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P3 2 0 AVR
Automatic voltage regulator
Technical description
  
POWER
PLANT
Power Control Systems
=
Table of contents
1
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 3
2
DESCRIPTION .............................................................................................................. 5
2.1
STRUCTURE.................................................................................................................. 5
3
REGULATOR HARDWARE DESCRIPTION .................................................................. 8
3.1
TYPICAL RACK ARRANGEMENT ................................................................................ 8
3.2
POWER SUPPLY ........................................................................................................... 9
3.3
CENTRAL PROCESS UNIT ........................................................................................... 9
3.4
COMMUNICATION CAPABILITIES ............................................................................. 9
3.5
EXTERNAL INPUTS/OUTPUTS..................................................................................10
3.6
GATE DRIVER .............................................................................................................11
4
FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY THE P320 AVR REGULATOR ...................................12
5
COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE TOOLS .........................................................14
5.1
LOCAL CONTROL PANEL ..........................................................................................14
5.2
CONTROCAD LOADER ..............................................................................................16
6
TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS ...............................................................................19
 - ALSTOM Power - 2005. ALSTOM Power, the logo ALSTOM Power and their frameworks are trademarks and service trademark
applications of ALSTOM Power. The other names mentioned, registered or not, are the property of their respective companies.
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LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT.
This publication may include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes may be periodically made to the information herein
and will be incorporated in new editions of this publication. ALSTOM Power may make improvements or changes in the products,
processes or the programs described in this publication at any time without notice.
ALSTOM Power Turbo-Systems - Plant Information & Control Systems - 2 quai Michelet 92309 Levallois-Perret cedex - France
www.power.alstom.com
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 2/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
1
INTRODUCTION
ALSTOM Power has a proven and world-wide experience in power generation Control Systems, with
more than 2750 AVR delivered in the last 35 years, in Nuclear, Thermal and Hydraulic power plants.
Taking advantage of its know-how and its experience, ALSTOM Power has developed a
comprehensive machine control system that comprised the P320 AVR.
The P320 AVR regulator is specially dedicated to the excitation regulation of AC generators and motors.
It is compliant with the latest revision of standards IEEE 421.2 “Guide for identification testing and
evaluation of the dynamic performance of excitation control systems” and IEEE 421.5 “Recommended
practice for excitation system models for power system stability studies”.
It is designed to manage all types of excitation systems (static, brushless, DC exciters) and can be
applied to any kind of power generation applications (steam, hydraulic, diesel and gas turbines),
from small units to large energy generators, new and refurbishment projects.
Totally digital in design, the P320 AVR combines very high performance level, easy programming
and flexibility of set-up. Based on an Industrial Automation Digital Product of world-wide diffusion, it
associates standard “off the shelf” modules to specific ones designed for dedicated functions. It
guarantees an optimum reliability and sustainable production of this controller.
It is wide open to communication and can be controlled from Distributed Control Systems (DCS),
dedicated operator stations, local operator terminal or from conventional panels.
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 3/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
Typical static excitation equipment
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 4/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
DESCRIPTION
2
The here below description gives the main possibilities of the P320 AVR; the application to each
specific project is described in the excitation description
2.1
STRUCTURE
Single channel structure :
The system consists of one channel, being constituted of a digital voltage regulator (AVR) with
integrated FCR (Field Current Regulator). A failure of the AVR loop switches over the system to the
FCR loop. Follow up in both ways provides smooth transfer between the regulators.
Worldfip F8000 – Redundant Internal Bus
AVR / FCR N°1
Pulse amplifier
Gate driver
Valid
Local Control
Panel
  
UG
IG
Uc signal
IF
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Valid
Sheet 5/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
TWIN structure :
The system consists of two identical channels, each one being constituted of a digital voltage
regulator (AVR) with its own power supply, its own thyristor firing module and its own bridge. The
two identical digital regulators, normal and stand-by, integrate both a FCR (Field Current Regulator).
A failure of the Active channel switches over the system to the Stand-by channel. Follow up in both
ways provides smooth transfer between the regulators.
Worldfip F8000 – Redundant Internal Bus
AVR / FCR N°1
Gate driver
Local Control
Panel
  
