Virtual-Particles-in-Electromagnetism-Marcus-Reid

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Virtual Particles in Electromagnetism
Marcus Reid
What roles do virtual particles and broken symmetries play in
common electrical systems?
A journey to an emission free energy age by extracting
limitless energy from the quantum vacuum.
Welcome to the next industrial revolution!
1
Marcus Albert Reid was born in 1968 in Cape Town, South
Africa, moving to Munich, Germany in 1978.
A self-taught inventor and researcher, Marcus has been
working since 1998 in the field of “Asymmetric Electric Systems”.
He has originated several new ideas relating to energy
conversion and propulsion. Reid has also participated in
developing a schematic, theoretical approach that relates to the
foundations of electromagnetism. His goal is to create an emission
free energy conversion technology that uses the energy within
space-time as an external source of energy.
2
Published in 2014 by
The Research Laboratory for Vacuum Energy
Germany
Text © Marcus Reid 2014
Illustrations © Matt Tweed 2014
Executive Producer Charles Louis Strieber
Produced in co-operation with
The Sustainable Media Cooperative Consortium Ltd.
www.sustainablemedia.coop
Marcus Reid has asserted his right to be identified as the author of this work in
accordance with the
Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.
ISBN 978-3-00-047216-9
All rights reserved. For permission to reproduce any part of this
book in any form whatsoever, please contact the publisher.
www.vakuumenergie.de
3
Contents
Foreword
1
Introduction
3
1 - Virtual Photons in Electromagnetism
6
2 - Energy Conversion in Electromagnetic Systems
24
3 - Classes of self-symmetrizing systems, SS1 and SS2
49
4 - Asymmetrical Electromagnetic Systems
63
5 - Non Self-Symmetrising Resonance Between Two SS2 Systems
73
6 - Experimental Examples
76
7 - Defining Forces and Energies in the Phenomenon of Time
95
8 - What is Vacuum Energy?
108
9 - Implications
111
Appendix 1 - Measurement Data from the Reid-Cell
114
Appendix 2 - Experimental Approaches to Asymmetric Electromagnetic Systems
123
Acknowledgements
136
Bibliography
138
References
139
i
The blue planet
It does not belong to us; we only borrow it for a while.
Mankind’s energy needs drain resources and pollute the environment.
This cannot go on forever. We have to move to an emission free source
of energy. The energy within seemingly empty space-time is unlimited
and 100% environmentally friendly. To gain an understanding of how
to get access to this form of energy we need a paradigm shift. This has
been done in the past and it’s happening again now.
ii
Foreword
Today the scientific community has the opinion that there is no ‘free lunch’. This
terminology is used in relation to the law of conservation of energy, which states that
energy can neither be created out of nothing, nor can it be lost. The problem with this
view is that the energy that exists in the universe must have come into being from nothing
during the big bang, since nothing existed before that time. This can only mean that it
is possible, that ‘Something’ is created from ‘Nothing’, or that there is no such thing as a
‘Nothing’ domain in the sense of being not anything at all.
For example in quantum theories the nothingness of seemingly empty space-time is not
considered to be an energy and identity free domain. According to these theories, spacetime is filled with an unlimited and never-ending form of energy (in the form of virtual
particles) that exists in every conceivable point in space.
A practical concept that has developed from this view is that material objects themselves
are made up from this space-time energy, and are directly connected with it. As the energy
density of seemingly empty space-time is practically infinite, the notion came about that visible
particles, e.g., atoms, exist as an energetic pressure difference of infinite energy densities.
If this idea is applied to an empty car battery, then there is an infinitely large
electromagnetic field at the negative and positive pole. If, however, one measures the
voltage, then the display on the measuring device will show 0 V. This is due to the infinitely
high electrical fields at the negative and at the positive pole exactly cancelling each other
out. If the battery is now charged and, subsequently, a voltage of 12 V is measured, then an
energy difference of 12 V has been created. This describes an energetic pressure difference
within the infinite energy density of space-time. Hence the electric voltage is a measure
of the degree of an energetic pressure difference (broken symmetry) within the uniformly
distributed infinite energy density of space-time.
Quantum theories show that it makes sense to assume that all forces and energies
presuppose such an energy difference (asymmetrisation) of space-time. This means that
all energy we deal with is derived from seemingly empty space-time in the first place.
Subsequently, all systems that we know of are energetically open systems that exchange
energy between the material aspect of e.g., an electric system and space-time.
