# final ver F-2

```Bidirectional Speed Control
of DC Motor
using Arduino uno R3 and Motor Driver L298D
“ In any given application, the number of
dc motor used is probably larger than all other ”
Bidirectional Speed Control
of DC Motor
using Arduino uno R3 and Motor Driver L293D
(4th YEAR)
APPLIED ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION ENGG.
Bidirectional Speed Control of DC Motor
OBJECTIVE
Bidirectional Speed Control of DC Motor
OBJECTIVE
INTRODUCTION
Bidirectional Speed Control of DC Motor
OBJECTIVE
INTRODUCTION
SPEED CONTROL TECHNIC
Bidirectional Speed Control of DC Motor
OBJECTIVE
INTRODUCTION
SPEED CONTROL TECHNIC
OPERATION
Bidirectional Speed Control of DC Motor
OBJECTIVE
INTRODUCTION
SPEED CONTROL TECHNIC
OPERATION
FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
Bidirectional Speed Control of DC Motor
OBJECTIVE
INTRODUCTION
SPEED CONTROL TECHNIC
DRIVER ( H- BRIDGE)
OPERATION
FUTURE DEVELOPEMENT
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
An electric motor is a machine which converts electrical
energy into mechanical energy.
INTRODUCTION
An electric motor is a machine which converts electrical
energy into mechanical energy.
principle : when a current-carrying conductor is placed in a
magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force whose
direction is given by Fleming's Left-hand rule and whose
magnitude is given by
Force, F = B I l newton
INTRODUCTION
An electric motor is a machine which converts electrical
energy into mechanical energy.
principle : when a current-carrying conductor is placed in a
magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force whose
direction is given by Fleming's Left-hand rule and whose
magnitude is given by
Force, F = B I l newton
Where
B ------ magnetic field in weber/m2.
I ------ the current in amperes and
l------ is the length of the coil in meter.
SPEED CONTROL TECHNIQUE
The motor speed can be controlled by controlling
o  Flux per pole ,Φ (Flux control)
o  Resistance (Ra) of armature circuit
( Rheostat Control)
o  Applied voltage V (Voltage Control)
SPEED CONTROL TECHNIC
The motor speed can be controlled by controlling
o  Flux per pole ,Φ (Flux control)
o  Resistance (Ra) of armature circuit
( Rheostat Control)
o  Applied voltage V (Voltage Control)
Special technique is Pulse Width Modulation.
SPEED CONTROL TECHNIC
Pulse Width Modulation
o  Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a method for binary signals
generation, which has 2 signal periods (high and low).
SPEED CONTROL TECHNIC
Pulse Width Modulation
o  Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a method for binary signals
generation, which has 2 signal periods (high and low).
o  The width (W) of each pulse varies between 0 and the period (T).
SPEED CONTROL TECHNIC
Pulse Width Modulation
o  Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a method for binary signals
generation, which has 2 signal periods (high and low).
o  The width (W) of each pulse varies between 0 and the period (T).
o  The main principle is control of power by varying the duty cycle.
SPEED CONTROL TECHNIC
Pulse Width Modulation
o  Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a method for binary signals
generation, which has 2 signal periods (high and low).
o  The width (W) of each pulse varies between 0 and the period (T).
o  The main principle is control of power by varying the duty cycle.
o  The main advantage of PWM is that power loss in the switching
devices is very low.
SPEED CONTROL TECHNIC
Pulse Width Modulation
Signal with low voltage (10%):
SPEED CONTROL TECHNIC
Pulse Width Modulation
Signal with low voltage (10%):
Signal with half voltage (50%):
SPEED CONTROL TECHNIC
Pulse Width Modulation
Signal with low voltage (10%):
Signal with half voltage (50%):
High Speed Signal (90%):
DRIVER ( H- BRIDGE)
The name "H-Bridge" is derived from the actual shape of the
switching circuit which control the motion of the motor.
DRIVER ( H- BRIDGE)
The name "H-Bridge" is derived from the actual shape of the
switching circuit which control the motion of the motor.
1
3
2
4
DRIVER ( H- BRIDGE)
The name "H-Bridge" is derived from the actual shape of the
switching circuit which control the motion of the motor.
High Left High Right
(1)
(2)
ON
OFF
1
3
2
4
Low Left
(3)
OFF
Low Right Descriptio
(4)
n
ON
Motor runs
clockwise
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
Motor runs
anticlockwise
Motor
stops or
decelerates
Motor
stops or
decelerates
DRIVER ( H- BRIDGE)
o  L298D is a dual H-Bridge motor driver
o  Two DC motors which can be controlled in both clockwise and
counter clockwise direction
o  Protection of circuit from back EMF output diodes are included
within the IC.
DRIVER ( H- BRIDGE)
o  L298D is a dual H-Bridge motor driver
o  Two DC motors which can be controlled in both clockwise and
counter clockwise direction
o  Protection of circuit from back EMF output diodes are included
within the IC.
Meet Arduino Uno
KEY FUTURES OF ARDUINO UNO REV3
¢  Clock
16Mhz
¢  Memory
¢  GPIO
32kb
pins 14
¢  Operating
Voltage 5V
I/O PINS
JOYSTICK
Technical specification
•
•
•
•
•
Operating Voltage: 5V
Internal Potentiometer value: 10K
Dimensions: 1.57 in*1.02 in*1.26 in
Operating temperature : 0 to 70 0C
FEATURE:-
•
•
•
•
•
Two independent potentiometer: one for each axis
(x and y)
Low weight
Cup-type knob
Compatible to interface with arduino or with most
microcontrollers
Why we choose this…..
A microcontroller (abbreviated µC ,uC or MCU) is a small
computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core,
memory, and programmable input/output peripherals.
o Design and Simulation
o  Flexibility
o  High Integration
o  Cost .
o  Easy to Use –
CONNECTIONS
FUTURE DEVELOPEMENT
o  This project is an open loop system .
FUTURE DEVELOPEMENT
o  This project is an open loop system .
o  If load changes occur then speed is affected.
FUTURE DEVELOPEMENT
o  This project is an open loop system .
o  If load changes occur then speed is affected.
o  Therefore we need close path to monitor continues speed
and adjust the speed using various control schemes.
FUTURE DEVELOPEMENT
o  This project is an open loop system .
o  If load changes occur then speed is affected.
o  Therefore we need close path to monitor continues speed
and adjust the speed using various control schemes.
o  To develop the closed loop control we need a feedback
path by using optical encoder.
FUTURE DEVELOPEMENT
o  This project is an open loop system .
o  If load changes occur then speed is affected.
o  Therefore we need close path to monitor continues speed
and adjust the speed using various control schemes.
o  To develop the closed loop control we need a feedback
path by using optical encoder.
o  The controller will make the adjustment by the error
signal. The controller may be PID or Auto tuning method.
REFFERENCES
1.  Microprocessors And Interfacing (Programming & Hardware)-douglasv
Hall
2.  Todd D Morton Embedded microelectronics, (Prentice Hall Inc. New
Delhi India), 2001.
3.  Embedded System”, Pearson Education, 2nd Edition.
4.  https://howtomechatronics.com/tutorials/arduino/arduino-dc-motor-controltutorial-l298n-pwm-h-bridge/
5.  http://www.electronics4u.com
6.  Wikipedia.com
THANK YOU
```