Uc signal
UG
IG
Local Control
Panel
Valid
IF
AVR / FCR N°2
UG
IG
Valid
Uc signal
IF
This redundant structure guarantees the best availability of the power generation, with
automatic regulation and integrated FCR. Each power converter is designed to flow
continuously 110% of the rated current and the transient ceiling current every 15 minutes. In
case of one converter failure, the active channel switches over automatically to the standby
channel and the power converter in trouble is blocked.
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 6/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
Full redundant TWIN structure :
The system consists of two identical channels, each one being constituted of a digital voltage
regulator (AVR) with its own power supply, its own thyristor firing module. The two identical
digital regulators, normal and stand-by, integrate both a FCR (Field Current Regulator). A
failure of the Active channel switches over the system to the Stand-by channel.
Follow up in both ways provides smooth transfer between the regulators.
Worldfip F8000 – Redundant Internal Bus
AVR / FCR N°1
Pulse amplifier
Gate driver
Local Control
Panel
Valid

UG
IG
Uc signal
Valid
IF
AVR / FCR N°2
UG
IG
Valid
Valid
Uc signal
IF
This redundant structure guarantees the best availability of the power generation, with
automatic regulation and integrated FCR and thyristor bridge redundancy.
Each power converter is designed to flow continuously 110% of the rated current and the
transient ceiling current every 15 minutes. Each power converter has got its own pulse
amplifier with a pulse fault detection function, one power converter only being in operation.
Each power converter can be controlled by neither of the regulator, ensuring a full redundancy.
A failure on the active power converter will train over a changeover on the standby power
converter with a smooth transfer by pulses overlapping through their pulse amplifier card.
Power converter in trouble is blocked.
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 7/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
REGULATOR HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
3
3.1
TYPICAL RACK ARRANGEMENT
Worldfip
331
Power
supply
CPU310
Central
Process
Unit
Central Worldfip Measures Analogue Analogue
Process
Inputs
Outputs
Treatmen
UnitEther
t
net Link
Digital
Inputs
Digital
Ouinputs
8
Digital
outputs
Ethernet
link
6

Gate driver
DCS
connection
Modbus link
Serial
port
RS485
Maintenance
computer
IO Bridge
Distributed IO
within regulator cubicle
Typical AVR Hardware structure.
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 8/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
POWER SUPPLY
3.2
Feeder redundancy is performed by a double auxiliary source, one from the plant DC battery
and the other from the excitation transformer secondary.
CENTRAL PROCESS UNIT
3.3
The CPU has a Pentium III microprocessor with a 300 MHz clock.
The user program capacity is typically of 10 Megabytes of RAM memory.
COMMUNICATION CAPABILITIES
3.4
The P320 AVR regulator offers wide communication capabilities, through its different port of
communication :
- the Ethernet board used to connect the DCS and the Local Control Panel. The
communication with the DCS is based on a non redundant copper link with Modbus TCP
protocol,
- the central processing unit includes two serial ports, supporting Break-free SNP
slave, Serial Read/Write and Modbus Slave protocol,
possible communication links
-
single RS485 copper serial link with Modbus protocol for connection with a DCS,
- redundant RS485 copper serial link with Modbus protocol for connection with a DCS,
- single RS485 optical fibre serial link with Modbus protocol for connection with a DCS,
- redundant RS485 optical fibre serial link with Modbus protocol for connection with a DCS,
- redundant Ethernet copper link with Modbus TCP protocol for connection with a DCS,
- single Ethernet optical fibre link with Modbus TCP protocol for connection with a DCS,
- redundant Ethernet optical fibre link with Modbus TCP protocol for connection with a DCS,
- the Worldfip interface for complete integration into P320 system.
The complete command, maintenance may be achieved through these communication links.
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 9/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
3.5
EXTERNAL INPUTS/OUTPUTS
The P320 AVR offers different type of inputs and outputs (analogue and digital) for logical and
regulation sequences.
For regulation, a dedicated card is performing from the generator measurement the following
calculation :
- the three individual line to line Voltages,
- the three individual line Currents,
- r.m.s. Stator Voltage,
- r.m.s. Stator Current,
- active Power,
- reactive Power,
- PSS2A or 2B corrective term,
- frequency,
- current and voltage status measurement monitoring.
An internal bus (RS485) is used within the excitation cubicle to issue and gather the
main information for control and maintenance of the excitation equipment.
Logic Inputs :
The logic inputs are polarised by the internal 24 Vdc generated in the excitation control
cubicle. They are insulated by optic couplers. Light-emitting diodes indicate the status of each
input.
Four logic inputs are provided for controlling the excitation equipment (Excitation raise and
lower command, unit breaker position).
Logic Outputs :
The logic outputs are potential free. The outputs are isolated for external use with interposing
relays.
Four logic outputs are provided for external indication (Alarm, Trip, …).
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 10/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
3.6
GATE DRIVER
Each regulator has its dedicated gate driver. This module receives the output signal (Uc) sent
by the P320 AVR, elaborates and amplifies the firing pulses for the thyristors.
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 11/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY THE P320 AVR
REGULATOR
4
The following function are performed
 voltage control including Power System Stabiliser (PSS2A or 2B type according IEEE Std 421-5),
 current control in manual mode (maintenance, failure modes or specific start-up),
 automatic voltage built up with progressive voltage raise (soft start),
 excitation current limitations : ceiling limitation, permanent current limitation (fixed or
thermal inverse time),
 under excitation limitation as per P-Q diagram,
P
Maximum turbine
power
D
Pn
Maximum field
current
E
Minimum field
current
- Un²/Xq
C