At the same time, however, it is clear that the observable energy components are
conserved. Therefore, it looks as though all known electromagnetic systems are in relation
to the energetic exchange with space-time closed systems. This can only mean that although
these systems are in reality energetically open, they just behave like closed systems.
The Research Laboratory for Vacuum Energy (RLV) has participated in developing
a new model based upon an idea which comes from quantum electrodynamics theory
(QED), where the so called virtual particle transfers, and creates the electromagnetic
1
Foreword
interaction. This new model explains why electromagnetic systems behave like closed
systems, meaning that it defines the mechanism which leads to the conservation of energy.
Leading on from this a new theoretical and practical concept was developed showing
how an electromagnetic system can be built that also behaves like an energetically open
system in relation to the energy contained within space-time. The result is an energy
conversion system that extracts energy from space-time and converts it into a useful
form of energy.
Therefore, these new ‘Asymmetric Electromagnetic Energy Conversion Systems’ are
already showing that a kind of “Free Lunch” does exist.
Now, just imagine that such a technology were to be introduced into the market.
We would have unlimited access to a form of emission free energy at low cost,
everywhere and at any time.
Many everyday goods could be manufactured significantly more cheaply.
Even the basis for greed per se could be removed at least partially.
Impossible you say? Well, the belief that there is no ‘(Quantum) Free Lunch’ will
probably not persist in the 21st Century.
2
Introduction
Whenever a new electrical system is built, Maxwell’s equations are used in order to
manage the flow of electromagnetic energy. However, these equations, which were first
presented in their original versions to the public back in the 1860s, are no longer up to date
because they do not harmonise with modern scientific findings. Modern theories e.g., the
QED theory, show that the electromagnetic field exists as a broken symmetry of spacetime, and that the virtual photon transfers and creates the electromagnetic interaction.
These experimentally proven facts are simply not considered in the Maxwellian approach.
Virtual photons generate all electromagnetic forces and energies. As virtual photons
simply pop into existence from seemingly empty space-time, one may conclude that
space-time itself is the primary energy-carrying medium. This approach has far reaching
consequences regarding the entire energy conversion process in electromagnetic systems
(as well as chemical and mechanical systems), and leads to a new understanding about
where the energy that we deal with on a daily basis comes from in the first place.
The challenge with this view is to shift the point of perspective from the material aspect
of the electromagnetic system into space-time. The entire space-time surrounding us is
not empty, but is filled by an invisible form of energy. And at those places where a volume
of space-time is occupied by a mass, this invisible energy obtains a ‘visible’, or in other
words a ‘mass-like’, characteristic.
Empty space-time can be seen like something that is filled with transparent water that
is invisible to the eye. A mass existing within this space-time can be compared with an
iceberg floating in this invisible sea of water where all that we can see is the iceberg. Both
the iceberg and the water are made up of H2O, and the only difference between the nonobservable liquid water and the observable solid iceberg is the differing state. This is similar
to the transparent energy within space-time and the visible mass. Space-time energy exists
everywhere, and where there is a mass, this space-time energy manifests or freezes into a
visible (observable) form. Therefore mass is a quality of space-time energy.
Applying this view to a common electrical circuit opens up the possibility of viewing
the entire energy conversion process from the space-time point of view. Consequently,
all electromagnetic systems are energetically open systems, with respect to the energy
within space-time. However, they behave like closed systems and if one follows today’s
established theory of how electromagnetic systems function (Maxwell´s Equations), then
one must also view them as systems, which are energetically closed, with respect to the
energy within space-time.
It is the aim of this book to turn the tables and present a model that is based on a
different point of view, i.e., with space-time as the primary energy-carrying domain and
the starting point of our perspective.
3
Introduction
“The first principles of things will never be adequately known. Science is an
open-ended endeavour that can never be closed. We do science without knowing
the first principles. It does in fact not start from first principles, nor from the
end principles, but from the middle. We not only change theories, but also the
concepts and entities themselves, and what questions to ask. The foundations
of science must be continuously examined and modified; it will always be full
of mysteries and surprises.”
(A.O. Barut, “Debating the Final Theory,” Foundations of Physics, 24(11), Nov. 1994, p. 1571)
Picture 1. A gigantic, bizarre fantasy castle with a lot of curious
extensions and in front of it a very small, stylish wooden hut which is
bursting withpride. On the door to the wooden hut there is the flower
Hmm,
fascinating,
of life and on
foundations
on which the hut is standing are the
athe
totally
new
words: “Time energy
as source of observable energy”. On the castle´s
construction..
foundation are the words “E=mc2”
He is standing next to the small hut with a magnifying glass and he
looks at the hut and says: -Hm, fascinating, totally new construction..
