygen
Sample answers:
1. Neutral medium is suitable for enzyme catalase in potato to react with hydrogen
peroxide and produce oxygen.
2. Acidic / alkali medium is not suitable for enzyme catalase in potato to react and
no oxygen is produced.
2
Able to make one logical inference for any one observation.
or
Able to make one logical and incomplete inference base on 2 criteria for each
observation.
Sample answers:
1. pH of the medium affects enzyme catalase in potato to react with hydrogen
peroxide and produce oxygen.
2. Acid / alkali medium is not suitable for enzyme reaction.
3. Neutral medium is suitable for enzyme reaction.
1
Able to make an idea of inference with one criterion.
Sample answers:
1. Reaction of enzyme is affected by pH.
2. Gas produced when the medium is suitable for enzyme reaction.
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1 (d) (i) [KB0606 - Communicating]
Score
Criteria
Able to tabulate a table and fill in data accurately base on three criteria:
3
pH value
Volume of bubbles formed (cm3)
Rate of reaction (cm3 minute-1)
Sample answers:
pH value
2
7
10
Volume of bubbles formed
(cm3)
0
11.5
0
2
Able to tabulate a table base on two criteria.
1
Able to Able to tabulate a table base on one criterion.
Rate of reaction
(cm3 minute-1)
0
2.3
0
1 (d) (ii) [KB0607 - Interpreting Data]
Score
Criteria
Able to explain clearly and accurately the relationship between the test tube
3
content and the volume of bubbles formed in Q, base on 3 criteria.
Test tube content
Volume of bubbles formed
Explanation: Relationship between pH value / medium and the rate of reaction.
Sample answer:
1. The content of test tube Q is hydrogen peroxide, distilled water and potato cube,
at pH 7 / neutral the rate of reaction is the highest / optimum pH for enzyme reaction
which produces highest volume of bubbles / 11.5 cm3.
2
Able to state / explain clearly but less accurate the relationship base on 2 criteria.
Sample answers:
1. The content of test tube Q is hydrogen peroxide, distilled water and potato cube,
which produces highest volume of bubbles / 11.5 cm3.
2. The content of test tube Q is hydrogen peroxide, distilled water and potato cube,
at pH 7 / neutral the rate of reaction is the highest / optimum pH for enzyme
reaction.
3. At pH 7 / neutral the rate of reaction is the highest / optimum pH for enzyme
reaction which produces highest volume of bubbles / 11.5 cm3.
1
Able to state the idea of the relationship base on 2 criterion
Sample answer:
1. At pH 7 / neutral the rate of reaction is the highest / optimum pH for enzyme
reaction.
2. Test tube with hydrogen peroxide, distilled water and potato cube, produced
bubbles.
3. The volume of bubbles in pH 7 / neutral is 11.5 cm3.
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F4 BIOLOGY DIAGNOSTIC 2008
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MARKING SCHEME
1 (e) (i) [KB061001 - Controling Variables]
Score
Criteria
Able to state all the variables and the method to handle the variables correctly.
3
Sample answers:
Variables
Manipulated variable:
pH (value of mediums) //
acidic, neutral and
alkaline mediums
Responding variable:
Volume of bubbles
formed //
The rate of reaction /
(catalase) enzyme action
Fixed variable:
Volume / concentration of
solutions / H2O2 / acid /
alkali / distilled water /
potato cube
Method to handle the variables
Three mediums of different pH are used //
Hydrochloric acid, distilled water and
sodium hydroxide solutions are used.
Observe / measure and record the volume
of bubble formed (in 5 minutes) by using a
measuring cylinder (and a stopwatch) //
Calculate the rate of reaction by dividing the
volume of bubble formed with time in cm3
minute-1 / using formula (show the formula)
Use 3.0 cm3 of H2O2 for all experiment //
Use 6.0 cm3 of acid, alkali and distilled
water //
Put 1 potato cube with size of 1.0 cm3 each
for all experiment
2
Able to state 4 - 5 of the variables and the method to handle the variables correctly.
1
Able to state 1 - 3 of the variables and the method to handle the variables correctly.