- Un²/Xd
X.I
g
B
A

Qn
Q
 Volts / Hertz limitation,
 supervision of generator measuring voltage for the voltage regulator,
 compensation of voltage drops induced by active and reactive currents,
 reactive current droop (generators operating in parallel),
 calculation of the field winding temperature,
 field flashing sequence in case of self excited generator,
 local information through a digital control panel connected to the regulator, including
detailed alarms and P-Q diagram display,
 excitation logic sequences, (field breaker control, bridge control, start, stop),
 communication with another control system through an Ethernet link (Modbus® TCP).
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 12/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
The following functions can be supplied according generator needs:
(Refer to relevant project technical description for the implemented optional functions)
 stator current limitation (Two slopes),
 Line charging sequence (hydro projects),
 reactive Power or Power factor superimposed control,
 internal over current protection,
 excitation management to save field breaker operation number,
 specific motor starting sequences (Static Frequency Converter, Back to back starting),
 specific shut down sequences (Electrical braking by short circuit or static frequency
converter),
 voltage matching sequence before synchronising,
 communication with another control system through a serial SNP link or serial Modbus®
link.
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 13/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
5
5.1
COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE TOOLS
LOCAL CONTROL PANEL
The regulator is supplied with a user friendly
defined Local Control Panel (LCP).

This graphical co loured touch screen terminal is
installed in the front door of the excitation cubicle.
The display are available in four languages : English,
French, German and Spanish.
Gate driver
module
Different levels of access are available :
- display level,
- operator level (Local commands ),
- maintenance level (Local commands and parameters setting).
The Local Control Panel, allows for the main excitation control and display (Field breaker
command and status, AUTO/Manu mode change-over commands and status, Voltage/Reactive
Power/Tan Phi control selection and status, excitation raise or lower commands …).
It also displays the main measured and regulated values.
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 14/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
The Local Control Panel may also help in operation of the generator with the dynamic display
of the P-Q diagram :
To help maintenance of the excitation system, following information is available within the
Local Control Panel :
- current alarms. The current faults are also available on Modbus link and Worldfip,
- history of the different alarms,
- maintenance overview with status of different regulators and links.
During commissioning, all the regulator parameters can be configured through the Local
Control Panel.
- A single software (ControCad Loader) fully installed in a PC (Note Book or station) is
recommended for easy maintenance.
After the connection to the AVR, all parameters are accessible for display and setting.
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 15/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
5.2
CONTROCAD LOADER
For easy maintenance, a specific dedicated software named Controcad loader was
developed.
CONTROCAD
lOADER
Pulse
Generator
Setting

Parameters
download
and backup
Displays
P320 AVR
TTM211
Thyristor
Triggering
module
Dynamic
adjustments
This software performs following functions :