Time energy
as source of
observable energy
E=mc2
4
Co Phy
mm sic
un s
ity
Introduction
Established physical theories are like a gigantic castle built by numerous scientists who have
accomplished truly masterful achievements. This castle, like any other building, has been built
upon a foundation.
Due to the complexity of physics the RLV did not want to attach another theory to this castle,
and therefore decided to build something completely new. At present this may be just a little hut
to start with, but at least it is standing on its own foundation.
The RLV is aiming for a fundamentally new approach that explains the energy conversion
process in an electromagnetic system from the virtual particle (space-time) point of view. As
soon as this is understood, it becomes clear that an additional class of electromagnetic systems
exists. I will also show that it is possible to utilise space-time as a source of energy in such a way,
that there is a higher real (observable) energy output from the system than was previously input
in an observable form. The missing energy comes from the virtual particles that originate from
space-time. Independent tests prove that these experiments are a reality.
In this book a schematic model is presented that shows the energy conversion process in
common electromagnetic systems from the virtual particle and broken symmetry point of
view. Additionally, it describes both, a theoretical and practical approach to the extraction
of an excess amount of observable energy from space-time. In this respect new terms and
concepts have been developed.
Note: in this book terminology is used which may already have a certain meaning in physics. For
linguistic reasons some of these terms have been used to express other meanings, which will become
clear from the context.
Enjoy the read.
Marcus Reid
Munich, 2014
5
Chapter 1 - Virtual Photons in Electromagnetism
Maxwell´s Theory on Electromagnetism
In 1864, when James Clerk Maxwell presented his equations to the Royal Society in
London, he assumed that there had to be an electrical ether that exists everywhere in
space. This ether would be the carrier for electromagnetic waves and energy.
“Whatever difficulties we may have in forming a consistent idea of the
constitution of the aether [sic], there can be no doubt that the interplanetary
and interstellar spaces are not empty, but are occupied by a material substance
or body, which is certainly the largest, and probably the most uniform body of
which we have any knowledge.”
Maxwell, James Clerk (1878), “Ether”, Encyclopædia Britannica Ninth Edition 8: 568 - 572
en.wikisource)
Maxwell spoke of a ‘material’ substance. His statement about a material ether has lead
to a peculiar situation. If the ether had material characteristics, this would have important
consequences e.g., with respect to the energy conversion process in electromagnetic systems.
Let us imagine a simple, ideal electric motor. In this motor the electromagnet is placed
on the outside of the casing and the permanent magnet is connected to the rotating axis. As
soon as electrical energy is supplied into the electromagnet it is converted into a magnetic
field. This magnetic field subsequently exerts a force on the permanent magnet, and the axis
begins to turn.
This
is exactly the
way I know it, this
makes sense
Picture 2. Motor, E-magnet, permanent magnet on axis with direct
transfer
– This is exactly the way I know it, this makes sense
Following Maxwell, the electric input energy is converted directly into mechanical energy.
6
Maxwell´s Theory on Electromagnetism
We shall now look at what happens in the air gap between the electro- and the
permanent magnet with reference to Maxwell. Maxwell applied the notion of a material
ether, so the electrical input energy is assumed to be directly converted into a mechanical
form of energy.
Here is a comparison. If the ether is meant to have a material characteristic, one could
also insert a piece of material, e.g., a chunk of rubber into the air gap. The rubber would
then convert the electrical energy directly into a mechanical form of energy. When
examining the behaviour of an electrical motor, this idea of a material ether seems to be
consistent with reality. What goes in at the front comes out at the back. Furthermore, the
energy is conserved since in an ideal system the mechanical energy exactly matches the
amount of electromagnetic energy that has been put into the system. Hence, this seems to
confirm the idea that the electrical energy put into the system is directly converted into a
mechanical form of energy.
Of course,
this also complies with the
conservation of energy which says that
energy is only converted from one form to
another and is neither lost nor does it simply
originate from nothing. This is very clear
Really? Do you
and 100% proven!
truly believe this is
Picture 3. Motor as in Picture 1 with rubber in between e-magnet
the case? and
permanent magnet –
Of course, this also complies with the conservation of energy which says
that energy is only converted from one form to another and is neither
lost nor does it simply originate from nothing. This is very clear and
100% proven!
– Really? Do you truly believe this is the case?