1 (e) (ii) [KB0611 - Making Hypothesis]
Score
Criteria
3
Able to state a hypothesis to show a relationship between the manipulated
variable and responding variable and the hypothesis can be validated, base on 3
criteria:
Manipulated variable
Responding variable
Relationship
Sample answers:
1. In neutral medium / pH 7 the reaction between the potato enzyme and H2O2
produces the highest volume of bubbles / the highest rate of reaction.
2. In acidic / alkali medium / pH 2 / pH 10 the potato enzyme will not react with H2O2
producing no bubbles.
2
Able to state less accurate hypothesis to show a relationship between manipulated
variable and responding variable base on 2 criteria.
Sample answers:
1. The pH affects the reaction of potato enzyme with H2O2 producing bubbles.
2. The bubbles produce by potato’s enzyme reaction depends on different pH.
1
Able to state idea of hypothesis to show a relationship between manipulated
variable and responding variable base on 1 criterion.
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Sample answers:
1. pH medium affect the reaction.
2. Suitable pH causes the production of bubbles.
1 (f) [KB0608 - Space and Time Relationship]
Score
Criteria
Able to state clearly and accurately the relationship between the volume of bubbles
3
formed and the time in a medium of pH 7 base on criteria:
Volume of bubbles formed
Time
Relationship
Sample answers:
1. In a medium of pH 7, the volume of bubbles formed in 5 minutes is 11.5 cm3.
2
Able to state clearly but less accurate the relationship between the volume of
bubbles formed and the time in a medium of pH 7 base on 2 criteria.
Sample answers:
1. In a medium of pH 7, the rate of reaction is 2.3 cm3 minute-1.
1
Able to state the idea of the relationship base on 2 criteria.
Sample answer:
1. Bubbles are formed in 5 minutes.
1 (g) [KB0609 - Define Operationally]
Score
Criteria
Able to state what an enzyme is base on experiment correctly according to the
3
criteria:
Chemical / substance / molecule / enzyme in potato
React with H2O2 which produce bubbles
Affected by pH
Sample answer:
1. Enzyme is a chemical in potato that able to react with H2O2 producing bubbles
and the reaction is affected by pH of the medium.
2. Enzyme in potato react with H2O2 producing bubbles and affected by pH.
2
Able to state what an enzyme is base on experiment less accurately according to 2
criteria.
Sample answers:
1. Enzyme react with H2O2 producing bubbles.
1
Able to state the idea of an enzyme or the theoretical definition of enzyme.
Sample answers:
1. Enzyme reacts with H2O2.
2. Enzyme in potato reacts to produce bubbles.
3. Enzyme is a biological catalyses that accelerate the reaction.
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MARKING SCHEME
1 (h) [KB0605 - Predicting]
Score
Criteria
Able to predict and explain the observation accurately when 2 potato cubes 0.5 cm3
3
is used in measuring cylinder P.
Expected observation
Compare to which
Reason
Sample answer:
1. The volume of bubbles produce is 23 cm3 (any value between 11,5 - 23 cm3),
more than the experiment when using 1 potato cube (sized 1 cm3), because more
enzyme for the reaction / larger surface area of potato (in contact with H2O2).
2
Able to predict the result less accurately (2 criteria).
Sample answers:
1. The volume of bubbles produce is 23 cm3 (any value between 11,5 - 23 cm3),
more than the experiment when using 1 potato cube (sized 1 cm3).
2. The volume of bubbles produce is more than the experiment when using 1 potato
cube (sized 1 cm3), because more enzyme for the reaction / rate of reaction is
higher.
1
Able to give idea of the result.
Sample answers:
1. The volume of bubbles produce is 23 cm3.
2. The rate of reaction is higher.
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MARKING SCHEME
Question 2
Problem Statement
Score
Criteria
3
Able to state the problem statement of the experiment correctly that include criteria:
Manipulate variables
Responding variables
Relation in question form and question symbol [?]
Sample answers:
1. Does orange juice contain higher amount / more vitamin C than papaya and
watermelon juices.
2. Which fruit juice has the highest amount of vitamin C?
3. What is the amount of vitamin C in orange, papaya and watermelon juices?
2
Able to state the problem statement of the experiment with two criteria.
Sample answers:
1. Do different fruit juices have different amount of vitamin C?
2. Does the content of vitamin C in fruit juices differ?
1
Able to state the of problem statement with one criteria.