Display and setting of P320 AVR parameters,

Uploading and backup of the parameters.
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 16/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
 on-line Display and Diagnostics,
 specific display screens for curves of any internal P320 AVR variable,
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 17/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
 disturbance recorder management (option) : up to 6 events containing 9 analogues and 16
logical values can be recorded. The variables to be recorded are chosen by users among
internal P320 AVR variable and can be recorded at the regulator cycle time. The disturbance
recorder is triggered on its three entries user defined trigger equation or by manual trigger.
Recorded channels
Manual Trigger or Trigger equation
Disturbance recorder configuration
 Program loading.
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 18/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
6
TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Response time :
Response time of the whole system :
20 ms as per IEEE Std 421.2 1990
(including power converter at 50 Hz)
Regulator :
Auxiliary voltage supplies for the regulator itself :
18 to 30 Vdc – 40W
Analogue Inputs :
4-20 mA
Logic Inputs :
24 Vdc
Analogue Outputs :
4-20 mA
Logic Outputs :
Potential free contacts
2 Amps, up to 250 V ac/dc
Excitation Power Supply :
Nominal Frequency, fn :
50 to 480 Hz
Frequency transient variation :
125 % fn
DC Output Voltage :
up to 1350 V
DC Output Current :
up to 8000 A
Frequency measure :
Nominal variable range :
+/- 10%
Nominal value, Fn :
50 or 60 Hz
Nominal frequency range :
40 Hz < f < 70 Hz
Accuracy :
+/- 0.15 % of the nominal value
+/- 0.1 Hz below 40 Hz
+/- 0.2 Hz above 70 Hz
Frequency measure range :
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
from 5% to 150% Fn
Sheet 19/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
Voltage Measure :
Stator nominal voltage measure, Un :
3 x 100 to 120 Vac
Accuracy :
0.15 % Un in the range 40 … 70 Hz
Validity range :
0 to 150 % Un, up to 90 Hz.
Maximum steady state value :
110 % Un
Maximum repetitive value :
150 % Un
Maximum occasional value :
250 % Un
Current Measure :
Stator nominal current measure, In :
3 x 1 or 5 Amps
Accuracy :
0.15 % Un in the range 40 … 70 Hz
Validity range :
0 to 200 % In, up to 90 Hz.
Maximum steady state value :
110 % In
Maximum occasional value :
500 % In
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 20/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
Certification
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ
Quality Assurance in
Design/Development, Production,
Installation and Servicing
European EMC and Low Voltage
Directives
Safety for Industrial Control
Equipment
ISO9001
CE Mark
Certification by Lloyd’s Register Quality
Assurance
ÁÁ
ÁÁÁÁ
Safety for Hazardous Locations
Class I, Zone 2, A, B, C, D
UL508
C-UL or
CSA22.2,
142-M1987
UL1604
with C–UL
Certification by Competent Body for EMC Directive for
selected modules
Certification by Underwriters Laboratories
Certification by Underwriters Laboratories [C-UL1] or Canadian
Standards Association for selected C80–35 module
Certification by Underwriters Laboratories for selected
modules Alspa C80–35
Environment
Environmental
Vibration
IEC60068–2–6
Shock
Operating Temperature
IEC60068–2–27
Storage Temperature
Humidity
Enclosure Protection
1g at 57-150 Hz, 5 microns
(0.012 in) p-p at 10-57 Hz
15 g, 11 ms
0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F) inside P320 cubicle
0 to 45°C (32 to 113°F) outside P320 cubicle
– 40°C to + 85°C (–40°F to +185°F)
5 to 95 % non-condensing
Steel cabinet per IP325
NEMA2
Á
IEC 529
NEMA 250
EMC Emissions
EN50081-2
Radiated, Conducted
CISPR 11/EN 55011
CISPR 22/EN 55022
Industrial Scientific & Medical Equipment (Group 1, Class A)
Information Technology Equipment (Class A)
47 CFR 15
referred to as FCC part 15, “Radio Devices” (Class A)
(applies to CE Marked modules)
EMC Immunity
EN50082-2
Electrostatic Discharge
RF susceptibility
Fast Transient Burst
EN 61000–4–2
EN 61000–4–3
EN 61000–4–4
Damped Oscillatory Wave
ANSI/IEEE C37.90a
8 kV Air, 4 kV Contact (6 kV Contact with FIP Controller)
10 Vrms/m, 80 to 1000 MHz, 80% AM
2 kV : power supplies and FIP Controller, 1kV : I/O and other
communication lines
Damped Oscillatory Wave 1MHz, rep. Rate 400Hz :
2.5 kV (CM & DM) power supplies,
2.5 kV (CM) I/O (12 V–240 V)
IEC255–4
Damped Oscillatory Wave : class II
power supplies, I/O (12 V–240 V)
Voltage Surge
EN 61000–4–5
Conducted RF
EN 61000–4–6
2 kV power supplies ; 1 kV cm (I/O)
2 kV (FIP BIU) (all level for common mode)
10Vrms, 150 kHz to 80 MHz, 80% AM
Á
Isolation
Dielectric Withstand
IEC 664
UL508, UL840
1.5 kV for modules rated from 51V to 250 V
Power Supply
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 21/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
Voltage Dips, Variations
EN 61000–4–11
During Operation : Dips to 30% and 100% (100ms)
Variation for AC=10%, Variation for DC=20%
ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ Á
ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ Á
R07-0024RUGO1A P320 AVR V2 Product Description
Sheet 22/22
Technical inaccuracies or spelling errors may be found in this sheet. Changes may be added periodically to the information contained here. They will be incorporated in
subsequent issues of this sheet. At any time, and without prior notice, ALSTOM Power may improve or change the products or programs described in this document.
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