Squeezed piece of rubber
Static force field between permanent magnet and electromagnet.
7
Maxwell´s Theory on Electromagnetism
However, there is a problem with this approach. There is neither a piece of rubber nor
any other material object between the electro- and permanent magnet. This situation has
motivated a number of physicists to find out whether such a thing as ‘a material ether’
really exists. In 1887, for example, Michelson and Morley tried to find a material ether by
conducting the famous “Michelson and Morley” experiment – however without success *.
Picture 4. Interferometer with no light interference. The interferometer
is located on the globe and is on the side whichYes
is itcurrently
turning
is amazing.
But if in
there
is
no
material
ether
the direction of the sun rotation. Men with twirled mustaches, dressed
what else could there be
in the fashion of the time and with pipes betweenintheir
lips.
empty
space-time?
Interesting,
- right?Interesting, right?
Yes it is amazing. But if there is no material ether what else could
there be in empty space-time?
Michelson-­Morley experiment showing there is no material ether.
Einstein´s Special and General Theory of Relativity
Just a few years later when Einstein published his Special Theory of Relativity in 1905
and this theory did not require the presence of an ‘ether’, some physicists got the impression
that one could do completely without it. Initially, Einstein assumed that space was totally
empty. Soon after this, space became space-time, and the time flow of objects that moved
* On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether, American Journal of Science 34: 333–345
8
Einstein´s Special and General Theory of Relativity
through this space-time in a fast way was altered. The greater the speed and/or acceleration
the slower the time flow in the moving object. The slowing down of the time flow was said
to be a characteristic of the space-time curvature, which impacts on the material object.
Wow,
Picture
A planet
this5.Einstein,
an with space-time curving and two clocks. The clock
incredibly
idea
but than the clock in space.
on
earth isbrilliant
slightly
slower
somehow
also
quite
abstract.
How
can
Wow,
an incredibly brilliant idea but somehow also
space-time
be
bent this
whenEinstein,
it’s absolutely
quiteSomething
abstract.would
But how
empty?
have tocan space-time be bent when it is absolutely
there, right? would have to be there, right?
empty?beSomething
A curved space-­time has an influence upon the time flow of observable particles.
However, a completely ether free world brought diverse problems with it, because in
fact there is an interaction between the material object and space-time. A few years after
publishing the Special Theory of Relativity, Einstein introduced the General Theory of
Relativity, which had a requirement for ‘metric ether’.
“Space-time does not claim existence on its own, but only as a structural
quality of the field.”
(Prof. Albert Einstein, Nobel prize in Physics 1921, 5. May 1920)
9
Einstein´s Special and General Theory of Relativity
“We may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed
with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an aether [sic]. According
to the general theory of relativity, space without an aether is unthinkable; for in
such a space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility
for the existence for standards of space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor
any space and time wise distances in a physical sense. But this aether may not
be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as
consisting of particles which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may
not be applied to it“
(Prof. Albert Einstein, Nobel prize in Physics 1921, 5. May 1920)
Quantum Theory
In fact a world without ‘an ether’ does not make much sense, as e.g., information and
electromagnetic energy move through space-time and interact with it. This implies that
there must be a medium that carries these waves and energy through space-time. As
scientists tried to get a better understanding of what this carrier medium may consist of
they decided to divide the field in space into units; in other words the field in space-time
was quantized. The quantum field theories emerged from this idea.
To
divide space-time into
units is a good idea. One can
also imagine how these units
interact with material
Pictureobjects.
6. Space–time with structure and virtual photons.
- To divide space-time into units is a good idea. One can also imagine
how these units interact with material objects.
- I agree.
I agree.
Space-­time can be quantized into discrete units -­ each unit is a virtual particle.
10
Quantum Theory
According to quantum field theories space-time is not empty but completely filled with
so called virtual particles, which just emerge into existence from ‘nothing’ and shortly
thereafter disappear back into nothing. The concept behind the quantum field theories is
that all forces and energies are created from the interaction between virtual and observable
particles. Even matter itself receives its mass through an interaction with virtual particles
(e.g. through the Higgs Boson).
“The meaning of quantum fluctuations is that even empty space-time is filled
with virtual particle pairs. These virtual particle pairs emerge from space-time,
then the two charges move a little bit from each other and then again come
together. After that they annihilate each other. One partner of the virtual particle
pair has positive energy the other partner has negative energy.”
(Prof. Stephen Hawking, The Universe in a Nutshell)
Picture 7. Virtual particles in space-time with a positive and negative
charge.