Sample answers:
1. What is the amount of vitamin C in orange juice?
Aim
Score
Criteria
To determine the concentration / percentage of vitamin C in orange, papaya and
watermelon juices.
Hypothesis
Score
Criteria
3
Able to state the hypothesis correctly according to the criteria:
Manipulate variables
Responding variables
Relationship of the variables
Sample answers:
1. Orange juice has the highest concentration / percentage of vitamin C than
papaya and watermelon juices.
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2
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MARKING SCHEME
Able to state the hypothesis with two criteria
Sample answers:
1. The vitamin C content depends on types of fruit juice.
2. Different fruit juices have different amount of vitamin C
1
Able to state the idea of the hypothesis.
Sample answers:
1. Fruit juices have vitamin C.
Variables
Score
Criteria
Able to state the three variables correctly
Sample answers:
Manipulated variable: Fruit juices // orange, papaya and watermelon juices
Responding variable: Concentration / percentage of vitamin C
Fixed variable:
Volume DCPIP solution // Concentration of ascorbic acid.
Materials and Apparatus
Score
Criteria
3
Able to state all functional materials and apparatus / 2*materials + 1 other material
and 1*apparatus + 2 other apparatus for the experiment.
Materials: *Orange, papaya and watermelon juices, 0.1% ascorbic acid solution,
*DCPIP solution.
Apparatus: *Syringes with needles, beakers, test tubes / specimen tubes, gauze /
muslin cloth.
2
Able to state 2*materials and 1*apparatus + 1 other apparatus for the experiment.
1
Able to state 2*material and 1*apparatus for the experiment.
Technique
Score
Criteria
Able to state the action on responding variable with an apparatus / formula.
Bonus Sample answer:
Calculating and recording the concentration / percentage of vitamin C in fruit juices
1m
by using the following formula.
Concentration of Vitamin C = Volume of 0.1% ascorbic acid mg cm3
Volume of fruit juice
Or / Percentage of Vitamin C = Volume of 0.1% ascorbic acid x 0.1 %
Volume of fruit juice
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Procedure
Score
Criteria
Able to state five procedures P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 correctly.
3
P1 : How to Set Up The Apparatus (3P1)
P2 : How to Keep Constant The Control Variable (2P2)
P3 : How to Manipulate The Manipulated Variable (1P3)
P4: How to Record The Responding Variable (1P4)
P5 : Precaution (1P5)
2
Able to state three of any procedures P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 correctly
1
Able to state two of any procedures P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 correctly
Example of Procedure:
1. Measure (1 cm3) of DCPIP by using a syringe and place in a test tube.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
P1
(1 cm3) P2
Fill a 5 cm3 syringe with (0.1%) ascorbic acid.
P1
(0.1%) P2
Place the needle of syringe into the DCPIP solution.
P5
Add the acid ascorbic solution,
P1
drop by drop into the DCPIP solution.
P5
Stir the mixture gently with the needle of the syringe.
P5
Add the acid ascorbic solution continuously until the DCPIP solution decolourise.
P1
Record the volume of acid ascorbic used.
P4
Repeat steps 1 to 7 by using orange juice, papaya juice and watermelon juice.
P3
Record the results in a table.
P4
Data
Score
Criteria
Able to tabulate the correct table with observations.
Bonus Sample answers:
Solution / Fruit juice
1m
Volume of solution / fruit
juice needed to decolourise
1 cm3 DCPIP solution (cm3)
Concentration / Percentage
of vitamin C in fruit juice
(mg cm3) / %
0.1% ascorbic acid
Orange juice
Papaya juice
Watermelon Juice
Conclusion
Score
Criteria
Able to rewrite the hypothesis correctly.
Sample answers:
Orange juice has the highest concentration / percentage of vitamin C than papaya
and watermelon juices. (Hypothesis is accepted).
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Planning the Experiment
Score
Criteria
3
Able to plan the experiment based on 7 – 9 ( ) of the following criteria:
Statement of identified problem
Objective of study
Variables
Statement of hypothesis
List of materials and apparatus
Technique used
Experimental procedures
Presentation of data
Conclusion
2
Able to plan the experiment based on 4 – 6 (
) of the criteria.
1
Able to plan the experiment based on 1 – 3 (
) of the criteria.
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