Look,
virtual
particles
- polar
Look,
polar
virtual particles are just emerging form nothing?
are
just this
emerging
from nothing?
Does
also
mean
that all
Does this also mean that all forces
andforces and real energies are created by an
is created
from nothing? That is really mad. How can one
realenergy
energieswhich
are created
by an energy
which
is
created
from
nothing?
That is
reconcile this with the conservation
of energy?
really mad. How can one reconcile
- this with
Justthe
wait
for
it.
conservation of
energy?
Just wait
for it.
Virtual particles in space-­time with a positive and negative charge.
11
Virtual Energy, another Quality of Energy
Virtual Energy, another Quality of Energy
Remarkably, virtual particles possess a special form of energy. This energy has a quality,
which exists only in a virtual form. Virtual means that this energy does not really (in
an observable sense) exist unless a virtual particle is created directly at or within a real
particle, e.g., an electron. In this case the ‘virtual energy’, as I call it, is transferred from the
virtual particle to the electron. The electron can then be accelerated and thereby the virtual
energy converts into an observable form of energy (Joule) *.
Picture 8. Virtual particles on an electron
So only when the virtual particle makes contact with a real particle,
a force is created on the electron and when it is accelerated, real energy is
created
So from Nothing.
only
when
Correct,
and when the virtual particle emerges in empty spacethe virtual particle
timecontact
in a certain
makes
with distance to a mass, this form of virtual energy simply
a realdissolves
particle, ainto
forcenothing
is
as if nothing had happened. So in an observable
created on the electron
senseit there
is no energy in empty space-time.
and when
is accelerated,
real- energyOk,
is created
so now there are two kinds of energy, A virtual form of energy
froman
Nothing.
and
observable form of energy.
Correct,
Yes, thats exactly how I see it.
and when the virtual
particle emerges in empty
space-time in a certain distance to a
mass, this form of virtual energy simply
dissolves into nothing as if nothing had
happened. So in an observable sense
there is no energy in empty
space-time.
Ok, so
now there are two kinds of
energy, A virtual form of energy and
an observable form of energy.
Yes, thats exactly how
I see it.
Virtual particles are influenced by the prescence of, for example, an electron. In space-­time exist two complimentary forms of energy, a virtual energy form and an observable energy form.
* In Fond Memory of Richard P. Feynman, Nobel 1965, http://www.numericana.com/ answer/feynman.htm
12
The Quantum Vacuum is the Modern Day Ether
The Quantum Vacuum is the Modern Day Ether
In relation to the quantum field theories the medium carrying the energy in spacetime was given a new name, the ‘quantum vacuum’. The quantum vacuum (or simply the
vacuum) is the modern day ether that does not have material characteristics. In this book, for
simplicity, I will use the terms “quantum vacuum” and “space-time” interchangeably. Using
these terms I do not only refer to Einstein’s space-time but simply to what the words space
and time generally mean. With reference to Einstein’s space-time one could say that it is a
component belonging to the quantum vacuum. One can visualize the quantum vacuum as a
multi-dimensional domain in which the less dimensional Einsteinian space-time is included.
Virtual particle for gravity
Electron
Picture 9. The multi layered
quantum
with different virtual
Virtual particle for vacuum
the particles labelled electromagnetism,
strong interaction... Etc.
strong interaction
article for vacuum
- This is really marvellous. In empty space resp.Virtual in the pquantum
electro-­magnetism
This is really
everything
can imagine already exists but only in a virtual form and
marvellous.
Inyou
empty
therefore
you cannot
see it.
space respective
to
the
quantumTo
vacuum
- Correct!
our eyes a quantum vacuum is empty
but in
reality
Virtual particle for it’s
the all
everything you can
happening
in exists
there.
weak interaction
imagine
already
but only in a virtual
form so therefore you
Neutron
cannot see it.
Quarks
Proton
Correct! To our eyes a quantum
vacuum is empty but in reality it’s
all happening in there.
The quantum vacuum is like a multi-­dimensional domain that includes everything one can imagine.
13
Virtual Photons carry and cause the Electromagnetic Force
“One can imagine the vacuum as an energy reservoir - virtual particles are
those that emerge from the vacuum and momentarily borrow some of its energy.
Their existence is fleeting and they disappear again into the vacuum taking the
borrowed energy with them. Maybe this energy returns to its source or maybe it
is transferred to particles at a different place.... Hence virtual particles function
as transmitters which influence the interaction of more durable, stable particles.”
(Prof. Lisa Randall, Harvard University, -Warped Passages. Unraveling the Mysteries of the
Universe´s Hidden Dimensions- Nov. 2006)
Virtual Photons carry and cause the Electromagnetic Force
The quantum electrodynamics theory (QED) was developed in the middle of the
20th century and it describes for the first time the physical mechanism of how the
electromagnetic and weak interaction works. In QED the virtual particle transfers and
creates the electromagnetic interaction.
PictureReally?!
10. Virtual particle transfers force to the electron, noting that the
It’s been proven
virtual
emerged from nothing.
that
all theparticle
electromagnetic
energy
comes
- surrounding
Really?! Itushas
been proven that the entire electromagnetic energy
from
nothing?
And
I
was
surrounding
us to
comes
from nothing? And I was looking forward to a
looking forward
a
relaxed
book!
relaxed book!
Well, I am sorry but this was only the warm up round.
Well, I’m sorry but this is
only the warm up round...
A virtual particle transmits and creates the electromagnetic interation.
14
The Electromagnetic Field is made up of Virtual Particles
“The quantum electrodynamics theory attributes the electromagnetic
interaction to the exchange with a particle, which is the photon. This process
works in such a way, that an electron produces a photon, which then travels
to another electron and thereafter disappears again into the vacuum. During
this process the photon produces an electromagnetic force… The exchanged
photon which has caused the classic electromagnetic force is in reality a
virtual photon.”
(Prof. Lisa Randall, Harvard University, -Warped Passages. Unraveling the Mysteries of the
Universe´s Hidden Dimensions- Nov. 2006)
As with all theories the QED theory is a theory thought up by people. Therefore a
theory never really describes how the world truly is but rather how we see it. Because of
this fact it is important that experiments are carried out in order to confirm that theories
are as good as possible. And since the QED theory has been well approved it is thought to
be one of the best theories in physics.
The Electromagnetic Field is made up of Virtual Particles
At first we only observe a single electron in an area of ‘empty’ space-time. This electron
is surrounded by an uncountable number of virtual particles that continuously emerge
from space-time, and shortly afterwards vanish again. Now the electron does something
to these virtual particles. The virtual particles are polar, meaning they possess a positively
and negatively charged side. In my view these polar virtual particles, which come into
being directly at an electron, are rotated and aligned by the electromagnetic charge of
the electron. The positive side of the virtual particle gets turned in the direction of the
negatively charged electron, and consequently the negative side of the virtual particle is
rotated away from the electron. Hence, when we measure an electron to see if it exists
we never, in fact, measure the electron itself, but merely the negatively charged sides of
the virtual particles that surround the electron. Hence, all mass is surrounded by virtual
energy or, in other words, it is somehow isolated by it.
When a material object is examined with conventional methods we measure for
example its mass or its electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field of an electron can
be conceived as an alignment process of locally appearing virtual particles progressing at
the speed of light. During this alignment process there is hardly any change to the position
of a single virtual particle. All that moves is the alignment process itself, and not the virtual
particles. The positioning of a virtual particle can be imagined to be attached to a frame.
This frame can be seen as a matrix from where the virtual particles emerge. A certain
15
The Electromagnetic Field is made up of Virtual Particles
length and volume of a virtual particle alignment process in space-time can be considered
as a classical photon. And to visualize such a real photon as a donut like alignment process,
which is made up of many virtual particles has turned out to be helpful.
Picture 11. An Electron surrounded by many virtual particles positioning
these virtual particles
So, you cannot actually see the material itself but rather the virtual
particles around it?
Indeed, the real particles are, in a way, shielded by the virtual
A photon is made up particles
from several aligned virtual photons
So, you cannot actually
see the object itself
but rather the virtual
particles around it?
Indeed, the real particles
are, in a way, shielded by
the virtual particles
The electron acts as a trigger that brings order to the virtual particles in space-­time.
“The connection between the field and its source charge has always been and
still is the most difficult problem in classical and quantum electrodynamics.”
(D.K. Sen., Fields and/or Particles, Academic Press, London and New York, 1968, p.viii)
16
The Electromagnetic Field is made up of Virtual Particles
So, when
I look at a flower I don’t
actually see the material of which the
flower consists of but only the energy of the
quantum vacuum, which surrounds the
flower’s atoms
That’s exactly it!
Picture 12, flower..
So, when I look at a flower I don’t actually see the material of which
the flower consists of but only the energy of the quantum vacuum, which
surrounds the flower’s atoms.
That’s exactly it!
Virtual particles surround and isolate the observable particles.
As soon as a virtual particle comes into being at an electron it is rotated and aligned.
The negative side of the first virtual particle will rotate the next virtual particle in a way
that the positive side of the second virtual particle rotates to the negative side of the first
virtual particle and so on. This orientation process moves through space-time and as soon
as a few virtual particles are aligned, the first virtual particle at the electron has disappeared
again. This on-going virtual particle alignment process represents the steady radiation of
the electromagnetic field. Once the electromagnetic field has moved away from the source
charge (e.g., an electron) it exists independently from that charge as a function of spacetime. And when looking at this on-going process the number of aligned virtual particles
decreases with the distance squared. This is also the reason why the electromagnetic force
decreases with distance squared.
17
The Electromagnetic Field is made up of Virtual Particles
Picture 13. Virtual particles, two electrons, transfer force onto the
electron
Ok, so this is how the electric potential flow moves through spacetime. This view makes sense because one can now imagine easily why
the strength of the electromagnetic interaction decreases with distance
and why it moves through space-time at a certain speed… the speed of
light.
Correct. The virtual particles only seem to be turned and aligned
with a certain speed.
Ok, so this is how the electric potential flow
moves through space-time. This view makes sense
because one can easily imagine why the strength
of the electromagnetic interaction decreases with
distance and why it moves through space-time at
a particular speed...the speed of light.
Correct. This seems to be
how fast the virtual particles
can be turned and aligned.
Virtual particles create force upon electrons.
18
The Electromagnetic Field is made up of Virtual Particles
In empty space-time, where there are no source charges and fields, quantum
fluctuations (virtual particles) emerge in a completely chaotic and evenly distributed
way. I call this steady on-going process “virtual entropy”. “Chaotically distributed”, means
that the orientation of the virtual particles’ charges point in a random direction. If you
now place an electron into this empty space-time, it will start to align some of the virtual
particles (order out of chaos). So one can view the electromagnetic field as a steady virtual
negentropisation process of space-time, proceeding at the speed of light, which decreases
with the distance squared.
Picture 14, electron, virtual particles, em. interaction decreases with
distance squared.
I see, close to the electron much more virtual particles are aligned
than in some distance to it.
Yes, and due to the point like radiation the em. interaction
decreases with distance squared.
I see, close to the electron
many more virtual
particles are aligned than
at some distance to it.
Yes, and due to the pointlike radiation, the e.m.
interaction decreases
with distance squared.
The density of alignment events of virtual particles decreases with distance squared.
For this reason, the electromagnetic interaction decreases with distance squared as well.
19
The Proof of the Theory
If a second electron is positioned near the first electron, the aligned virtual particles,
emerging directly in and at the second electron, will exert a force. With this picture we
return to the question of why the QED theory is considered one of the best confirmed
theories in physics.
Like charges repel
Picture 15. Two electrons, virtual particles, uneven distribution of the
virtual particles in and at the electron...force.
I like this a lot. The electromagnetic force is created by more virtual
particles pointing into one direction than virtual particles pointing
anywhere.
Yes, indeed, that is why I see the cause for the creation of this force
in a phenomenon, which could be described as an energetic pressure
difference within space-time.
I like this a lot. The electromagnetic
force is created by more virtual particles
pointing into one direction than virtual
particles pointing randomly.
Yes,
indeed, that is why I see
the cause for the creation of this
force in a phenomenon, which could
be described as an energetic pressure
difference within space-time.
An observable force occurs due to an energy difference between two unlimited virtual energy densities.
The Proof of the Theory
There is a special property in relation to the electromagnetic field, which is radiated
from source charges. The electromagnetic field does not only decrease with distance
squared but there is an additional decrease. The quantum vacuum itself swallows a little bit
of the electromagnetic field’s virtual energy. The mathematical description of this decrease
compared to what is measured in experiments is the same for many decimal places, and
20
The Proof of the Theory
it is known to be one of the most precise confirmations of a theory. Hence, it seems that
the hypothesis that the electromagnetic interaction is transferred and created by virtual
photons matches reality pretty well.
Picture 16. Virtual Particles and Rotation
Very interesting. Sometimes an alignment process gets stuck and
that is why the electromagnetic field´s energy gets literaily lost to spacetime.
What impresses me is the precise confirmation of this field energy
loss through the experiment. There really seems to be something to
these virtual pharticles.
Very interesting. Sometimes an
alignment process gets stuck and that’s
why the electromagnetic field’s energy
literally gets lost to space-time.
What impresses me is the precise
confirmation of this field energy
loss through the experiment. There
really seems to be something to
these virtual particles.
The virtual particle alignment process does not proceed through space-­time in a perfect way.
“Not only the photon, but all bosons which are able to transfer an interaction
do interact on their way to their destination with the vacuum. Pairs of virtual
particles - the particle and its anti particle - are created and absorbed spontaneously
from the vacuum. This process influences the net force of the interaction. Virtual
particles have an influence on the boson and change the force of interaction.
Calculations show that the force of the weak interaction and the interaction of
the electromagnetic force, decline with distance.”
(Prof. Phys. Lisa Randall, Harvard University, -Warped Passages. Unravelling the Mysteries
of the Universe´s Hidden Dimensions- Nov. 2006)
21
Is Energy really conserved?
Is Energy really conserved?
This leads to an interesting thought. For an ideal electric motor i.e., when taking into
account all losses through friction, heat and so on, the coefficient of performance (COP)
is not exactly at 100%. Why is that? The magnetic field, which is located in the air-gap
between the electromagnet and the permanent magnet, loses a little bit of its energy
when moving through space-time. This decrease of energy has to be added to the regular
decrease occurring due to the “distance squared” so a little bit of the energy is literally lost
to space-time. The consequence of this is significant as it means, that the conservation of
energy does not apply to any known electromagnetic, chemical or mechanical system.
Even if the difference from the 100% mark is only very small and not of relevance in our
daily life, it is an important issue in terms of our understanding of where the energy that
surrounds us actually comes from.
Air-­gap within electric motor
Small electromagnetic energy loss to space-­time due to faulty rotation events of virtual particles
Amazing! I thought that
energy was always conserved
100% 17.
in anMotor
ideal system.
Picture
with decreasing energy in air gap
Wow, this is amazing. And I thought that energy was always
conserved 100% in an ideal system.
Yes, one Yes,
can one
look
it in
wayway
ororanother.
canatlook
at itone
in one
another. Basic physics`
Basic
physics
rules
are
not
absolute,
they
have renewed to the
rules are not absolute. These rules have to be constantly
to be constantly renewed to the evolving state of our
evolving state
of our consciousness.
However,
when
taking
consciousness.
However, when
taking into
account
theinto account
virtual
energy
within
the
quantum
vacuum,
there
is is no issue
the virtual energy within the quantum vacuum, then there
no issue with the first law of thermodynamics since we
with the first law
of thermodynamics
sinceopen
wesystem.
are dealing with an
are dealing
with an energetically
Heresystem.
one has Although
to approachone
the subject
energy the subject of
energetically open
has to of
approach
from
a
different
point
of
view.
energy from a different point of perspective.
Electromagnetic interaction decreases because the quantum vacuum swallows a little bit of its energy.
22
Is Energy really conserved?
“The fun only begins once you know the rules. Currently we are still busy
reading the instructions manual of the universe”
(Prof. Richard Feynman)
Maxwell’s equations, which are still in use today, do not take into account modern
findings from QED, nor do they consider the fact that there is no material ether. Having
this in mind one may ask whether the Maxwellian equations still describe the energy
conversion process in common electrical systems correctly? When using the hypothesis of
a non-material ether - as suggested by QED – a new possibility arises of how to describe
the energy conversion process in an electromagnetic system.
Lets do something new. Maxwell’s
stuff
from
1860’book
S is really dated.
Picture
18. the
Dusty
by Maxwell
If an electrical
engineer
today
builds
-a new Indeed,
lets
do
something
stuffback
from
thethey
1860s
is
nuclear power plant he uses thenew. Maxwells
Right,
then
didn’t
Maxwellian
equations.
Why
not
use
the
really not up to date anymore. If an electric engineer
today
builts
a new
even know
about
the electron.
most advanced theory (QED) when it
Electromagnetic
energy
was
just a
nuclear
plant
he uses
the A
Maxwellian equations. Why not use the
comes topower
common
electric
systems?
kind
of
electrical
fl
uid.
And
they
approach
is overdue.
most fresh
advanced
theory
(QED) on electromagnetism
when
it comes
where using
a material
ether..toIt’s
a change.
common electric systems? A new approach is moretime
thanfor
overdue.
it is!even know about the electron.
Right, back then they Indeed
did not
Electrical energy was just a kind of electrical fluid. And they were using
a material ether.. It´s time for a change.
Yes we can!
Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism needs an update!
23
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